MacLean, Gerald, editor. The Return of the King : An Anthology of English Poems Commemorating the Restoration of Charles II / edited by Gerald MacLean
Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library

| Table of Contents for this work |
| All on-line databases | Etext Center Homepage |

[ About the electronic version

The Return of the King : An Anthology of English Poems Commemorating the Restoration of Charles II / edited by Gerald MacLean

MacLean, Gerald, editor

Creation of machine-readable version: Gerald MacLean

Conversion to TEI.2-conformant markup: University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center. ca. 2530 kilobytes
This version available from the University of Virginia Library
Charlottesville, Virginia

   Publicly accessible
About the print version

The Return of the King: An Anthology of English Poems Commemorating the Restoration of Charles II


   Prepared for the University of Virginia Library Electronic Text Center.

Published: 1660

English fiction poetry masculine LCSH
Revisions to the electronic version
July, 1 1999 corrector Matthew Gibson, Electronic Text Center
Added TEI header and tags.

April 1999 corrector Thomas J. Nevins, Electronic Text Center
Added additional material and tags. Commercial use prohibited; all usage governed by our Conditions of Use:

The Return of the King:

An Anthology of English Poems
Commemorating the Restoration
of Charles II

edited by

Gerald MacLean
Dept of English
Wayne State University

Table of Contents

1. Preface to the E-text edition

2. Acknowledgements

3. Introduction: Rationale, Scope, Organization, and Dating

4. Editorial Principles, Sigla, and Textual Abbreviations

5. The Poems: A Short-Title Calendar -- a list of the poems to be included arranged into chronological groups: this list effectively serves to indicate the groups into which the poems have been organized and the order in which they will be issued

6. The Poems: An Annotated Checklist based on Wing's Short Title Catalogue -- a full-title list of the poems to be included arranged alphabetically by author or title and providing bibliographical description

7. Works Cited including Abbreviations

Preface to the E-text Edition: June 1999

   Having begun this project while engaging in doctoral research more than twenty years ago at the University of Virginia, I am specially delighted that it should be appearing from the E-text Center at Alderman Library. It was amongst the Faulkner archives in Alderman that David Nordloh, of Indiana University, put me through my earliest editorial paces, teaching me more about editorial principles and practices than I could absorb at the time and certainly more than I can recall now. Any and all obvious errors of editorial conception or execution in this project are entirely my responsibility; anything I might have got right probably owes itself to David's training. And it was in Charlottesville that Ian Jack, visiting from Pembroke College, Cambridge, took valuable time away from his own work on the texts of Browning to encourage me in planning an anthology of Restoration panegyrics. With the arrival of the microchip, the years since then have witnessed a transformation in the methods, theories, and means of editorial work and the reproduction of texts on a scale surely even greater than that heralded by the arrival of moveable type. That this project, begun in discussions at lunch overlooking the Lawn and in the rare books reading room at Alderman, should finally emerge into the light of day in electronic form from the E-Text Center seems, to me, peculiarly appropriate. My thanks to Jerry McGann for suggesting it, and to David Seaman for listening.

   Even as I prepare the first sets of poems for electronic publication there are, the London news agencies would have us believe, millions of people for whom anticipating whether the current Prince of Wales will ever become Charles III is a matter of the utmost urgency. At the most general level, questions that were being asked back in 1659 and 1660 are once again on the agenda: should there be a monarchy? if so how, and over what or whom, does it rule? will Charles be suited for the job? what sort of king might he become? How will the poet laureate address the occasion? Beyond this very general level, of course, the issues at stake are very different, but not utterly or entirely. If supporters of monarchy living within the British Isles in 1660 were, and those living there now are, sufficient in number and political authority to put another king on the throne and keep him there, what can have happened to republicanism?

   For those of us disappointed by the eventual outcome of what, in 1967, 1968, and 1969, seemed like a "revolution" in progress, the question of how revolutions come to fail has often taken the form of asking how it can be that an assembly of representations -- what in the 1990s has come to be called "culture" -- can interfere with, and sometimes even direct, the course of economic and political history. How do cultural formations, such as pictures, songs, plays, new jargons, forms of dress and public behaviour achieve political agency, entering and transforming the ways life is lived, power acquired and displayed, wealth accumulated and distributed? What might the poetry, published back in 1660 to celebrate the Restoration of the Stuart dynasty to the thrones constituting Great Britain, tell us about how poetry does, sometimes, make things happen?

   In preparing the Introduction to this electronic edition, I have supplied only references to my own previous publications in support of the general claims being advanced. This is not simply the result of vanity but rather, I trust, a convenient way of indicating where more may be found concerning the drift of my argument or the historical and textual issues at hand, as well as particular citations to the primary and scholarly works on which I have relied. Since these essays have appeared over a twenty year period, certain discrepancies have arisen, but the references to scholarship in the field still prove useful and reliable. To the same ends I have prepared a list of Works Cited listing the scholarly resources that I have relied on while editing and annotating these poems: this will be updated from time to time while the groups of poems are being issued.

   While I plan to issue annotated sets of the poems listed in the Calendar as quickly as possible, delays are certain to occur. Meanwhile I hope that anyone interested in this project will contact me with suggestions or comments. I will be happy to consider requests for provisional copies of any of the listed poems. From June 1999 through August 2000 I am off-line from my e-mail address at Wayne State, but can be reached at: 12 Southcombe St, Chagford, Devon, TQ13 8AY, England.


   Since starting work on this project in 1979, I have incurred more debts than I care to recall to scholars and friends who have supplied and checked facts of all sorts. I have attempted to acknowledge specific debts in the notes to individual poems.

   First, my special thanks to Jo Dulan and Mary Gillis who helped keyboard many of the texts, often from xeroxed copies that were frustrating to read.

   At one time or another, I know that the following have all helped with information, confirmed suspicions, or generously supported this project in some other intellectual, professional, or material way: Jack Armistead, Iain Boal, Martin Bernal, John Bidwell, George Bornstein, Leo Braudy, John Brewer, Carol Briggs, the late Irvin Ehrenpreis, David Evans, A. J. Flavell, Howard Erskine-Hill, David Greetham, George Guffey, Bridget Hill, Christopher Hill, Speed Hill, Elaine Hobby, Ian Jack, N. H. Keeble, Robert Kellogg, Arthur Kinney, Laura Knoppers, Del Kolve, David Loewenstein, Nancy Klein Maguire, Arthur Marotti, the late Jeremy Maule, Michael McKeon, David Norbrook, Max Novak, Jason McElligott, Jerry McGann, John J. Morrison, Annabel Patterson, Lois Potter, Joad Raymond, Alan Roper, Kevin Sharpe, Nigel Smith, Susan Staves, Sara Jayne Steen, Ernie Sullivan, Len Tennenhouse, David Underdown, Andrew Walkling, James Winn, and Steve Zwicker. I can only hope the end product lives up to their expectations. My thanks also to the innumerable friends who have listened to me talking about 1660 and the poetry written that year regardless of their interest: they know who they are. I would also like to thank the numerous reviewers -- sometimes known, sometimes anonymous -- who have supported and refereed my grant applications and the various articles that I have written about this project.

   Over the many years of working on it, librarians at a large number of institutions have been of incalculable helpfulness. My special thanks to Dr. Nicholas Bennett of Lincoln Cathedral Library; L. Brotherton of the Manchester Central Library; Dr. Christine Ferdinand, Librarian of Magdalen College, Oxford; John Field of Westminster School; B. E. Fowler, Clerk of Horsmonden Parish Council; Janet McMullin, Assistant Librarian of Christ Church College, Oxford; Roger Norris of Durham Cathedral Library; Joanna Parker, Librarian of Worcester College, Oxford; Dr. Michael Powell of Chetham's Library, Manchester; Paul Quarrie of Eton College Library; D. W. Riley of the John Rylands Library, Manchester; Alan Tadiello, Librarian of Balliol College, Oxford; P. W. Thomas of Exeter Cathedral Library; the late Paul Yeats-Edwards of Winchester College Library; Elizabeth Watson and Paul Escreet of Glasgow University Library. I have marvelled at their prompt, courteous and informative replies to my various enquiries. Without the generosity of John Morrison and others engaged in revising the Wing STC, this project might have been abandoned long ago.

   More generally, to all the librarians and members of staff who, since 1979, have worked at the Alderman Library at UVA, the Kresge and Purdey Libraries at Wayne State, the University of Michigan Library in Ann Arbor, the Detroit Public Library, the Bodleian Library, the British Library, the Cambridge University Library, the Exeter University Library, Lambeth Palace Library, the John Rylands Library in Manchester, the National Library of Scotland, the Houghton Library at Harvard, the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library UCLA, the Huntington Library, St. John's College Library, Cambridge, and the Wren Library at Trinity College, Cambridge, my gratitude for courtesies remembered.

   Funds and other forms of institutional support have, at various stages, been generously provided by a number of bodies. Between 1979 and 1981, the Department of English at UVA first provided funds for me to collect photocopies of nearly every piece of verse in the Thomason Tracts, that was then becoming available on microfilm. The Purchasing Office at Alderman Library promptly bought copies of every new book that I recommeded. During those years, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, kindly supplied me with up to date reel guides to their publications of Early English Texts; I will never forget the exceptional generosity of the anonymous gift from someone at University Microfilms of a hard-bound photocopy of George Fortescue's Catalogue to the Thomason Tracts since I still use it regularly. In 1982, the Advisory Research Board of Queen's University at Kingston supplied funds for my first research trip to the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library; the Ahmanson Foundation at UCLA supported my return there on several occasions. In 1983, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada funded early research trips to the British Library and the Bodleian Library. In 1989, a research grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities enabled me to take a semester's leave from teaching to work in the Clark and Huntington Libararies. Since 1983, numerous grants and research fellowships awarded by the Dean of Liberal Arts and the Humanities Research Center of Wayne State University have enabled me to conduct research in numerous locations.

