MacLean, Gerald, editor. The Return of the King : An Anthology of English Poems Commemorating the Restoration of Charles II / edited by Gerald MacLean
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Part IX. Views From Scotland

The Covenant
[undated: early March?]

    Although it cannot be dated with any certainty this ballad addresses concerns that were at issue during late February and early March. Following the readmission of the secluded MPs in February, parliament ordered the republication of the Solemn League and Covenant on 5 March, more as a challenge to Monck than an attempt to win over presbyterian suport. On the Covenant, see also L'titi' Caledonic', which is slightly cynical about the effect of renewing the Covenant as a promise to the king.

    Internal evidence suggests that the ballad appeared before the king's return was at all certain since its concerns bear directly on the terms of the Restoration settlement. At issue is the dilemma facing those who felt their loyalties divided between religious principles and a return of monarchy. The ballad is delivered in the voice of an old covenanting soldier who claims to have fought in the parliamentary army of the Earl of Essex for the protestant cause against the perceived catholicism of Charles I. Essex had died in 1646, three years after parliament issued the Solemn League and Covenant on 5 Sept 1643. Although it is less likely that the title refers specifically to the Scottish National Covenant, which had been declared in defense of presbyterianism in 1638, both documents contain clauses mentioned in the ballad. Signatories to the Scottish National Covenant declared themselves to be against the falling off of religion and to be equally determined to stop the threat of "popish religion" (Gardiner, Constitutional Documents, p. 62) while at the same time protesting and promising "that we shall defend [the King's] person and authority with our goods, bodies, and lives, in the defence of Christ His evangel...against all enemies within this realm or without" (ibid, p. 57). Following the inconclusive battles of the first year of the civil war, and the failure of negotiations during the summer of 1643, parliament issued the Solemn League and Covenant largely in order to secure Scottish support by guarenteeing a national church without bishops, thereby seeking to keep the support of the presbyterians. Signatories were called upon to defend the reformed church, to extirpate popery and prelacy, to discover plots, to defend the union of the kingdoms, to assist all working to these ends, and to endeavour to preserve "the rights and privileges of Parliament, and the liberties of the kingdom, and to preserve and defend the King's Majesty's person and authority" (ibid, p. 188).

    The first part of this ballad recalls these declarations of loyalty to the king by way of defending those who fought for the protestant cause. The second part continues this defense by way of carefully distinguishing Charles II from his father, and making the case for suporting his return.

    In terms of printing evidence, the publisher Charles Tyus 1 only appears to have become active during 1660, publishing broadside ballads throughout that year on contemporary events, including J. W.'s The Royall Oak, which also makes use of the same initial woodcut of a mounted king preceded by two mounted pages, and T. R.'s The Royall Subjects Joy, both included here. Tyus also issued two ballads on Prince Henry's death (to be found at GU 65 and GU 290), and A Warning For all such as desire to Sleep upon the Grass (GU 375) dated 1664. 2

[1][bound to William Gilbertson in 1649, became free in 1656; McKenzie #1705]

[2]Cf Sarah Tyus "at the three Bibles on London-Bridge" for whom was printed the following: -- GU 76, The Devil's Conquest "printed for S. Tyus, on London Bridge." The Faithful Lovers Farewell GU 118; The Valiant hearted Sea-man GU 366.
The initial cut of a mounted king with two mounted pages is also used for The Worthy Kings Description (np, nd), and J.W. The Royall Oak (for Charles Tyus, nd GU 308) included here; appears with Peter Fancy, Joyfull News to the Nation, a coronation ballad, (for Richard Burton at the Horse-shoe in Smithfiled, nd; GU 147); a section of it, in rather bad state, appears with An excellent Ballad, Intituled, The Wandring Prince of Troy (for F. Coles, T. Vere, and J, Wright, nd; GU 87) and again for A Proper New Ballad intitled, The Wandring Prince of Troy (for F. Coles, T. Vere, and W. Gilbertson, nd GU 262), A new ballad shewing how a Prince of England... (for Coles, Vere and Golbertson; a version of the cut appears with The Loyal Subject Resolution (by T. Mabb for Richard Burton at the Horshoe in Smithfield, nd; GU 161) dating from the time of the 2nd Dutch War;

The Covenant
No King but the Old King's Son,
A brief Rehearsall of what heretofore was done.

All sorts of People of it take a view,
You surely will confess that I say true;
Let none mislike the same that cannot mend it,
Neither rashly censure him that pen'd it.
To the Tune of, True Blew will never staine.

[boxed cut]

LOng time have I been a Souldier,
and have followed the Traine,
Which doth make me now the bolder,
the Covenant for to maintaine.

5: When first unto the Wars we went,
and Essex did us entertain,
It was then to a good intent,
though since we turn'd our coats again.

In every church the covenanting
our undertakings did explain,
Our indeavours were not wanting,
the true Cause for to maintain.

By the Parliament it was expressed
Kingly Rights for to maintain,
15: And if his Heirs they were distressed,
they kindly would them entertain.

Since many persons have repented
for their kindred 3 that were slain,
Since the King this Land absented,
and did not return again.

Plate into half-crowns was melted
to pay the Souldiers for their pain,
We then did march till we were swelted,
no toile at all we did refrain.

25: Which makes me now call to minde
of remembrance this one thing,
Which in the Covenant I finde,
To defend the Person of the KING.

But some will say I am a wigeon
because the truth I do maintain,
It was onely for Religion,
And Opinions that were vain.

Religion it is confessed
Did waxe then into the Waine,
35: As in the Covenant is expressed,
for which many men were slain.

We Souldiers that then were listed
the Good Old Cause for to maintain,
With good hopes we alwaies feasted
to bring home the king again.

[3] kindred] kinred

The Second Part, To the same Tune.
[boxed cuts]

HOwever that some have boasted,
the hazard of it we have run,
And through extremities have posted
For no King but the old Kings Son.

45: If any man claim Charles's Right
for whate're his Father hath done,
Death on him hath wrought his spight;
No King but the old Kings Son.

If he was of the Roman faction,
no favour here he should have won,
But now we are all in great distraction,
No King but the old Kings Son.

And moreover understand,
illuminations did us draw
55: To fight for our freedome, and
to keep our enemies in awe.

A Proclamation then was made,
which no person can deny,
And the world they did perswade
It was for th'Subjects liberty.

And afterwards to make amends,
when three Nations were undone,
They were for their private ends,
the Souldiers lost, that all had wonne.

65: Then many thousands were disbanded,
which before had won the day;
Great Persons then dealt underhanded,
and deceiv'd us of our Pay:

Which makes us now live discontented,
and repent what we have done;
By poverty we were tormented,
For no King but the old Kings Son.

If a single Person we must honer,
these Lands in union for to bring,
75: And must fight under his Banner,
let us have our lawfull King.

Great Jove unite our hearts together,
our Priviledges to maintaine,
And send us good and pleasant weather,
that our Rightfull Prince may raigne.

London, Printed for Charles Tyus

on London-Bridge.

[4] .úúcoloph. Tyus] Yyus

A pair of Prodigals.
30 June

   Although Thomason dated his copy 30 June, the content of the piece take us back to March and April, shortly after the secluded members were returned, but during the days when there was still some doubt about the direction parliament was going to take.

A pair of Prodigals Returned:
In a Conference between an Englishman and a Scot, concerning the Restauration of
CHARLES II. to his Crown and Kingdomes.

To the Tune of Cook-Laurel.


TUsh Joochee, we have no more Kings to Betray:
What made thee to trouble our Aire?
We have gallant men enough here in pay,
And need not your brotherly care;
Your Nation is Infamous, Natives abhor'd,
Your curse exceeds Cains, crimes his outvy;
He murther'd his brother, you sold your dread Lord;
He's curs'd for to wander, you pent in your sty.

Thau fase Loone, dast began farst to cray hawre?
Yau murthard aur geud King aud Charles;
And when ye'ave abeused aur feath, day you pawre
Reprauches apan us lick Carles?
The guilt of aur feully is dinged away
By the blood of meny a Laird;
But tell yau restaur his Bearn, yau mey pray,
Bat yar credit wo ner be repair'd.

Hold your peace sirrah, d'ye think to prevaile,
And become a comptroler here?
Wee'l make you all your blew bonnets to vayle,
O're us you shall not domineer:
I wonder you can be so foolishly proud,
Since that you may well remember
Your pitiful fortune, at home and a broad,
Upon the third day of September.

'Tis trau, I confas, we were bonged weele
Upan thaut unhaupie day,
Bat yaur shaums ta coome, & the Muckle deele,
In dewe time wo be sure it to pay.
We fought fo breave Charles, aur Gracious geud King,
In aur Cose wa mooch o renown;
But yau English stawnd so no sicker thing,
Bat bausly rob'd him O his Crown.

I prethee good Joochee, lets talke thus no more,
Must the Devil now correct sin?
It is not safe to rip up an old sore,
To be wise, then let us begin:
We have both been Traitrous Rebells t'our Prince,
Drentcht our hands in his Innocent blood,
Let's expiate our crimes by obedience, since
'Tis never too late to be good.

Gid feith braw English Lod, giffe me thy haund,
Naw thau & I been well agreed,
We's fight fo King Charles sa lang we con stond,
Fo thear neaver wa a meere need:
Twonty years sonce thau kenst vara weel;
Theek launds waure in mikle peace,
But thon aur praude haurts o'recoume by the deele
Maude aw aur hoppinesse cease.

These Nations did flourish, 'tis true, brother Scot,
In those blessed days of yore,
But Charles restored will soon place our lot
In the self-same ground as before;
Then let us pray that the time may soon come,
When he shall returne from exile;
And hearily blesse those that will bring home
The Father of Great Britains Isle.

In soth my geud freend, thau speakest bet reason,
Weese did couvenant 1 sa fo ta dooe;
And if we gang on in Rebellion and Treason,
We sha neaver aur blossings reneow:
Bat aur brauve Generaul, and nauble Commaunders,
Ise haupe wo restaure aur Glee,
And fach aur geud King from Brussels in Flaunders,
Ta finish aur proosperitee.

Faith Joockee, I tell thee I am of thy mind,
Our Noble Georg near did intend
To abandon his loyalty (chang with each wind)
Though he did awhile it suspend:
Yet as I may freely confesse unto thee,
He was not so great in my books,
When our Posts and Chains cut down I did see,
And our Gates remov'd from their Hooks. 2

Bred mon that wa bet the faw Rump fo ta please
And ta leet tha Citizens ken
Wha he coud dooe: Bet after tway dayes
He broought in tha -- -- -- Mombers agen;
Than fear net bet George is a Trojan trew,
Begarre mon he scarn to be bause;
Wha ere sal say that he is not trew blew,
I'se give him a sloope o're the fause. 3

Gramarcy brave Blew-cap, I think thou canst fight,
Which is somewhat rare in a Scot;
Then faith we will see the King have his Right,
Or else we'l both go to the Pot.

Haw, Haw, my brave Boy, I wee'l understaund,
Thoy haurt is ta loyalty 4 bont;
Bat we sall ha aw things done ta aur haund,
Soon by a Free Porlemont.

I doubt not (dear Jocchee) but this Parliament
Will prove such as we both desire,
For in my own Country the common voice ment
For my Landlord, an honest old Squire.
Then have at thee Jocchee, here's a full Bowle,
To the King and to George, lets not bodg em.

Coontent annest lod, Gars coors o his sowle,
Whick sall refuse fo ta plodg em.