   To all, my thanks.

Preface to the E-text Edition: December 2000

   {add to current preface after acknowledgements}

   As I send off the second installment of these poems, those from December 1659 through April 1660, I am acutely aware of various omissions and errors in the work already online. These will be corrected in due course. Meanwhile, I continue to welcome suggestions, corrections, and advice. Please contact me at:

   Over the years of working on this project, I have been constantly aware of the innumerable scholars whose labors have made mine possible. Most especially has the figure of Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth haunted me, since he it was who first set about the only previous systematic attempt to collect and edit all the broadside ballads published on the Restoration in his serially-produced volumes of The Roxburghe Ballads. I know little of his life, but have spent many hours reading his commentaries and following up on his not always reliable, but usually fascinating, scholarly leads. I think if we were to have met, we would have found our views on the nineteenth century more alike than our views on the seventeenth, and the fantasy of such conversations has often haunted me as, for my collation sheets, I have pored over old ink on pages that he must have handled.

   Ebsworth would, I am sure, have been quick to understand the possibilities of electronic publication, and to have recognized the perils. He would, I am certain, have understood the strange feeling of returning to a seemingly endless editorial project after more than a year away. While preparing this second installment of poems, those representing the king printed during the period December 1659 through April 1660, I have thought of Ebsworth often because it was during these months that the broadsides were produced that he knew so much about. 1 With his ghost beside me and work before me, I offer the following supplement to my previous summary comments on the place of the broadside ballad in the formation of a poetic discourse of Restoration during 1660.

He did not, however, know of those now in the Euing collection at Glasgow University Library, edited in facsimile with an introduction by John Holloway in 1971.

The Roxburghe and Trunk Ballads

   Ebsworth's The Roxburghe Ballads, which appeared in nine volumes between 1871 and 1897, remains a monstrously ambitious task, the collection and editing of all the English street ballads published up to the end of the seventeenth century. For the most part, Ebsworth's volumes are internally organized according to specific collections, but also according to themes -- the Robin Hood ballads appear collected together, for example. But during the twenty-five years of his labors, Ebsworth necessarily had to reinvent the structure and scope of his project as new materials became available to him. He frequently became interested in sets of texts that distracted him from the task at hand. In the editorial idiom of his time, Ebsworth's volumes are a wonderland of addresses to the reader explaining why the editor is now turning aside to present some recent discoveries.

   For the most part, Ebsworth's textual transcriptons are unreliable by modern scholarly standards: he handles spelling, line length and punctuation with little regard for the original, and without any evident or systematic policy. But his volumes still provide the best repository of the materials collected. And, as is true of so much nineteenth-century antiquarian scholarship, his commentaries often remain useful as guides to further research. Indeed, if Ebsworth's texts belong to a period of editing when the idiosyncrasies of the editor were permitted free reign, his commentaries are sometimes not entirely reliable either, but they do provide lots of informed hints about where to go to find things out.

   Editing volumes seven, eight and nine of The Roxburghe Ballads, Ebsworth found himself excited by the ballads on the Restoration. He returned to the question of how poetry figured in the political settlement several times in these volumes, clearly eager to be able to offer a definitive account, but each time he looked, he discovered there were more ballads to include and each of them slightly altered the picture. While retracing many of Woodfall's steps in preparing my versions of the Restoration ballads, I have been unable to improve or even to verify his account of a set of broadsides from 1660 that were discovered during the nineteenth century, lining a leather trunk in the British Museum. Of these "trunk ballads," Ebsworth gives various accounts:

Many copies of contemporary ballads on the Restoration of the Monarchy, that were bought eagerly by loyal Cavaliers, must have been printed to meet a large demand, but their very popularity caused their speedy disappearance.
The broadsides were pasted upon walls in workshops and private houses. Some were used to line a new leather trunk, and thus came down to us, unique exemplars, marked with the impress and brown stains of the portmanteau, more or less mutilated. One is the `Noble Progress' of Monk, a distinct version of `Iter Boreale, the Second Part.' (Ebsworth, RB, 9:789)

   Earlier in the same volume, in a lengthy preface added as the work went to press, Ebsworth provided a fuller, more interesting account that allows us a good glimpse of the man's temperament and offers a spirited version of a view once traditional and popular:

The Restoration was a spontaneous outburst of joy, and needed no stimulus. Had it not been meant for a national welcome, in vain would have been all the caballing and underplotting, such as had marked abortive efforts of brave unpractised men, each one loyally sacrificing his life for the rightful heir's just cause; while every day matters grew worse. Oliver Cromwell himself became weary of the vain struggle with unworkable materials, in the main his own miscreations. "I would have been glad to have lived under my woodside, to have kept a flock of sheep, rather than undertake such a government as this! Let God be judge between you and me!" Thus he spoke to the House, 4 Feb. 1658. A few months later, during his last June, news came of the victory at Dunkirk. The protest against "The Domination of the Sword," telling how "Law lies a bleeding" was then sung to the tune of the original "Love lies a bleeding."
We next continue our reprint of the unique "Trunk Ballads," six in number, that, till 1841, had formed the lining of an old leathern portmanteau, made in London, at the time of the Coronation; one year after that glorious `Royal-Oak Day,' the twenty-ninth of May, the birthday of the welcomed King.
Thus it was: a frugal Cheapside trunk-maker counted the cost of holidays, with loss of private cash for purchase of the half-dozen Black-letter Ballads, of date May 29, 1660, to April 23, 1661. Groaning the immortal words, "Bang goes sixpence!" he atoned for his prodigality, by turning the broadsides into profit. He lined the trunk with them -- at that same date, April 23, 1661. Of course, he charged their extra cost on the Loyal Cavalier who was then returning to his own home, at Wallington, in Northumberland; bearing a limp purse indeed, but with pleasant memories of the `Little Village on Thames.' (To none is it equal, not even Vienna the hospitable, or Lutetia, the city of delights, whereunto "all good Americans go when they die," but earlier if possible.) So he went back to his happy home, taking a wife with him, a recollection of the King's gracious smile, the beauty of Barbara Palmer, and the satisfaction of having seen ten Regicides executed coram populo.
Thus the `Trunk Ballads' became heirlooms for posterity. (Ebsworth, RB, 9:xxxv).

   Thus it may, indeed, have been. Ebsworth understood the ballads of the Restoration better than many have done since, if only because he clearly felt himself to be living in such immediate contact with the events of the seventeenth century that he found it unthinkable not to take sides. I have been unable to track the accuracy of Woodfall's tale about the owner of the trunk, but offer it here as the fruit of a learned man's historically informed fantasy. Some of Ebsworth's details, however, seem to be misinformed. Giles Mandelbrote, Curator of British Collections, 1501-1800, at the British Library has kindly examined the ballads and reports:

None of the six ballads is stamped, which would provide a definitive accession date, but Ebworth's date of 1841 seems unlikely. It seems much more likely that the "trunk ballads" are to be identified with the "six ballads of the time of Charles II" presented to the British Museum on 9 February 1828 by W. C. Trevelyan and recorded in the Museum's Book of Presents. This is confirmed by the manuscript note still bound in with the album (shelfmark 835.m.10) from which these ballads were later removed in about 1940, when a separate volume (shelfmark C.120.h.4) was created for them. This note, signed by W. C. Trevelyan, records that "The following six Ballads of the time of Charles 2d. [were] found in the lining of an old Trunk." ... As you will have noticed, all these references mention only six ballads. This confirms your suspicion that the seventh item in the volume, An Elegy on the Death of his Sacred Majesty King Charles II, has come from a different source. ... I can shed no light on Ebsworth's source for the 1661 date or the other details he gives, but -- although they may have been embroidered -- I would doubt that they are entirely made up and I remain rather curious about this.2

   At the present writing (December 2000), the "trunk ballads" are being removed from their more recent backing for improved long-term preservation and so that the decorated verso of the sheets, which presumably formed the inner lining of the trunk, can be more easily studied.

   In order to keep the textual evidence of these broadsides together, as it were, I have included each of the ballads, even though two of them, being anti-Rump satires, would strictly fall outside the scope of the present anthology.

Giles Mandelbrote to the editor, personal letter, 4 July 1999.

The Restoration Ballads

   The ballads included in this anthology most typically offer imaginary and imaginative accounts of just how much the people wanted the king to come back, and in doing so show a clear sense of the Fleet Street principle of telling readers what they already believe themselves to think is true. Aimed at a broad audience, broadsides and ballads exemplify this principle perhaps more immediately than some of the longer, more formal verses since they were quicker to be composed and so begin by appearing to report on current affairs more immediately. Yet in common with more formal panegyrics, ballads share a generally obvious set of thematic contents and perspectives that recur throughout the year. They show considerable concern for how the king's return will effect economic, juridicial, political, social, and ecclesiastical conditions. The Restoration ballads often adopt localized and interest-specific perspectives, that of London merchants, mariners, or the gentry living in the countryside, yet are surprisingly vague on questions of what constitutes a national identity, often speaking in general of England, but advocating a generalized notion of loyalty and only seldom specifying differences between England and Scotland. Ballads emphasize how the return of the king will be good for trade, bringing about a return of justice, of traditional Parliamentary government, and of the Anglican Church. Several claim that the king's return promises to make England, or Britain, a world power; some advocate aggressive policies towards foreign nations, one recommends conciliation with Spain.