In the Year. 1660.

[1] couvenant] cou enant OW

[2] See Duncombe, Scutum Regale

[3] ie slap on the face

[4] loyalty] loaylty copytext, EN, OW

Caledon's Gratulatory Rapture
[undated: after 29 May]

   Charles is clearly back and in some sense in command, so the sense that these verses commemorate a particular day -- "This Day, This Solemn-memorable Day" -- suggest composition shortly after 29 May.

[ornamental header]
At the Happy Return of our Dread Lord and

HEnce Hellish fury's to your Stygian Cells,
Here is nor Time, nor Place, for Charms, or Spells,
Our Horizontall Pho/ebus doth appear
To guild the Zodiack of this Hemisphear
5: With Royal Rayes: Although your furious rage
Long forc'd thir Clyms, to prove the dismall stage
Of Treasons, Murthers, Ruins, Rapins, When
Pow'r was usurped by the scum of men:
The Throne was Raz'd, And Sacred Majestie
10: Was sacrifized to the Tyrannie
Of worst of Vermin, All the Royall Race
Exil'd, and Royalty in high disgrace
Enter'd; How (then) obscured was our Light?
Our Day transformed to Cymerian night?
Yet from thus Pho/enix's ashes, lo, their springs
A Pho/enix that's the Diadem of Kings:
With what transcending glory doth he rise,
To clear the shads of our long dark'ned skies;
The Thron's repaired, Majesty restor'd,
20: The Regal Race return'd, admir'd, ador'd!
Brave Heroe's, great restorers of the Crown!
All future ages shall your true renown
Admire; And the unparalelled Storie
Proclaim, of your so much deserving Glorie.
25: But gen'rous George, the George most high deserves
Of Royal bounty, which as yet reserves
A Magazine of Honour, to Proclame
The meritorious grandour of his Fame:
While Regicids with infamie arraign'd,
30: And all their Complice's with shame are stain'd.
Then Loyal Natives, let us chaunt and sing
With chearful Acclamations Carolling
This Day, This Solemn-memorable Day
How beautified, by the Royal Ray
35: Of Sacred Majestie? How hearts, and tongues
Englarged are, in chearful cries and songs?
The Heaven's resoun'd, The Eccho's do reply,
The sweet concordance of this Harmony:
Long live Renown'd, Renown'd long be the Raign
Of Charl's the Second, our Dread Soveraign.


Grampius Congratulation
[undated: June?]

   Title: GRAMPIUS / CONGRATULATION / In plain / SCOTS LANGUAGE / TO HIS / MAJESTIES / Thrise Happy Return. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / Printed Anno Dom. 1660. / [ornamental double-ruled box]

    Since we hear of how the Scots are already well known to have been using the king's return as an excuse for doing a great deal of celebrtory drinking, and since English poets already have been penning celebrations, Grampius Congratulation most likely appeared during the summer.

[ornamental header]
To His Majesties thrise happy Return.

OF twelve sad years, one tedious night
We'ave had, and now the day grows light,
Our Sun is up, awake my Muse,
Thy drousiness I'le not excuse.
5: We have been dead, and now we live
Again, and shall we no thanks give?
In our next life, if we give none
To God, Why Resurrection?
Are we redeem`d then from the tears
10: And torments of these twenty years?
And from th'Egyptian bondage free?
And are we all past the Red-sea?
And shall not one midst all this Throng
Remember upon Moses Song?
Let this be Purim to our Priests,
Although our Church allow no Fiests.
But Bacchus She priests here we bar,
Our mirth with fury we'll not mar,
Let them their Trietericks vent
20: To a Triennial Parliament.
And since profane men are discharg'd,
(By him for whose cause we're enlarg'd)
Ranting 'gainst the dead Commonwealth,
Or drinking their own Masters health,
25: Whom they so by their rude louse tongue
More than their hands could help, did wrong;
What shall we, poor we, do that dwell
By Chyrra; and Agamppe well?
What if we mirrie made by water,
Mingled with Enthean fire shall chatter?
No Treason's here: our noise and din
Shall greater be far than our sin.
Were we not then all this past while,
Cimmerians since our Kings exile?
35: Have we not liv'd in Holes and Caves?
And dig'd in Minerals like slaves?
To pay th'usurpers of the Crown?
And buy Swords t'had our Selves down?
But now since Jove amongst us Feists,
Like th'honest Corybantes Priests,
Let's Leap and Daunce all in a round,
Our Heads shake, and our Cymbals sound,
Till the French follow this our folly,
Who pitied not our Melancholy.
45: With God, our King a God we'll call,
More's in Him than our Armies all:
They brought us Toil and Husks for diet,
He Milk and Hony with much quiet:
When we by War our Peace did mar,
50: Then Nole sought Peace by 'nlawful War.     Pax
But still behov'd he to keep's under,     qu'ritur
And we must Pay or he must Plunder.      bello.
Five several times the Scots made head
To make amends for one misdead;
55: Five times our Fire still turn'd to smoak,
And all the Kingdoms bore the yoak:
But what was in this wondrous thing?
Strong Armies could not help the King,
Nor rescue from Hells yauning jawes
60: Religion, Liberty, and Lawes.
Was't not because still Achan's wedge
Was by some of us kept in pledge?
And the curs'd thing was never purg'd,
So the poor People ay were scourg'd.
65: And with the truth if we may jump,
Our Scots House sometimes had its Rump,
 And likewise a fanatick blood
 Made some heads think that ill was good.
But now that brain-sicknesse, (great odds)
Is turn'd down to an Emerauds:
So if our Royal Doctor please,
To obviat the like Disease,
Let us be purg'd, and Leeches set,
While th'ill is at our Postern gate,
Lest it break back again, and breed
Some new distemper to the head.
The body of the Land, like men
Condemn'd, and then repriv'd again
By the griev'd Party, taste some grief
80: Mixt with the joy of their relief:
And were it not this weight did still us,
The extasie of joy would kill us:
We grieve, our interprises miss'd
The successe which our Souls had wish'd;
85: That our efforts made to repone
The King, had thus fail'd one by one.
When the Restorer from us went,
He knew this by our hearts consent
In offers free: And yet we wring
90: Our hands, that our selves did not bring
The King home: But since he's home brought,
Theirs be the Guerdon who best wrought.
Whither we take the work from Heaven,
Or adde it to the wonders seaven,
95: Or learn, that England never would
Take King, nor Reformation hold
Of us, Let us be well content
T'applaud unto the Instrument.
George whom ill los'd, we all confesse;
By providence was nothing lesse.
He serv`d in Egypt; so it fell,
He proves the prope of Israel.
He is our David, and he took
But five small sling-stones from the brook;
And with the G'ants own sword indeed,
He hath cut off Goliah's head. sic
His Club hath made more Monsters fall,
Than Hercules his Labours all.
He hath the Hydra's heads down born,
110: And gives us Achelous horn.
Of Philistines a greater crew
A'has quash'd, than ever Samson slew.
His finger hath drawn down their house,
And yet both sav'd himself and us.
Thrasibulus he hath excel'd,
Though thirty Tyrants he expel'd.
And this act shall Eclipse the Glory
Of old Saint George his Legend Story,
As far's the King's and Kingdoms three,
120: Outvies a poor Maids jeopardie.
And of all those, though brave and good,
Not one like this was done but blood.
Then; to Heaven's let us praises sing,
Thank George, and Pray, God Save the King.


L'tit' Caledonic'
[undated: late summer?

   Wringing the hackneyed clichees one more time, or: is this in part a literary response to Vox Populi, which was reissued in Scotland? There claims are made about Virgil are made in some pretty apauling verses; and boasting about the potential martial loyalties of Englishmen abound: though martial fury and claims of how the people wat to die for Charles are found commonly -- see also Brome's England's Joy etc

   One of the wittiest and probably the most ironical of the poems working over the comon tropes used to celebrate the king's return, L'tit' Caledonic' opens by saying how glad he is that the great Virgil isn't around trying to celebrate such an event as the return of Charles; and the innuendo is unmistakable. But the poet's display of wit here is framed within the outdoing topos, a figure of heroic verse by which the poet insists that the subject outgoes all previous and sometimes all possible parallels. Use of this trope almost allows him to say anything. The return of Charles here is seen as so far beyond comparison that only a poetaster would attempt to find words for what is literally the "unuterable happiness" of the occasion The poet's loyalty comes with a satiric edge being sharpened at the expense of some recent goings on in London and the way other poets have written about them. How is Scoltand to express joy? Drinking toasts led to so much rowdiness that they were banned the very day -- 30 May -- after Charles had arrived in Whitehall, and that ban immediately put an end to all the drunken bragging about how we'll all go to sea and beat the Dutch.

    Of interest in Scotland, the Solemn League and Covenant had been reissued by Parliament on 5 March, but only a very foolish king would believe that it promised him safety. The poetic voice is that of a canny analyst of the times, someone who can read between the lines of events and proclamations. Given the wit and this cannyness, all the more credible seem the fairly straitforward expressions of loyalty that end the poem.


Upon the thrise happy Return of Her
Sacred Soveraign CHARLES
the Second, Monarch of Great
Britain, &c.

WHat Poetaster bold dare undertake;
An Embleme of my mirth in rime to make?
The tongues of Men and Angels, should but wrong
This Theam, so far transcending any Song:
My Loyalty likewise it would Eclipse,
5: If't were definable by humane lips.
Old Maro sure would blush, if he were here,
And gall'd with this disaster, shed a tear;
His soaring quill, which many Triumphs wrot,
Should in defining this, its Triumphs blot:
10: Parnassus Nymphs also, I dare be bound,
Would curse their native Soil, for barren ground.
That disproportion vast when they should see;
'Twixt their best notions, and this extasie.
How then shall Caledon, her sense expresse
15: Of this unuterable happiness?
This blest Arrivall of her Soveraign brings
That true Vice-gerent of the King of King;
Shal't be with flying cups? O that's not fit!
His Sacred MAJESTY prohibits it.
20: Shal't be with ranting swaggering bravado's,
We will do wonders 'gainst his foes Armado's?
This neither will suffice, himself can tell,
This is the Dialect 'bout Bacchus Well. 1
Shall we renewing Covenants, engage, 2
25: His Person to defend, and Royall badge? 3
No He'll ne'r trust's thee more; (and who can blame him?)
Nor Tongue, nor Hand, that stop't e're to disclaim him:
What then shall our deportment be, and how,
Shall we do homage to that Sacred brow?
30: That brow! whose sweet appearance hath undone
Those miseries, our follies had begun:
Ev'n this; each Loyall Heart shall undertake,
With resolution, recompence to make,
By strong endeavours, never to back-slide
35: Into these principles, did us divide
From our Alleageance; shun equivocations
As Popish practices, to crush the Nations.
Each sparkle of rebellion let us smoother,
And to that purpose strengthen one another:
40: Each Overture that's made, before 't's appointed.
Let's ponder well, let not the Lord's Anointed
Get any prejudice from what we do,
Give him that right the Scripture doth allow.
This will as in one Atome us unite,
45: And to commend us, forraign Pens invite:
This will the Moderns move aloud to praise us,
And our Posterities shall Trophees raise us,
With this Inscription, Blessed be our Sires,
Their Countrys honour bounded their desires;
50: Whose souls expiring, Loyally did sing
With firme Devotion, long may our Soveraign Raign.