   In formal terms, the ballads share a number of common verse patterns since they were written for the most part to familiar tunes. The most popular, for obvious reasons, was "When the King Enjoys his own again," by Martin Parker which had first been published in 1641 and then reissued in several printings during 1660. Several ballads from 1660 re-used this tune to arrange their verse and rhyme schemes, and often borrowed the initial trope of prophetic vision to imagine and set an agenda for the future.

   In such ways, ballads combined both prescriptive and descriptive tendencies. Some ballads favoured prescription, anticipating the effects of Restoration in order to instruct the new king: punish the regicides, improve trade, establish an empire, bring back true religion, justice, plenty, and low taxes. Other ballads favoured description and narrative, offering detailed and seemingly factual reports of Charles's return. Such works often provide lists of names, places, and incidents in order to suggest that they are offering reliable accounts, sometimes even eye-witness information. Some provide detailed chronicle accounts of a single day or brief period, invariably mixing narrative with interpretation, detailing what the events in question mean for the future. The escape from Worcester continued to provide a favorite starting point for descriptive narratives of this sort throughout the year.

   Though popular in appeal, ballads often describe the contemporary scene by allusions to biblical and classical history. This suggests a certain degree of sophisticated literacy could to be expected among readers. Issued soon after the dissolution of the Rump, An Exit to Exit Tyrannus and The King Advancing both evoke images from the Bible and from Greek myth of primal rebellions against divine authority to celebrate Charles's victory against the ungodly, dark, and chthonic forces that are now in retreat. In The King Advancing, the ghost of the martyred king, Charles I, calls upon his son to exact a just revenge against the rebels and imagines their defeat in learned terms:

Fell Titan's son's and bold Enceladus
In the Tinacrean Earth their bones are thrown
Whose hundred Anvils made all Ætna groan. (lines 79-82)

   Other forms of literary expertise were expected by the writers and readers of Restoration ballads. The Country mans Vive le Roy of early May echoes Sir John Suckling's celebrated "Ballad on a Wedding."

   Given their close relation to circumstantial events, the ballads collected in this anthology fall into three general chronological phases; those written in anticipation of the king's return, those written about the return as it was taking place, those that appear after the king had returned. Ballads of the early months that were published in hope of return are variously optative, bombastic, and sometimes cryptic. They employ typology, anagrams, and prophecies to substitute for actual developments and events. Ballads published after the fact, but describing specific events of January to May, share a journalistic emphasis on authenticating details; some are openly reportorial, chronicling the return by detailing places, events, and names. They emphasize how the king's return marks an end of previous bad government under the Rump, while offering threats and warnings to those who had recently opposed the king.

   Early in the year, broadsides were commonly printed anonynmously, sometimes with contentious and spurious printer's colophons. "Printed for Charles King" appears fairly regularly during the early months on pamphlets and small books as well as broadsides. Ballads were frequently reissued in pirated editions. One example: Anthony Woods dated his copy of the ballad Upon the Kings Most Excellent Majesty in February, but only a few weeks later, on 16 March, Thomason recorded a reissue of the same ballad under the title News from the Royal Exchange. This ballad uses cryptic anagrams and acrostics to predict the certainty of the Restoration. The first version appeared under the irregular imprimatur "Printed for Theodorus Microcosmus 1660," while the later version more confidently announced "London, Printed for Charles King. 1660."

   In May, once the king's return was certain, ballads published in anticipation of the event typically offered a mix of prescriptive commentary and detailed, journalistic reporting. They focused on what would happen now that the king's return was certain, emphasizing the wonders of the newly dawning age and the errors of the recent past. Several ballads printed during May reported the king's arrival on English soil in the form of progress narratives that provide detailed descriptions from Charles's arrival at Dover to his entry into London and first nights in the capital. Once the king was actually back, ballads began to take a longer view, placing recent events within a broader historical narrative that situates the king's return as the fulfilment of providentially organized past events. Often the period of Charles's absence is represented as a time when the English nation was punished for past sins. In such narratives, the retelling of events after the battle of Worcester continues to mark a common starting point in works that detail the period of the king's exile. But we will also find ballads offering retrospective glances as far back as 1641, especially when calling for punishment of the regicides.

Editorial Notes and Sources



   The Restoration of Charles II in 1660 marked a period in world history by reintroducing monarchy to a nation that was determining global events through its artistic, scientific, and intellectual achievements as much as by its growing imperial ambitions. It also brought to an end the first great anti-monarchist revolution in modern European history. On no previous occasion had the commercial press been both so necessary and so directly instrumental in bringing a new government into being.1 This anthology seeks to bring together for the first time all the English language poems that appeared during 1660 anticipating Charles's return up to, but excluding, his coronation in April 1661, in order to map the cultural links between poetry and political life by demonstrating the range and scope of what was evidently an immense ideological need for a poetic legitimation of the new regime.2

   Why did the English Revoution fail? While it would clearly be overstating the case to suggest that poetry in any direct way brought about the end of the English Revolution, or that it caused the reintroduction of monarchy, nevertheless the events of these crucial months would doubtless have taken different form had there been no commercial press producing and distributing the numerous poetic celebrations gathered here which, with few exceptions, aim to persuade their readers to agree with the poet that Charles's return was both good and needful. There was evidently a powerful perception that these things needed saying, in print, and in poetic form; a need that cannot simply be explained as the need of individual poets to publicize a display of their personal loyalty.3

   When they were first published over three hundred years ago, the poems collected here helped to re-define the meanings of royalty to a people who had been without a monarch for nearly two decades, but also to the new king who was brought in to reign. What did it mean to be Charles Stuart, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland in 1660? What did the people expect of the man who came to rule over them? What were the burning issues of the day that only the arrival of a king could promise to solve? The most general aim of this edition is to indicate ways that poetry provided an authoritative public medium by which the sometimes private interests, hopes, and expectations of those helping to engineer and celebrate Charles's return could find expression. Except to poke fun at other poets or to demonize members of the Rump, these poems are never directly critical or satirical in contrast to the traditional view that Restoration poetry was satirical. Many of these poems, however, are highly didactic and openly advise the king to adopt any number of domestic and international policies in order to boost trade, settle disputes, establish peace and prosperity. What these poems reflect is the incredible diversity of problems that Charles was expected to solve, and of the equally diverse and often contradictory sets of opinions about how he was to go about the enormous task expected of him. Often poets advised the king of the dangers still to be faced from those opposing his return. Calls for the king to seek out and enact revenge upon the regicides and all other "traitors" still loyal to the good old cause were often more blood-thirsty than Charles's eventual policies, but serve as a crucial counterpoint to the constantly reiterated reports of spontaneous and unanimous celebration and praise. Even royalist panegyrists could not always maintain the illusion that Charles's return was as universally desired as was so often being proclaimed in various forms of printed text. Once these poems become available and understood not just as examples of poems from the oeuvres of particular poets -- Cowley, Waller, Davenant, or Dryden, for instance -- but as a public discourse that operates beyond the private talents and interests of the specific poet, then their historical importance and cultural agency can come into clearer focus. In this sense, of constituting a poetic discourse, these works establish a horizon of expectations within which Charles was called upon to perform the role of king, and by which that performance might be judged.4

   Although they were written over three hundred years ago, these poems still help to define for us the very meaning and place of royalty in English culture. When Charles II arrived in England, the people who found that they had suddenly become his subjects had lived through the experience of regicide and revolutionary military governments. Among the documents that flooded from the presses in 1660, poems celebrating the king's return were not alone in encouraging readers to think about the many and likely benefits that would follow from bringing the king back. In the light of such expectations, the tasks confronting the new king, despite all the carefully orchestrated welcome, might well have seemed truly daunting. He found himself expected to rule a people grown accustomed to an unprecedented degree of public debate, a people who demanded regular news about, and influence over, political events. Unlike his father, Charles confronted the job of performing the role of king before an audience composed of a people grown accustomed to questioning and exercising authority themselves.5 How, and in what ways, might poets be said to have contributed to the failure of the English Revolution while at the same time establishing expectations by which the new king would be judged?


[1] See my "Literature, Culture, and Society in Restoration England," in Culture and Society in the Stuart Restoration: Literature, Drama, History, pp. 3-27; and Time's Witness, epilogue.

[2]See my "An Edition of Poems on the Restoration," Restoration 11 (1987): 117-21, and "What is a Restoration Poem? Editing a Discourse, Not an Author," TEXT 3 (1987), pp. 319-346.

[3] See my "Literature and Politics in Revolutionary England, 1640-1660," Review 16 (1994): 177-95.

[4] See my "The King on Trial: Judicial Poetics and the Restoration Settlement," The Michigan Academician 17 (1985): 375-88.

[5] See my "Literacy, Class, and Gender in Restoration England," TEXT 7 (1995), pp. 307-335.


   Currently, there is no detailed study of the literary response to the Restoration based upon a comprehensive examination of the poetic works published in the months surrounding Charles II's return. This anthology aims to provide a resource for future literary-historical research as well as a contribution to the rapidly expanding study of print culture in the early modern period. This anthology has been designed to help social and literary historians better understand how poetry mediated civil unrest by providing the terms in which political struggle could be resituated as art.

   The Return of the King provides accurate, old-spelling texts of the English poems addressed to the king on his return that were published between January 1660 and the coronation in April the following year. Many are being made available here, outside specialist library holdings, for the first time in over 300 years. Many are unique and have been entirely ignored by previous scholarship; several were, until recently, unlisted in standard bibliographies. Making these poems available, this edition contributes to our understanding of literary-historical relations at an important and still controversial moment in British and world history.