[1] Ludlow noted that there was so much drunkeness on the night of 29 May "that the king, who still stood in need of the presbyterian party which had betrayed all into his hands, for their satisfaction, caused a proclamation to be publish'd, forbidding the drinking of healths" (1751 edition Memoirs, p. 348). Thomason dated A Proclamation against Vicious, Debauch'd, and Prophane Persons on 30 May.

[2] More as a challenge to Monck than an attempt to win over prsbyterian suport, Commons ordered the republication of The Solemn League and Covenant on 5 March.

[3] See The Covenant.

[not by William Lithgow]
Scotland's Par'nesis
[undated: late summer?]

   Titlepage: SCOTLANDS / PAR'NESIS / To Her Dread Soveraign, / KING / CHARLES / THE SECOND. / [rule] / Mens Scoti'. / All Presbyterians, pure, sincere and true, / Afflicted by that Independent crue, / Are here untouch'd, and are declar'd to be / Joyn'd in the League and Covenant with me. / [rule] / [design] / [rule ] / Printed in the Year, 1660.

    The authorship of this poem has excited scholarly attention over the last century and a half. In his 1823 edition of the poem, Laing wrote shrewdly of the Restoration in general:

Such a general feeling of satisfaction was manifested at the return of the exiled Monarch, as being an event which promised to bing back peace and tranquility to the Country, that it was unfortunate the King, and his Ministers should have proved unmindful of their past experience, and have used no endeavours either to conciliate the affections, or to promote the interests of the People at large.

    The writer of this congratualtory Poem, which is sufficiently expressive of loyalty and attachment, has not been ascertained. (p. xv)

   During the next fifty years, word got about that the poem was by William Lithgow, an Aberdonian adventurer who would have been in his eighties in 1660. In 1863, Maidment took the attribution seriously enough to argue against it, a tactic subsequently adopted by the DNB in their entry for Lithgow. Maidment makes no case from Lithgow's age, but points out that because Scotland's Paranesis contains a marginal reference to the author having written a poem in 1633 entitled "Scotlands welcome to King Charles," "thence it was conjectured that as Lithgow had written an address to the unhappy Charles in 1633, he reasonably was the author" (p. xxxii). In the National Library in Edinburgh, a copy of Lithgow's verses from 1633 are bound in just ahead of the 1660 poem at shelfmark EN 1.88. Maidment continues with the attribution to Lithgow:

This idea was to a certain degree countenanced by the fact that the volume [EN 1.88] had belonged to Robert Mylne, a well-known book-collector and enthusiastic antiquary, who having survived for above one hundred years, must have been a young man of more than twenty years of age when the "Paraenesis" appeared in 1660; and, as he had arranged the contents of the volume in the order in which it at present remains [still true 1986] it might be taken for granted that he did so in the belief that it was a supplement to the poem that preceded it. (pp. xxxii-xxxiii)
So, here then we have a reader and collector of verses who was alive in 1660 and what do we learn? That he seems to have read no further than the marginalia of the poems he collected, for as Maidment points out, the two poems differ so greatly as to be hardly from the same poet. But then again, perhaps Mylne knew Lithgow still to be alive, with a finer poetic control than he showed in his middle years.

    Maidment fails to notice Lithgow's age, but does notice other poems from the 1630s with titles just like the one mentioned in the margin. 1 And he has his own candiate, one William Douglas, author of "Grampius Gratulation to his High and Mightie Monarch, King Charles" which appeared in a 1630 volume entitled Addresses by the Muses of Edinburgh to his Majesty (printed in small Qto by "the heirs of Andro Hart, 1630"). After quoting a section of this poem, to suggest stylistic similarities, Maidment cites a biographical entry for Douglas from a volume he calls the "Catalgues of Scotish Writers" as published by Stevenson in Edinburgh, 1833. Unable to find this volume in any of the major libraries in Scotland, I can only quote Maidment again:

William Douglasse, Professor of Theology at old Aberdeen. He wrote a Treatise on Pslam edia, 4to; Item Acad'miarum Vindicas, 4to; item, orationem Panegyricam de Carolo Secundo, 4to; item, stable Truth, 4to, 1660. He dyed toward the year 1670. item, Vindicacias Veritatis, 4to, 1655" (cited, ibid, p. lii)

   The case for Douglas seems as weak to me as the likelihood of the poem being by Lithgow. Douglas's poem on the Restoration, referred to here, is presumably the Latin Oratio Panegyrica ad eisodia (Wing STC item D 2043) to be found in several places.

    On the Covenant, see also The Covenant.

    Opens with defense of the Covenant -- details

    Sees loyalty to a divinely appointed monarch to be an absolute duty to God, taking Samuel Daniel's line that even tyrants in office are to be obeyed. The position of a presbyterian Stuart loyalist in 1660 requires a great deal of irony and ventriloquizing to negotiate, but a great deals hangs on the poet's argument that

Then doth God favour Ethnick Princes cace,
Though alians from the Covenenant of Grace,
Redress their wrongs, confound their enemies
Detect and punish lewd conspiracies...

   The poet skillfully uses enjambment to finesse arguments, turning against the seeming closure of the rhythm and stress of the couplet by continuing the syntax to extend or change the argument. The poet takes the position of never having lost loyalty to Stuart kings, being among those to write pro-Stuart verses in the 1630s when Charles came to Scotland. Dynastic loyalty and racial difference were seldom found apart at this time, so the "Ethnick Prince"'s Scottish bloodlines are as important as the different kind of loyalty owed by the Irish. Snub -- chalres neveractually made it to scotland back then; CHECK

    Poet ends with provsional endorsement of Charles; not questioning his right, but implictly suggesting that a king would behave a certain way towards Scotland.

[1] In fact, of course, there were dozens of Scottish poets who wrote verses to Charles back in 1633: see list in 1986/5 NB: 104-6.