   This project began in the late 1970s while I was conducting research into the vernacular backgrounds to Dryden's political poetry. Preliminary work on Astraea Redux quickly alerted me to the large number of Restoration panegyrics that had been ignored by the existing scholarly editions of Dryden's poem.6 Not only James Kinsley but also the editors of the California Dryden had limited their scope to poems by other well-known poets; the latter, for instance, restricting themselves to the other poems held in the collection at the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library at UCLA. When first planned, this project was intended to produce a printed volume, similar in scope to London in Flames, London in Glory, R. A. Aubin's historical edition of poems on the great fire and rebuilding, that would contain all poems on the Restoration written or published during 1660. However, once I began cataloguing the enormous number of texts involved, this plan quickly proved impracticable. Since the rationale for the project centered on the public character of the poetic discourse, I happily abandoned plans to find, edit, and include poems that exist only in manuscript form, and all foreign language poems -- though this regretably meant omitting copious Greek and Latin verses including those produced by the dons at Oxford and Cambridge. Even so, the number of poems remained clearly well beyond the scope of a single volume, so I decided to limit the range even further by omitting poems addressed to General Monck or members of the royal family other than the king, and by cutting out verse satires on the defeated Rump.7

    By thus restricting the project to poems printed in English that directly address the king in the period before his coronation, I hoped to produce an edition that would still be publishable in a single book while holding true to the conceptual rationale that had prompted the project in the first place.

   After a little more than two decades of searching, transcribing, collating, and checking, the texts of the poems to be included were finally assembled and came to a little more than 300,000 words, without annotation. As such, this project could not be contained by a single, printed volume. By the late 1990s, the costs in time, labor, and money of publishing accurate, old-spelling editions of historical texts that even major research collections might not be able to afford, have become even more prohibitive than they have ever been. Or so I have been told.

   In many of its features, this electronic edition betrays its own history of having been conceived of in printed form. One obvious limitation resulting from that history is that the headnotes and annotations have been prepared cumultatively so that the commentary on any given poem presumes upon information supplied in the general headnote to the group in which it appears, which in turn relies on prior annotations and headnotes. Were I starting out now, with electronic publication in mind, I would have proceeded quite differently in ways that are easy to imagine. Apart from setting out to learn a great deal more than I currently know about the possibilities of computer editing and use of hypertext applications -- I have worked throughout exclusively in MS-DOS using Notabene -- I would proceed much in the manner of the great antiquarian editor of the late nineteenth century, Joseph Woodfall Ebsworth, whose nine volumes of Roxburghe Ballads, issued between 1871 and 1897, represent -- among other things -- the last time an editor has set out to collect, edit, and annotate poems because they were ballads on the Restoration and not because the work in question forms part of an author's oeuvre. That is to say, I would have followed his lead and issued texts as they became available and once they were edited, not holding off from issuing edited poems until the entire project was complete.


[6]See my "Poetry as History: The Argumentative Design of Dryden's Astraea Redux," Restoration (1980): 54-64.

[7]See my "What's Class Got To Do With It?," in Margins of the Text, ed. D. C. Greetham (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997), pp. 25-42.


   The poems included fall into three generic categories: broadsides and ballads, poems printed in separately published books and pamphlets, and embedded poems such as dedications and verses included with other texts.

   Ballads include verses printed on single sheets, normally illustrated with woodcuts, black-letter and other ornamental print-fonts, and usually employing a "popular" lyrical form and idiom traditionally associated with radical, or at least popular, political views. For those in Restoration England who couldn't read, ballads were typically read aloud and pinned up in public places. Their ornamental lettering and woodcut illustrations served to make these broadsides an attractive souvenir for those not fully or formally "literate." Since ballads could be looked at by all, listened to by many, read by most city-dwellers, and collected by some -- like Samuel Pepys -- they constitute an important part of the commercial apparatus of public opinion-making. A group of six broadside ballads on the Restoration, subsequently referred to as the "trunk ballads," were found pasted inside a trunk to form a lining and are currently preserved in the British Library. Since all of them are unique copies, we may presume that there were many more such inexpensive commemorative publications that have not survived.

   While the ballads are frequently anonymous, the more formal verse panegyrics represent an important movement towards the exclusive discourse of an élite and are very often aimed at drawing attention to the person, and skills, of the poet. Certainly the Latin, Greek and other non-English language poems addressed to Charles made certain that only an elect few, largely men, could read what they had to say. The Universities published celebratory volumes in 1 containing verses in Latin and Greek. The Cambridge collection additionally contained verses in Anglo-Saxon, Hebrew, Arabic, and Syrian. The Oxford volume included verses in English, as did the collection of verses by scholars of Woodstock School.

   Most generally, the vernacular panegyric strain was varied and strong enough to dominate the scene, and it is in these formal verses that we find the emergence of that "Augustan" tradition of vernacular neo-classicism that literary historians have most often seen as the period's most significant contribution to English poetry. One thing that the revolutionary decades had certainly achieved was the pre-eminence of the English language as the public medium of printed discourse. In addition to the well-known poems by Dryden, Cowley, Waller, and Davenant, this edition will make generally available important but previously ignored poems by (among others) the antiquarians Elias Ashmole, Thomas Fuller, and James Howell, the career diplomat and Ottomanist Thomas Higgons, rural vicars such as John Couch, Giles Fleming, and Alexander Huish, young London lawyers such as Giles Duncombe, Thomas Flatman, and Samuel Woodford. There is a fascinating poem by Ralph Astell, the uncle and tutor to the celebrated "first feminist" Mary Astell, but most Royalist women declined to have their poems printed. Only one woman poet, Rachel Jevon, printed a poem in 1660, though we know that several other women poets, including Katherine Phillips, wrote poems on the occasion that were either left in manuscript or only printed considerably after the event.

   All printed poems in each category that directly address the king on his return have been included. The poems have been arranged into chronological and narrative sections that help indicate the place of each poem within the developing literary discourse of returning monarchy during these months. Brought together here because of their common concern with formulating social, cultural, and literary terms for the new monarchy, many of these poems rely on historical narrative and tell a very similar story peopled by a range of historical figures, and often recording similar moments from the king's exile and miraculous return in extensive and sometimes conflicting narrative detail. In order to reduce the number of annotations, headnotes to each section include a brief summary of those events which are most often recorded by the poems in that group but not repeated in annotations to the text of the poem. Poems that cannot be dated with any certainty have been included within the chronological group they most resemble, based on the moment in that story at which the poem seems to insinuate itself (see Dating, below).

   Arranging the poems into a chronological and narrative sequence in this way provides a reliable map to the development of themes, topics, and tropes during the course of the year. At the same time, readers interested in tracing the relative use of biblical or Virgilian references, for example, will be able to do so for a wider range of poetic works than was previously available. Other interests are also served by this arrangement. Readers beginning with a poem from July, for instance, will be able to turn to the general headnote to that section in order to find out in detail what was happening that month. References in poems to commonly mentioned historical figures and events will receive minimal explanatory footnotes, while more obscure and topical references will be glossed.

   In addition to the headnotes to the chronological sections, entries for each poem will include a brief headnote containing bibliographical details, biographical information on poets, and other contextual information. Eventually I hope to include a short-title check-list of related, but excluded, poems -- such as those written to praise members of the royal family other than Charles, the numerous poems addressed to General Monck, and the poems written in foreign languages. The layout of information is aimed to assist readers seeking to trace the various relations between poet, publisher, and politician.


   In keeping with the historical rationale for editing these verses in terms of their discursive agency, I have arranged them, as accurately as possible, into a calendar by which the events of the king's return can be seen to be unfolding throughout the year. In sorting the poems into groups that serve as narrative chapters, I have followed the following procedures in order to ensure that, while the groups are in some cases being imposed out of editorial requirements, they nevertheless arise in direct response to evidence provided by, or in, the poems.

   Dated Poems: First, the poems were sorted into two general groups; those bearing a printed or manuscript date and those which didn't. Poems with printed or manuscript dates were then arranged into a simple chronological list according to those dates, and a monthly calendar drawn up. Even at this stage there were difficulties, since printed dates in titles or colophons are at best only claims that the poem was written on or published for the occasion: the work at hand might well have been written and printed in anticipation of the day, or composed retrospectively. A ballad on 29 May, the day Charles entered London, may have been produced for sale on the day, or may show clear evidence that the poet is reporting on events after they had actually occurred. Dates added in manuscript, mostly found in the collections of George Thomason and Anthony Wood, provide evidence of another sort that is no less problematic. Such dates can tell us that a particular poem had entered circulation and, in the absence of other evidence, this can be most useful but does not provide a reliable guide to either publication or composition. Nevertheless, these dates supply the bulk of evidence for arranging the poems chronologically and are recorded parenthetically in the Calendar; a fuller record of evidence is reported in the Checklist, which specifies copies bearing manuscript dates.

   Undated Poems: I then set about the poems for which printed or manuscript dates were not to be found, first of all sorting out those for which some other evidence was available. Where possible, I set these titles into the monthly calendar or, where two or more undated poems were evidently linked in some manner -- such as theme, printer, or provenance -- but not by evidence concerning a month or season, I assembled them in undated groups. The kinds of evidence at issue here were sometimes more detailed and so more reliable than a manuscript notation by Thomason or Wood. Henry Oxenden's letters, for instance, provide a fascinating and detailed acount of the composition, revision, costs of private publication, and difficulties engaging a printer, that were experienced by one rather desperate poet who was anxious to prove his loyalty and hold on to his family estates. Sometimes advertisements for poems appear in newsbooks; sometimes I have followed the instincts of a previous editor. All these datings are recorded inside square brackets.

   At this stage, before I attempted to address the problems of poems for which I could find no evidence for dating, the simple monthly calendar was proving less useful than before. For obvious reasons, poems tended to cluster around certain key dates and consequently required greater specificity than months could allow: May clearly needed breaking up while months later in the year were often empty. What principles other than dating might usefully be employed, either to replace or to supplement the initial monthly calendar? With this question in mind, I set about looking among the undatable poems for any kinds of internal evidence that might help date such poems or suggest into what other sorts of groups such poems should go. At first I became much taken with the idea of beginning with all the ballads written to the tune "when the king enjoys his own again," and to end with the "trunk" ballads. But since there were numerous poems in each of these groups that could be dated by some means, setting up such a new general principle of organization might introduce new problems and incongruities. If I were to group all ballads to the same tunes, why not all works from the same printer? If I were to group together works that constituted a collection because they were found lining a trunk, why not group together poems from other forms of contemporary collection, notably those of Thomason and Wood? In that case, what about the collections assembled during the nineteenth century, such as the Crawford and Euing collections of broadsides? A further problem here, of course, is that copies of the same poem often appear in different collections; how should such items appear in this one?

   In the event, I have stuck to a general chronological arrangement as far as possible, introducing thematic groups only when it makes better sense to do so than not to. Since the text of Martin Parker's original ballad, "When the king enjoys his own again," is itself a minor bibliographic nightmare, without any reliable evidence concerning the various versions printed for the Restoration, I have begun with a group of undatable variants of Parker's ballad, while other ballads to the same tune for which evidence of dating can be found are distributed accordingly. Three other thematic groupings encouraged themselves into which I have included poems even when there is evidence for dating: poems exclusively concerned with recounting Charles's escape from the Battle of Worcester back in 1651; a group of poems written from the perspective of Scotland;8 and a small selection of verses written on the trials of the regicides.


[8] See my review of Murray G. H. Pittock's Poetry and Jacobite Politics in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland, in Modern Philology, 94:4 (May 1997): 534-38.

Editorial Principles, Sigla, and Abbreviations

Copy Text

   The copy text is the first printing, except when a subsequent printing shows evidence of authoritative revision.

Reproduction of the Copy Text

   The copy text is reprinted except for:

1. Authoritative substantive variants including press corrections. Accidental features of such variants are made to conform to the copy text. Substantive changes are listed in footnotes.

2. Nonauthoritative substantive emendations are introduced only where the sense of a passage demands emendation and are listed in footnotes.

3. Authoritative accidental variants, as listed in footnotes.

4. Nonauthoritative accidental emendations. These are made as sense demands and are footnoted. If a later seventeenth-century edition produces the same emendation, that edition is (usually) noted in the collation/footnotes.

5. Turned b, d, p, q, n, and u are silently corrected as b, d, p, q, n, and u. If a spelling error results, it is corrected and footnoted.

6. Line numbers have been added, and poems in a series or collection have been numbered sequentially.

7. Illegible print which is indicated [. . .]

Silent Changes to the Copy Text


1. Long s becomes s; long f becomes f; VV becomes W. V for U is given U.

2. Turned letters other than b, d, p, q, n and u are adjusted.

3. Type set in the wrong font is adjusted; swash italics are represented by plain italics; extended verses (more than four lines) set in italics have been reversed; blackletter has been set in roman.

4. Medial apostrophes that failed to print have been restored; reversed apostrophes have been corrected.

5. Spacing between words and before and after punctuation has been normalized.

6. Titles, section titles, ornamental and oversized capital letters, the position of stanza numbers, and other similar typographical details are made uniform.

7. Printed marginal glosses given in different font and print size have been standardized and placed on the right margin as close as possible to the site in the copy text.

Textual Sigla, Notes, Abbreviations

   Textual notes indicate Wing number, the format of the printing, and provide a full description of the title page to the copy text when required. Sigla indicate the specific copies which have been collated, providing shelf-marks to copies in public-access libraries and collections. Sigla follow the abbreviations adopted by the Wing Short Title Catalogue for indicating library collections. Where multiple copies exist, I have attempted to examine at least five; where fewer than five copies are to be found in public access libraries, I have attempted to examine and collate all of them. Subsequent reprintings in seventeenth-century editions and collections, as well as a selection of modern scholarly editions, are indicated.

   Substantive and accidental variants are reported in footnotes only when they may affect meaning; no attempt has been made to record all press variants.

   Otherwise, footnotes and collations indicate all editorial changes to the copy text and list substantive press variants. However, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and typographical variants are listed only when they significantly affect the sense.

   When a variant in punctuation is listed, a wavy dash [~7E] is used in place of the word preceding the variant. A caret [^] signifies the ommission of a punctuation mark.

   Where a majority of copies share a reading, the sigla may be replaced in the notes and collation with a capital Sigma [ä], and then departures from the majority reading are listed by specific sigla.

Other abbreviations used in the editorial matter:

edthe present editor
msmanuscript; also used to indicate hand corrections accompanied by "inked out/inked"
r (superscript)recto
v (superscript)verso
t/p title page
sssingle sheet
7Eword preceding variant
äagreement in a majority of copies
^punctuation mark is omitted
()date based on printed evidence from the title or colophon, or a contemporary hand-written annotation
[?]date based on evidence from other sources; a question mark indicates editorial speculation based exclusively on internal evidence
~WingCatalogue numbers are to the revised printed version of the Wing STC and may not conform to the electronic revision

The Poems: A Short-Title Calendar

   This listing represents the chronological groups into which I have organized the poems and in which they will be issued.

I. Anticipation: The King Enjoys His own Again

Martin Parker, The King enjoys his own again [undated]

England's Great Prognosticator [undated]

A Worthy Kings Description [before May?]

II. The Escape from Worcester

J. W., The Royall Oak [before 29 May]

Henry Jones, The Royal Patient Traveller (1660)

The Royal Wanderer [before May?]

The Wonderfull and Miraculous escape of our Gracious King [before May?]

John Couch, His Majesties miraculous Preservation By the Oak, Maid, and Ship [before May?]

III. Hoping for the King, December 1659-April 1660

J. W., "A Second Charles" [February?]

A Psalme Sung by the people, before the bone-fires (February)

Thomas Robins, The Royall Subjects Joy [late February?]

Upon the King's Most Excellent Majestie (February)

Variant reprints: (1) News From The Royall Exchange (16 March), (2) "Arts Chaste Rule" The Case is altered [after 16 March?]

Thomas Joy, A Loyal Subjects Admonition [after March?]

An Exit to Exit Tyrannus (17 March)

The King Advancing (21 March)

"Upon the Kings Prerogative and Person", from The Case Stated (24 March)

John Ogilby, "The Second Charles" (28 March)

Variant reprints: (1) "The Second Charles (2) in The manner of the Solemnity (6 September)

England's Rejoycing at That Happy Day [March/April?]

Vox Populi Suprema Rex Carolus. Or the voice of the People for King Charles (April)

England's Genius Pleading for King Charles (April)

"Facidius Possibilis," A Royal Prophecy [late April?]

Gallant News of late I bring [late April?]

Richard Flecknoe, "Pourtrait of His Majesty" [late April?]

IV. The King Declared, early May

Anthony Sadler, Majestie Irradiant (1 May)

T. W., Dolor Ac Voluptas (8 May)

London and England Triumphant [8 May]

England's Day of Joy and Reioicing [8 May]

I. W., England's Honour, and London's Glory [8 May]

Alexander Huish, from Musa Ruralis (10 May)

Alexander Brome, England's Joy (14 May)

G. S., Britain's Triumph (14 May)

M. D., The Subjects Desire (16 May)

"A Bonfire Carol," from A Private Conference (May)

Anthony Sadler, The Subject's Joy (17 May)

Nathaneal Richards, Upon the Declaration (18 May)

J. Rowland, His Sacred Majesty Charles the II (May)

Martin Lluellyn, To The Kings Most Excellent Majesty (May)

The Countrey-mans Vive Le Roy [early May?]

J. G. B., Royall Poems [early May?]

V. Arrival and Progress in England, 25-31 May 1660

Giles Duncombe and Thomas Flatman (?), verses from Scutum Regale (21-8 May)

Richard Bradshaw, "Upon the most desired return" (25 May)

"When Charles King of England" [after 25 May]

Vox Populi, the voice of the people congratulating His Majesty, King Charles (28 May)

H. H. B., A Poem To His Majestie On His Landing [May]

T. H., Iter Boreale, The Second part Variant rpt. of The Noble Progresse [28 May]

Thomas Mayhew, Upon The Joyful and Welcome Return (May)

William Pestell, A Congratulation (29 May)

James Shirley, An Ode Upon the Happy Return [May]

England's Pleasant May-flower [29 May]

Englands Gratulation [after 29 May]

J. W., The King and Kingdoms joyful Day of Triumph [after 29 May]

The Glory of these Nations [after 29 May]

Iter Australe [after 29 May]

James Bernard, A Poem Upon His Sacred Majesties [after 29 May]

Charles Hammond, from London's Triumphant Holiday, and from The Worlds Timely Warning-Piece [after 29 May?]

Laurence Price, Win at first, lose at last [after May?]

Abraham Cowley, Ode, Upon the Blessed Restoration (May)

W. L., Good News From The Netherlands (31 May)

A Countrey Song, Intituled The Restoration (May)

England's Captivity Returned [May?]