[this is the title page]
To Her Dread Soveraign;


Mens Scotiae.
All Presbyterians, pure, sincere and true,
Afflicted by that Independent crue,
Are here untouch'd, and are declar'd to be
Joyn'd in the League and Covenant with me.

Printed in the Year, 1660.

[ornamental header]

To her dread Soveraign,
The Second.

COme to thy Land, my long'd for Soveraign,
And here in safety and in honour raign:
Come to these bounds, where, of thy royal Stem,
Ten and One hundred wore the Diadem:
5: Disperse griefs cloudy frowns, to me restore
Those Halcion dayes which I enjoy'd before, 2
When by his presence, my late gracious King,
Transcending pleasure to my coasts did bring,
And all my Minions joyntly did expresse
10: Their boundlesse comfort, and my joyes excesse.
Raign with those joy'd enduments from above,
Th'Almighties blessing, and thy Subjects love.
Raign and live long, Thou period of my pleasure,
My joyes triumph, the sum of all my treasure,
15: Best of my thoughts, center of my delight
Raign, as a beam of beauty shining bright
From heavens aspect: Raign in all Royal parts
A King of men, a conquerour of hearts.
Raign, let Jehova's will model'd in heaven
20: In gold characters, on thy Throne be graven.
Of Piety and Justice; to enable
Thee to defend the one and other Table.
Raign, Scotland's Lyon to the worlds end out.
Who dare presume to call thy Power in doubt.
25: Raign, and triumph throughout great Britans soyle
In spight of all envenom'd breasts that boyle
Will hell-hatch'd malice, in that neighbour ground,
Wherein excesse of raigning sins abound,
Raign, and that Land from vipers venome clenge,
30: So shall that motto hold, Raign and Revenge.
A guard from heaven have hedg'd thee so about,
That thee to harme all furies stand in doubt:
For why? That All-sufficient hath prepard,
Emplumed squadrons for thy surest guard.
But that thy Throne unmoved still may stand,
Let true Religion flourish in thy Lnad,
Pure and sincere, in freedome and in truth,
Redrest, reform'd, from Gods own Heraulds mouth.
Let King Josias, and thy Grandsire be,
40: Examplare types and speaking maps to thee:
He with his Royal Robes his heart did rent,
For the neglect of Gods blest Covenant,
Then caus'd the same be read, and sworn to all,
Who in the limits of his Land did dwell:
45: So from the year our blessed Lord was born, 3
Our Covenant by good King James was sworn,
And was confirmed after some few years 4
To all his Houshold, and his noble Peers:
And now of late, Seign'd and redintegrate,
50: By all the loyall Subjects of our State:
Let Head and Body then in one accord,
To Seign, Swear, keep our Covenant with the Lord:
And as my Patriots dear, of each degree,
Are sworn to maintain Authoritie,
55: So shall they joyn, and strive even all as one
To re-install thee in thy Fathers Throne;
Of Vipers brood th'infected soyle to clenge,
And make that antheme sound, Raign and Revenge.
The great Avenger shall revenge my cause,
60: And make these Monsters feel the Lyons pause,
Who by one fact the worst of acts have done,
Unparallel'd as yet beneath the Moon,
Yet palliate with Justice cloak that so,
Those men by Justice, Justice should ov'rthrow.
With raigning sins all Israels Kings were stain'd,
Even from the time that Jeroboam raign'd,
With Rapine, Violence, Murther, Sorcery,
And all did act accurs'd Idolatry:
Yet none of them by Statue were depos'd,
70: Or to a publike censure once expos'd,
Arraign'd, condemn'd, or struke by Justice hands,
Within the Cities of these bordering Lands:
But when their vicious raigns and lives were ended,
Their sons or kins-men to their thrones ascended.
75: Raign and Revenge the breach of faith by those
My feigned friends, but most pernicious foes:
Base skurrill rogues, by Satans angels sent,
To swear and scorn the League and Covenant:
Camel'on Monsters, mingling truth with lies:
80: Stain'd with these colours of repugnancies,
Proud Babels tenents seeming first to hate,
But now like Babel ruling Kirk and State:
Bishops Hierachies sworn to suppresse,
Now like Erastus Anarchy professe; 5
85: My Presbyterial Church-government,
Through seeming to maintain, They disassent:
They seem'd t'extirpate Schisms and Sectaries,
But now they tolerate old coyn'd Heresies:
And worst of all, if any worse can be,
90: They strive to break the neck of Monarchie,
And trample on their Princes, whom before
They seem'd with Civil Worship to adore:
And Englands Peers they levell with the ground
Of locusts base born swarms, which there abound
95: A swarme of Brownists, fond Separatists,
Proud Antinomians, wilfull Erastists,
Old Levellers, monsters Inhabitants,
Last worst of all, that crue of Independants,
In whose infected souls these tares are sown,
100: And to a full perfection lately grown,
As Superstition, Schism, Heresie,
Tyrannie, Profainnesse, and Idolatrie,
Hypocrisie, a sin the last on earth,
Which shall revive in Judgement after death. 6
O then how many plagues have they deserv'd?
What grievous torments are to them reserv'd?
Who in a desperat way, have hatch'd such evils,
As are of new suggested by the devils,
Who first, damn'd Atheists, trampled have upon
110: The sacred Statutes of the holy One.
Next in a furious, but a fond conceate,
Englands time scorning Lawes have abrogate:
And strive if they had power as will, to wound
Even Natures frame, and all the world confound.
The King of Kings first Monarch's did install,
And daign'd them by the name of Gods to call,
To show that earthly Powers Soveraign,
Have all their power from him, by whom Kings raign;
Moses the meek, from Heaven, and not by chance,
120: Had rule in chief ov'r Gods Inheritance,
And was als absolute, in all degrees
As any that bear rule in Monarchies:
Witness rebellious Korah, with his mates,
And many murmurers their Confederates:
125: The first by a miraculous sort of death,
Were quick up-swallowed in the opening earth;
Then fourteen thousand, and seven hundreth mo,
To Pluto's boures did in a moment go,
And all for hatching treason in their breast
130: Against their Prince, and Gods anointed Priest.
Revenge, The Lord shall from his store-house bring
More grievous plagues on those that kill's a King.
Arise, O Lord, stretch forth thy powerfull hand,
Against the Justice-Juglers of that Land.
Joshua to Moses for his valourous deeds,
As Israels Monarch, by Gods will succeeds;
Who from his scared mouth that choise did breath,
Menacing rebels with assured death.
Next after Joshua, Judges were sole Princes,
140: Who did govern all Palestines Provinces,
Till that unconstant Israel then neglected
And crav'd a King, was not then Saul elected
By Gods appointment and expresse command?
And then anointed by the Prophets hand:
145: Young David next, Gods Minion, was install'd,
And from a sheep crook to a Scepter call'd;
That from his loynes, a Virgin and a Mother
Should bear her Son, her Father, and her Brother.
Now give me leave a little to digresse,
150: And of that Plant this Antithese expresse:
Though call'd the Father of Eternitie;
That we Gods sons the Son of man would be:
He daign'd 'mongst beasts, be born low in a cell,
That high in Heav'n men might with Angels dwell:
155: And though the word, yet child-like stammer would,
That to their Gods men might speak uncontroul'd:
The glorious Monarch of the World was poor,
That heavens rich store he might to man procure;
Hungry he was, this with his Man-hood stood,
160: That men might feed on heaven descending food:
The precious Spring of Life for ever blest,
That we should drink his streams would suffer thirst;
In end, the Life, th'eternall King, would die,
That we should live and raign eternally.
But to our purpose, Monarch's here below,
Can neither Chartor, Seal, nor Seasing show
Of their demaines, the Scepter, Sword and Crown,
And sacred oyl which from the heaven came down