VI. Loyal expressions, June

William Lower, "An Acrostick Poem" [after 2 June]

To the King, Upon His Majesties Happy Return (June)

Alexander Brome, A Congratulatory Poem (4 June)

Thomas Saunderson, A Royall Loyall Poem (4 June)

Elias Ashmole, Sol In Ascendente (after 4 June)

Theophilus Cleaver and Daniel Nichols, verses in Filius Heroum (5 June)

Arthur Brett, The Restauration (5 June)

John Lawson, Upon The Blessed Return (6 June)

Samuel Woodford, Epinicia Carolina (7 June)

Abiel Borfet, Postliminia Caroli II (8 June)

Edmund Waller, To The King (9 June)

Thomas Higgons, A Panegyrick To The King (10 June)

Clement Ellis, To the King's Most Excellent Majesty (June)

A Congratulation For His Sacred Majesty (13 June)

Samuel Holland, To The Best of Monarchs (14 June)

Samuel Willes, To the King's Most Sacred Majesty (June)

Anglia Rediviva: A Poem On His Majesties Most Joyfull Reception Into England (17 June)

John Dryden, Astraea Redux (19 June)

William Davenant, Poem (25 June)

Thomas Edwards, To His Sacred Majesty (26 June)

Thomas Flatman, A Panegyrick (30 June)

A Glimpse of Joy (30 June)

William Fairebrother, An Essay of a Loyal Brest (June)

Robert Howard, "A Panegyrick" (June)

Edmund Elys, Anglia Rediviva [June]

William Chamberlayne, England's Jubile [June?]

John Collop, Itur Satyricum [June?]

William Smith, Carmen Triumphale [June?]

A. Starkey, Good News for England [early June?]

VII. Two academic gatherings

Oxford University, Britannia Rediviva (7 July)

Woodstock Grammar School, Votivum Carolo (June/July)

VIII. Loyal Expressions, July 1660

Giles Fleming, from Stemma Sacrum (July)

John Tatham, from London's Glory (5 July)

The Royal Entertainment . . . the Fourth of July (July)

Nathan Ingelo, "A Song of Thanksgiving" (5 July)

J. P., The Loyal Subjects hearty Wishes [after July?]

Thomas Fuller, A Panegyrick [after 6 July?]

Richard Brathwait, To His Majesty (12 July)

John Selden, from The Royal Chronicle (17 July)

The Valiant Seamans Congratulation [July?]

Ralph Astell, Vota, Non Bella [July?]

IX. Views from Scotland

The Covenant [early March?]

A Pair of Prodigals Returned (30 June)

Caledons Gratulatory Rapture [after 29 May]

Grampius Congratulation [summer?]

Laetitae Caledonicae [late summer?]

Scotland's Paraenesis to her dread King [late summer?]

X. Punishing the Regicides, July to October 1660

T. R., The Royall Subjects Warning-piece [before trials]

The Traytors Downfall [after trials]

Variant: King Charles his Glory and Rebells Shame: A Relation of Ten Grand Infamous Traytors [late October]

XI. Later in the year, August to November 1660

John Crouch, A Mixt Poem [after July]

"Philobasileus," Three Royal Poems (4 August)

Rachel Jevon, Exultationis Carmen (17 August)

England's Joy in a Lawful Triumph [after September]

Samuel Pordage, "A Panegyrick" [after 13 September]

Sir George McKenzie, "A POEM," from Aretina [after September]

Henry Beeston, A Poem To His Most Excellent Majesty, and Henry Bold, "To His Sacred Majesty Charles the Second" (September)

Thomas Forde, "Upon His Sacred Majesty" (October)

John Denham, The Prologue to his Majesty (November)

Thomas Pecke, To the Most High and Mighty Monarch [late November?]

XII. Approaching the Coronation, December 1660-April 1661

"In the eight Kings reign" in The Strange and Wonderfull Prophesie (14 December)

Giles Duncombe, A Counter-blast to the Phanaticks [after 24 December]

C. H., Hells Master-piece discovered (late December)

John Boys, "Epigram," from Aeneas, His Descent into Hell (30 December)

Henry Oxenden, Charls Triumphant [after December]

Walter Charleton, from An Imperfect Pourtraicture (March)

Izaak Walton, "To My Ingenious Friend Mr. Brome," and Alexander Brome, "Song. On the Kings Return" (1661)

Cedrus Britanica et laurus regia [undated: pre-coronation]

XIII. The Tide Turning: voices of complaint

The Cavaliers Complaint (15 March)

The Cavaliers Comfort [after June 1661]

An Annotated Check-list of English Poems on the Restoration appearing in printed books during 1660 based on Wing's STC

   Although the information included here should prove redundant once this anthology has been completed, my object in including this checklist here is to provide scholars working in Restoration studies with a useful tool that will help them in assessing the poetic response to the events of 1660. This list is close to being a complete record of the printed English poems that directly address the king on his return, though I am acutely aware of omissions and the likelihood of errors.

   This checklist provides full titles, colophons, and location guides to the English language poems that will be included in the present anthology. All were published to commemorate Charles's return between January 1660 and his Coronation in April 1661. Many of them are separately printed items, but I have also included poems to be found embedded in other works. In searching for embedded poems, I have attempted to examine copies of every Wing title dated 1660 as well as most dated 1659 and 1660; there are no doubt many more of these than I have been able to find.

   Entries are here arranged alphabetically by author or title in the following format: Wing number; author; title, or title page details including colophon; format; list of copies known to me. I have attempted to provide bibliographical information that will most assist scholars in finding original copies by including library shelfmarks and selected reprint information, though again these details are far from complete in every case. Where specific copies of poems bear manuscript annotations, I have indicated so, especially when dates have been added. In citing libraries, I again follow the abbreviations adopted by the Wing project, adding shelfmarks to copies that appear in major public-access research collections.

   In line with the policy of the anthology as a whole, omitted from this list are printed poems addressed primarily to General Monck or other members of the royal family, anti-Rump satires, and foreign language poems. I have made no systematic attempt to locate manuscript poems on the Restoration, but have, however, included here a brief checklist of manuscript poems in the Bodleian Library derived from Margaret Crum's First-Line Index of Manuscript Poetry in the Bodleian Library, and a selection of manuscript poems in the British Library.

   Having been composed as a working checklist over the last two decades, this list nevertheless remains in many ways both incomplete and already out of date. Items not appearing in the first revised printed versions of Wing STC are marked /not Wing/: these will be updated from the online Wing STC in due course. Orthography has generally been simplified, though irregular use of capitals has been retained when evidently deliberate (eg Ralph Astell's poem). Under "Commentaries" I have listed bibliographical descriptions; these listings do not include critical commentaries unless they directly offer bibliographical details.

A3179. Anglia Rediviva: / A / POEM / ON HIS / MAJESTIES / Most joyfull Reception / INTO / ENGLAND. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by R. Hodgkinsonne for Charles Adams, and are to be / sold at the signe of the Talbot in Fleetstreet, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-6.
Copies: LT E.1029(3), ms dated "17 June"; O Tanner 744(20); CH 25754, the Corser-Brooke copy with additional Dutch portrait of Charles; MH; WF.
Commentaries: Corser, 2.2: 321-2

A3985-6. Ashmole, Elias. Sol In Ascendente: / OR, / The glorious Appearance / OF / CHARLES the Second, / UPON / The Horizon of London, in her Horosco-/ picall Sign, Gemini. / [royal arms] / Iam vaga co/elo sidera fulgens, / Aurora fugat; surgit Titan / Radiante coma, mundoque diem / Reddit clarum. / [rule] / London, Printed for N. Brook, at the Angel in Cornhill. 1660.

   Format: Qto. Variant printings.
Copies, A3985: L; O Ashmole 36,37(l7); MH.
Reprint: lines 45-58 were printed in Mercurius Aulicus #8 (28 May-4 June), p. 58, with one variant in line 58.
Another edition, A3986: Sol In Ascendente: / OR / The Glorious Appearance of / CHARLES / THE SECOND, / UPON / The Horizon of LONDON, in / her Horoscopicall Sign, Gemini. / [rule] / Iam vaga co/elo sidera fulgens, / Aurora fugat; surgit Titan / Radiante coma, mundoque diem / Reddit clarum. / [rule] / EDINBURGH, / Re-printed by Christopher Higgins, in Harts Close, over against / the Trone-Church, Anno Dom. 1660. / [ornamental box]
Copies: EN Ry.III.c.34(1); MH; Y.
Ms version: O Ashmole 38 f.230, a corrected, autograph copy.
Commentaries: Aldis, #1675; Crum, A 1309.

A4068. Astell, Ralph. VOTA, NON BELLA. / [rule] / NeW-CastLe's / HeartIe GratULatIon / TO HER / SaCreD SoVeraIgn / KIng CharLes The SeConD; / ON / HIs noW-GlorIoUs RestaUratIon / To HIs BIrth-rIght-PoWer. / [rule] / By Ralph Astell, M. A. / [rule] / Gateshead, Printed by Stephen Bulkley, 1660. / [ornamental box]

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-16.
Copies: L G.18923; O Vet A3 e 352.

B81B. "B., H. H." A Poem to His Maiestie / On His Landing. / By H. H. B.

   Format: brs.
Copies: L 1876.f.1(6).

B132. "B., J. G." ROYALL / POEMS / Presented to His Sacred / MAJESTY / Charles the II. / [rule] / By J. G. B. / [rule] / I. On the Kings most excellent Majesties happy Return to his Kingdomes. / 2. Annagramma in Principem, Carolus Stuartus i.e. Arthur, Laus, Custos. / 3. On the Lord Monck, Generalissimo of all his Majesties Forces. / 4. An Elegie on the Martyrdom of King Charles the First. / 5. On the Regicides. / 6. On the Tribe of Fortune, the Rump of the Long Parliament. / 7. Inverba Caroli Regis dam suit Hispame in illud Nasonis: Nunc notis adversaprelia fronte gerit. / [rule] / LONDON, Printed for R. Wood. 1660.