Are symbols of their holdings from above,
170: Joyn'd with Gods blessing, and their peoples love,
Together with a Line of long succession,
And benefit of many years possession,
They are, and were of all Endictments free,
And Judged by their Peers they cannot be,
175: As Gods Vice-gerents answering to none,
But to that King who rules and raigns alone.
But if it be their fate to be detain'd
In firmance long, and in a Court araign'd;
It is the will of God that so should be,
180: Who poureth down contempt on Majesty: 7
'Tis for our sins the Lord will have it so, 8
That strength curb Law, force Justice overthrow.
Try Times, Records, which to our knowledge brings,
The reverence and respect we owe to Kings;
185: David from dales to rockie deserts mounted,
By cruel Saul was like a Partridge hunted,
And hod no time to rest, nor scarce to breath,
Affrighted with the fear of present death:
And though he had him twice caught in a snare,
190: Was councell'd twise, his life no more to spare;
Yet said, who dares stretch forth his murthering hand,
Against the Lords Anointed of the Land
And guiltlesse be, though branded with the crimes
Of Tyrants, who have liv'd in worst of Times;
195: 'Tis better for a Tyrant known should raign.
In any soil, nor want a lawfull King.
Yea though an Infidel, we should obey, 9
And for his honour and his safety pray:
The Jews, both Priest and People, all as one,
200: Are bidden serve the King of Babylon;
Pray for that Cities peace, though there they be
Detain'd and kept in long captivitie.
So in our Lord and his Apostles time,
Four Tyrants rul'd in all the Syrian clime, 10
205: He bids give C'sar what is C'sars own,
And being tax'd, have by example shown
That due obedience should to Kings be given,
Who are though Tyrants, authoriz'd from heaven.
Saint Paul, what's due to higher Powers preacheth,
210: Obedience to Kings Saint Peter teacheth,
To Masters all, and froward though they prove,
They should be serv'd with due respect and love.
A prosperous, fortunate, and happy crime,
Was call'd a glorious vertue for the time;
215: O but suspend your judgement for a space,
And ye shall find a change in fortunes face,
Which shall ov'r cloud these flattering rayes of light,
And turn them to a sad tempestuous night;
Of treacherous Traitours such shall be the chance,
220: Who though at first they seem to have some glance
Of Halcion dayes from fortunes raying face:
But sift a while; ye shall not find the place
Of their abode, all but repentance shall
Here be confounded, and condemn'd in hell:
225: Revenge, good Lord, and such black sorrowes bring
On those vile Traitours who have kill'd a King.
Great C'sar did subvert the Roman State,
And to himself th'Empire did mancipate,
Who would but think that Brute and Cassius part
230: With all the rest that stob'd him to the heart
Was just, since that by fraud and policie,
He did ov'turn Romes ancient liberty;
O! but behold, that Senats tragick cace,
They all were slain, within a three years space,
235: And some themself, with that self blade did kill,
Wherewith they lately C'sars blood did spill.
A modern Divine, glossing on this act,
Confest that C'sars proud ambitious fact
Was first unjust, but when the Senate call'd him
240: Romes great Dictator, and had once install'd him
It was high Treason, to stretch forth their hand
Against that man who did in Chief command
Now as a Monarch, so that all the blood
Of those was justly shed, who him withstood.
Then doth God favour Ethnick Princes cace,
Though alians from the Covenant of Grace,
Redresse their wrongs, confound their enemies,
Detect and punish lewd conspiracies
Hatch'd and fomented in a Trait'rous brain,
250: And shall he not the fire of vengeance rain
On that damn'd race? Who in a tracherous 11 mood,
Hath dyed their hands in Gods Vice-gerents blood.
And then by show of Justice trampled down
Englands old Lawes; have taken Head and Crown
255: From my blest Charles, who now in Glory sings
Unceasing Po/eans to the King of Kings;
Whose life a mirrour was of these blest three,
Religion, Justice, and Sobrietie
To God, to Man, and to himself, three Graces
260: Which now are heard, seen, shining in all places,
And shall remain transcending and entire
Till this great Fabrick be consum'd with fire.
Now since that Monarch's are by God elected,
Let no man deem, that people dis-affected
265: Can loose the reins of their Government,
Or from their Line the Crown and Kingdom rent,
Excepting few, for Europes Monarchies
Are now subsisting of these four degrees,
Kings absolute, by Conquest, by Election,
270: Conditionall for favour and protection,
The first two branches meerly Soverain,
By wavering Subjects can no change sustain.
The latter two not being of my strain,
It suites not here, nor can I now explain
275: The first two Powers, as their prerogative,
The Father dead do in the Son survive.
For now what State being parallel'd with mine,
Hath so stand out against the waves of time.
For whiles that Grecian had subdu'd the East, 12
280: And Monarch like in Babylon was plac'd,
The raign of my first Valiant Fergus than,
From God, and not by chance of War begain,
Three hundreth years and fourty past and gone
Before our Lord took humane Nature on.
285: England from William's Stock of many Kings,
Us-ward in Line, to Charles the Second springs:
Ireland, in like sort, by a Conquest long
Deriv'd, doth to their Lord and King belong:
Though Commons acting on a tragick Stage,
290: A thing unheard in any former age,
Under prextext of Jugling-Justice hands,
Have put to death the Soveraign of those Lands,
And in that Burley Court, would change the frame
Of Englands Statutes, would root out the steme
295: Of former Kings, and have without consent
Of Kings or Peers, acted a Parliament.
A Parliament is model'd by the figure
Of a strong man, standing in force and vigoure
With sword in hand, menacing death to those
300: Who dare Gods will, or Subjects well oppose:
Where of the King is head: the Peers the heart:
The Commons Members, and th'inferiour part:
How comes it then, shall such a monster made
Of basest parts, rule without heart or head?
God wil stir up all Christians, Kings and States,
In my revenge to be confederates,
And with me joyn, this dismal case is theirs,
Which may befal to them or to their heirs.
Crowns are in play, a Monarch is become,
310: The pannel'd Subject of a base Commons doome.
Up, let your Navies, and your Royal Hoasts,
Strike sail, land, vapour on the English Coasts,
Display your Ensignes, Princely Standards rear:
First strike with terrour, and a panick fear
315: Those bloudy Gemsters, who have trampled down
The Head, and made a stage play of the Crown.
Then shall we find them out forth from their dens,
From mountains, plains, from dales, and moorish fens,
Or where that Crue of Traitours may be found;
320: We shall their rampiers level with the ground:
Their Strengths and Forts, since levelling they crave
From strong engines, let them such level have
As we impart: Let Justice then have place,
Till shee have quite cut off that cursed race.
But if incens'd with fury they defie us,
And rang'd in squadrons have resolv'd to try us,
The worlds great Judge, no doubt in whom we trust,
Shall be our safeguard as our cause is just:
Thus shall our courage taught by wit and skill,
330: Skill arm'd by courage, both by power and will,
Make English ground incrimson'd with the blood,
Of that Schismatick Independant brood:
So what once C'sar, we may say the same
Truely, we came, we saw, we overcame
335: And routed all, none shall escape our wrath,
But all shall die a just deserved death:
And Peace shall be proclaim'd in all those lands,
Which now are purg'd by our victorious hands:
Then shall I stile my King, young Charles Maigne,
340: And change that motto, thus Triumph and Raigne.