Copies: MH Copy inscribed "Harvard College Library / In Memory of / Lionel De Jersey Harvard / Class of 1915" dated Dec. 29, 1925.

B1694. Beeston, Henry. A / POEM / To His most Excellent Majesty / Charles the Second. / Ego Beneficio tuo (Cæsar) quos ante Audie-/ bam hodié vidi Deos: Nec feliciorem ul-/ lum vitæ meæ aut Optavi, aut sensi Diem. /Paterc', &c. / [rule] / By H. Beeston Winton'. / Together with another / By Hen. Bold olim Winton'. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON: / Printed by Edward Husbands, and Thomas Newcomb, Printers to the / Commons House of Parliament, 1660. / [double-ruled box]

   Format: F. t/p + pp. 3-10, sigs. [A-Cv]
Copies: LT E.1080(12), ms dated "24 Sept"; O Gough Loudon 2(3); OW LR.8.32, removed from G.5.10(106a); TU Aj/B393/660p; Y.
Also contains: Bold, Henry, "To His Sacred Majesty Charles the Second." Reprinted in Poems Lyrique, Macaronique (Henry Brome, 1664), pp. 205-206.

B1995. Bernard, James. A / POEM / UPON HIS / SACRED MAJESTIES / DISTRESSES, / AND LATE / HAPPY RESTAURATION. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for R. Marriot, and are to be sold at his shop in / St. Dunstans Church-yard, Fleetstreet. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. [1]-6.
Copies: WF 189623 ; CH 432487; MH.

B3765. Borfet, Abiel. POSTLIMINIA / CAROLI II. / THE / PALINGENESY, / OR, / SECOND-BIRTH, / OF / CHARLES the Second to his / Kingly Life; Upon the day of his First, / May 29. / [rule] / By Abiel Borfet, M. A. / [large crown] / LONDON, / Printed for M. Wright at the Kings-head in the / Old-Baily, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-9.
Copies: LT E.1027(10), ms dated "8 June"; O Tanner 774(19); CH 112864; WF ms dated "8 June 1660"; Y; MH.

V619/V620. Boys, John. "Epigram" from ÆNEAS / HIS / DESCENT / INTO / HELL: / As it is inimitably described by the / Prince of Poets in the sixth / of his ÆNEIS. / [rule] / Made English by JOHN BOYS of Hode-Court, Esq; / [rule] / Together with an ample and learned Comment upon the same, / wherein all passages Criticall, Mythological, Philoso-/ phical and Historical, are fully and clearly explained. / To which are added some certain Pieces relating to the / Publick, written by the Author. / [rule] / Invia virtuti nulla est via. -- -- -- Ovid. Met / [rule] / LONDON, Printed for the Author, and are to be sold by Henry Brome / at the Gun in Ivy-lane, 1661. / [ornamental box]

   Format: Qto. Variant printings.
Copies, V620: L 11375.c.36, ms signed "Wm Amherst. Novemb: 1660"; C; Lincolns Inn; OW L.R.III.4, William Gower's copy; EtonC; SP; CH; MH. Another edition, V619: LONDON, Printed by R. Hodgkinsonne, living in Thames / street over against Barnards Castle. 1661.
Copies: LT E.1054(3) dated 30 December; O 90.d.22, ms signed "Elizabeth Bridgeman" top t/p; left t/p margin signed "John Watts is a scotch man" with further occasional marginal glosses throughout; OCC; CSJ; BLH; BMA; CB; CLC; IU; MH; NP; PL; WF; Y; ASU; CN Case Y 672.v 9166.

R453. Bradshaw, Richard. "Upon the most desired return of the Kings most Sacred / Majesty at Dover. / An humble Sute, or Supplication / For King, and Law, and the whole Nation" in A Speech made before the King's most Excellent Majesty CHARLES the Second, / on the Shore where he Landed at Dover. By Mr. John Reading B. D. who presented his Majesty with a Bible, the Gift of the / Inhabitants there, May 25th 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: O Wood 398(11).

B4277. Brathwait, Richard. TO HIS / MAJESTY / UPON HIS / HAPPY ARRIVALL / In our late discomposed / ALBION. / [rule] / [royal arms] / [rule] / Sidon. / Vidi quod speravi, vidisse tamen dolui, perægrè spectando quod petii. / [rule] / By R. Brathwait Esq. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Brome, at the Gun in Ivie-lane. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. [3]-15.
Copies: LT E.1032(5), ms dated "12 July"; OH J.38(3*), ms signed "Peter Crutchfield"; OW B.B.15(37); CH 102846; MH; Y

B4397. Brett, Arthur. The Restauration. / OR, / A POEM / on the Return of the / MOST MIGHTY / and ever / Glorious PRINCE, / CHARLES the II. / TO HIS / Kingdoms. / [rule] / By ARTHUR BRETT / of Christs-Church Oxon. / [rule] / -- Deum Delph ; meos. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by J. H. for Samuel Thomson at the Bi-/ shops-head in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-25.
Copies: LT E.1027(7), ms dated "5 June"; O Tanner 774(17); OB 530.b.2(1), Nicholas Crouch's copy for which he paid 4d., an authorial presentation copy with additional prose dedication; 9 CS; MR R18763; NP; WF; CH 357156; MH.

B4849. Brome, Alexander. A / Congratulatory / POEM, / ON / The Miraculous, and Glorious Return / of that unparallel'd KING / CHARLS the II. / May 29. 1660. / [rule] / By ALEX. BROME. / [rule] / Pers. -- -- Ipse Semipaganus / Ad Sacra Regum carmen affero nostrum. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Brome at the Gun / in Ivy-Lane 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-18; sigs. [A]-[C]2v.
Copies: LT E.1027(4), ms dated "4 June"; O1 Tanner 744(15); O2 Wood 319(9), ms dated "June"; CH 113249, t/p annotated "1d"; CLC PR 2459 B48C6; MH; TU Wj/B788/660c; Y; WF Reprints: Brome, Songs and other Poems (1664, 1668), and in Dubinski, ed. 1.358-367 (l664 text).

E2988/E2988bA. Brome, Alexander. ENGLANDS JOY / For the Coming in of our Gratious Soveraign / King CHARLES the Second / [text] / London, Printed for H. Brome at the Gun in Ivy-lane. 1660.

   Format: brs. Variant printings
Copies, E2988: LT 669.f.25 (22), ms dated "14 June"; L c.20.f2(20); OC B.23(67); MC Halliwell Phillips # 2745; O Wood 416(84).
Another edition, E2988ba: for John Andrews, at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.
Copies: GU Euing 99.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook (p. 94) mentions a "2nd edition" by Andrews which, presumably, is this.
Reprint: Dubinski, 2.57-60.
Another shorter version appeared under the title: "For General Monk his Entertainment at Cloath-workers Hall. 13 Mar." in Songs and other Poems 1661; rpt. in Dubinski, 1.175-177.
Commentaries: Jose, p. 28.

B4852/B4853. Brome, Alexander. "Song. On the Kings Return" in SONGS / AND OTHER / POEMS. / [rule] / BY / ALEX. BROME, / GENT. / Dixero siquid jocosius, hoc mihi juris / Cum Venia dabis -- -- Hor. I. Sat. 4. / [rule] / [crown] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Brome, at the Gun / in Ivy-Lane. 1661.

   Format: 8to. Variant printings: contains Isaac Walton, "To my ingenious Friend
Mr. Brome, / on his various and excellent Poems: / An humble Eglog," sigs. [A6]-[A6v]; and Brome, "Song xxxix. On the Kings Return", pp. 112-13. Copies, B4852: O1 Douce B290, this copy has an engraved portrait tipped in opposite t/p: "VERA EFFIGIES A: BROME 1664" subscripted "CARMINA DESUNT"; "To the Reader" sigs. [A2v]-[A5] ends with ms: "Old Brome he was a witty knave / that's all his character can crave" [A5]; O2 Harding C 3310; O3 Harding C 536, this copy has variant K gathering not found in other copies; C Syn 7 66 102; L; CH 106634; CLC; CN; MH; TU; Y; WF.
Reprint: Dubinski, 1:173-4.
Another edition, B4853: "Song xl" in Songs (1664), p. 122, and Songs `(1668), pp. 111-112; partly reprinted with music by Matthew Locke in John Playford's Catch as Catch Can (1667).
Copies: L1; L2 G.18537, author's gift to Ralph Bathurst; CT; BN, CH, CU, MH, NC, Y; WF
Commentaries: Corser, 2.

/not Wing/. "C., J." "The Second Charles. Heire of ye Royall Martyr"

   Format: verses on a cut of Charles by William Faithorne
Copies: L -- see British Museum Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits, 1:401.
Ms version: O Bodley MS Hearne Diary 57, p. 80, dated "March 28th. Wednesday."
Reprint: Lord, POAS, 1: frontispiece.
Commentaries: Crum, T 1291a.


   Format: brs.
Copies: EN L.C.1155; OW LR 8.32(109), removed from G.5.10.

C871a. The Case is altered / OR, / Sir Reverence, The Rumps last Farewel. / To the Tune of, Robin Hood. / [cuts] / [text] / London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White-lyon neer Pye-corner.

   Format and date: brs. After the collapse of the Rump on 16 March.
Copies: L c.120.h.4(3) a "trunk ballad"
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xvii-xix.