[2] First, In the Authors Poeme, intituled, Scotlands welcome to KING CHARLES in Anno, 1633.

[3] 1581.

[4] 1584.

[5] In Church Government.

[6] Matth. 7.22

[7] Psal. 107.40

[8] Job 12.21

[9] vide. The new Confession of Faith, c.23:

[10] Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero.

[11] tracherous] treacherous Laing

[12] Alexander


ANd thou great King of Kings who rules above,
By whom Kings raign by whom they live and move,
Moisten my soveraigns soul with showrs of grace,
That with him we may breath the aire of Peace
5: Raying 13 with Truth; that here he may secure,
Thy Dvine Worship true, sincere and pure:
So shall we praise Thee, who for ever raigns,
And whose transcending Power all Power sustains.


[13] Raying] Raging Laing

The chearfull Acclamation
of the City of EDINBURGH

    A unicum from the library at Worcester College, Oxford.

The chearfull Acclamation of the City of
For the happy Return of his Sacred Majesty,

WAft'd from sorrows waves, where many years
I drenched was, in seas of brynie tears,
With chearful countenance, I come again,
To vow due homage to my Soveraign!
When Armed violence envad'd the Throne,
Martyr'd my Sacred Syr, exyl'd his Son,
Murther'd his Subjects, Ruin'd all the Land,
And worst of Monsters did usurp Command;
Then I, Edina, I was forc'd to be
10: A perfect pattern of true misery:
But Heav'n is pleased for to smile again,
And Rear Great CHARLES on the Royal Wain,
(Whose Radiant Lustre doth at length despell
Clouds seeming darker then the shads of Hell)
15: O! may the Instruments for ever be
A fragrant perfume to Posterity:
And thou, brave Monck, all ages shall proclame
Renvowned praise, to thy deserved Fame.
Dread Soveraign! may thy Throne so blessed be,
20: That all thy people may be bless'd in Thee!
And let the splendour of thy Royal Shryne,
Be like great Ph'bus in his Southern Shyne [sic
To cherish Loyal Subjects, let thine Hand
Tear (like the Lyons Paw) what doth gainstand
25: Thy just Decrees: All Natives come I pray
And (with Edina) Solemnize this Day
To CHARLES the Second, Men, and Angels sing,
God save Great Britains, France's, and Irelands King.

F I N I S.