/not Wing/. The Cavaliers Comfort; / Or, Long lookt for will come at last. / Here's good news from Sea now sent to the Shore, / And good news on Land, so what would you have more. / To the Tune of THE KING INJOYS HIS OWN AGAIN. / [two cuts] / [text] / LONDON, Printed for WILLIAM GILBERTSON dwelling in GILTSPUR-STREET.

   Format: bl brs. A reply to The Cavaliers Complaint (see below).
Copies: GU Euing 26.
Reprint: Ebsworth MDC, pp. 52-4.

C1569-71. The Cavaliers Complaint / [ruled box] / To the tune of, / I'le tell thee Dick. &c. / This is the Constant note I'le sing. / I have been Faithful to the KING, / And so, shall Live and Dye. / [text] / LONDON, Printed for N. Butter, dwelling in Cursitors Alley. 1660.

   Format: brs. Variant printings
Copies, C1570: L1 c.40.m.11(23)
Another edition, C1569: To the Tune of, I'le tell thee Dick. &c. An Echo to the Cavaliers Complaint. / [text] / LONDON, Printed, 1660.
Copies: MC Halliwell Phillips, # 2641.
Another edition, C1570A and C1571: The Cavaleers Complaint. / To the Tune of, I tell Thee DICK, &c. / [text] / LONDON, Printed for Robert Crofts at the Crown in Chancery Lane. 1661.
Copies: O Wood 416(76), in this copy the original printed date of "1661" has been emended in hand to "1660"; this is really another copy of C1571; L2 c.20.f.4(33), a Luttrell item [reported missing in April 1996]; LT 669.f.26(69), ms dated "15 March" [i.e. 1661]; MH.
Reprints: An Antidote Against Melancholy: Made up in Pills (London, 1661), pp. 49-51; Dryden, ed., Miscellany (1716) 4:352-4; Wright, Political Ballads, pp. 257-59; Wilkins, Political Ballads, 1:162; Ebsworth, MDC, pp. 52-4.

C1654. CEDRUS BRITANICA / ET / LAURUS REGIA / SIVE / REX & CORONOA / A / POETICAL HEXAMERON. / Shewing, / 1. The Invention, / 2. The Distinction, / 3. The Designation, / 4. The Necessity, / 5. The Dignity, / 6. The Perpetuity. / Of Crownes. / [design: angels hold rose and thistle] / Printed, Anno Dom. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 3-12.
Copies: WF C1654.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 94.

C1863. Chamberlayne, William. Englands Iubile: / Or, A Poem on the happy return of his / Sacred Majesty, Charls the II. / [text] / London, Printed for Robert Clavell at the Stags-head in / St. Pauls Church yard, 1660.

   Format: Qto. A-[A4v]; pp. [1]-8. no separate title page.
Copies: L c.133.dd.11; O Tanner 744(22).
Reprint: Saintsbury, Minor Poets, 1:297.
Commentaries: Corser, 2.1:

C3677. Charleton, Walter. verses in: AN IMPERFECT / POURTRAICTURE / OF HIS / SACRED MAJESTY / CHARLS the II. / BY THE GRACE OF GOD / KING / Of Great BRITAIN, FRANCE, and IRELAND, / Defender of the Faith, &c. / Written by a Loyal Subject, who most / Religiously affirms, / Se non diversas spes, sed incolumitatem / Cæsaris simpliciter spectare. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Herringman, at the Sign of the An- / chor in the Lower Walk of the New-Exchange. 1661.

   Format: Qto.
Copies: O 4to Rawl.324, vellum binding with garter arms, heavy ms annotations signed "Walter Charleton"; LT E.1084(8), ms dated "7 March"; LLP NN.196.3(2); OW; OFX; C; CT; CH; CSS; CU; LC; MIU; MMU; WF 186907.

C3768A. The chearfull Acclamation of the City of / EDINBURGH, / For the happy Return of his Sacred Majesty, / CHARLES / THE SECOND.

   Format: brs. [Edinburgh?? 1660??]
Copies: OW LR.8.32, removed from G.5.10.
Commentaries: NOT listed in Aldis.

G941. Cleaver, Theophilus. "To his worthy Friend Mr. WIL. GODMAN / Batchelour in Divinitie," in: [Hebrew] Filius Heröum, / THE SON OF NOBLES. / Set Forth / IN A SERMON / PREACHED / At St Mary's in Cambridge before / the University, on Thursday the / 24th of May, 1660 being the day of / Solemn Thanksgiving for the Deliverance / and Settlement of our Nation. / By WILL. GODMAN B. D. Fellow of the / King's Colledge in Cambridge. / Because the Lord hath loved his people, he hath made thee / King over them. 2 Chron. 2.11. / -- -- Nusquam libertas gratior extat / Quam sub Rege pio -- -- / [Greek epigraph] / [rule] / LONDON, / by J. Flesher, for W. Morden Bookseller in Cambridge. / An. Dom. M DC LX. [double-rule box].

   Format: Qto. Verses at sigs. b2-[b2v].
Copies: L 226.g.21(2); O Pamph. C110(4); C; NE; DT; CLC Pamph. coll. Misc. Sermons v.2; CN; MH; NU; Y; WF. See also Nicols below.

C5392. Collop, John. ITER / Satyricum: / IN / LOYALL / Stanzas. / [rule] / By John Collop, M. D. / [double rule] / LONDON, / Printed by T. M. for William / Shears, and are to be sold at his Shop at the Signe of / the Bible in Bedford-street neer Covent-/ Garden, 1660.

Copies: L 11609.b.6; O Firth.e.157(3), ms notes; EN reported missing by Hilberry; CN;
Reprint: Conrad Hilberry, ed., The Poems of John Collop.

/not Wing/. "Come you Poets drink a round" / [text] / Printed for F. G. The title is missing from the unique copy: first line here given as title.

   Format: bl brs
Copies: L c.120.h.4(4) a "trunk ballad" in very poor condition; probably printed for Francis Groves.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:lvii-lviii.

C5813A. A CONGRATULATION / For His Sacred Majesty, CHARLES, the third / Monarch of Great Britain, His happy Arrival / at WHITE-HALL. / By a Loyal Member of His Majesties Army. / Edinburgh, June 13. 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: EN1 Ry III c 34(3); EN2 S.302.b.2(24); OW L.R.8.32, removed from G.5.10(101).
Reprint: Laing, Fugitive Scottish Poetry (1853).
Commentaries: Aldis, #1638.

C6508A. Couch, John. His Majesties miraculous Preservation / By the Oak, Maid, and Ship. / [text] / By John Couch, M. in A. sequestred from Horsmonden in Kent.

   Format: brs.
Copies: L c.20.f.4(38).

C6559. The Countrey-mans VIVE Le ROY. / OR, / His Joyfull Exaltation for King CHARLES [10] his Restoration, / In a Dialogue between DICK a Plough-man, / and JACK a Shepherd. / With Jacks Epigram upon Englands Grand TRAYTOR. / [text] / London, Printed for J. Jones, 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: L c.20.f.2(41).


   Format: brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.27(18), ms dated "May 1661".
Reprint: Wright, Political Ballads, pp. 265-268; Ebsworth, RB, 9:xxvi.

C6619A. The Covenant. / OR, / No King but the Old King's Son, / OR, / A brief Rehearsall of what heretofore was done. / All sorts of People of it take a view, / You surely will confess that I say true; / Let none mislike the same that cannot mend it, / Neither rashly censure him that pen'd it. / To the Tune of, True Blew will never staine. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Charles Tyus11 on London-Bridge.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 43; O Firth c.20(f118), a modern transcription of this ballad, presumably by Firth.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93; sale catalogues -- Heber, IV 200 (12); Smith, Cat. 43.

C6677. Cowley, Abraham. ODE, / UPON / The Blessed Restoration / and Returne / OF / HIS SACRED MAJESTIE, / Charls the Second. / [rule] / By A. Cowley. / [rule] / Virgil. -- -- Quod optanti Divum promittere nemo / Auderet, volvenda dies, en, attulit ultro. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at his / Shop on the Lower Walk in the New Exchange. / Anno Dom. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-19.
Copies: O Pamph C110(24); OW L.R.426; C Syn.7.66.11(3); LT E.1025(l8), ms dated "31 May"; L 873.h.30; CT Y.9.108 (4); CS Ee.4.26(9); E; CLC; CH 120961; CU; MH; WF; TU1 Aj/C839/660; TU2 Wj/C839/6600; Y.

C7300-1. Crouch, John. A / Mixt Poem, / Partly Historicall, partly Panegyricall, / UPON THE / Happy Return of His Sacred MAJESTY / Charls the Second, / AND HIS / Illustrious Brothers the DUKES of / YORK and GLOCESTER. / With Honorable Reflections upon some State-mar-/ tyrs, and the Renowned Generall. / Not Forgetting the Rump and its Appurtenances. / [rule] / By J. C. Gent. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Thomas Bettertun at his shop in / Westminster-hall. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + [ii] + pp. 1-15.
Copies, C7300: L 11626.c.5, includes frontispiece portrait of Charles by A. Hertochs; C Syn. 766.11 (1); CH 49036; MH; WF; Y; CN 337666.
Another edition, C7301: A / Mixt Poem / Partly Historicall, Partly Panegyricall, / UPON THE / Happy Return of his Sacred MAJES-/ TY CHARLES the Second, &c. / AND HIS / Illustrious brothers the DUKES of YORK / and GLOCESTER. / With Reflections upon the Late RUMP, and / their Appurtenances. / Not Forgetting his Excellency the Lord / GENERAL MONCK. / [rule] / By J. C. Gent. / [rule] / London, Printed for Daniell White at the Seaven / Stars in Pauls Church-yard, 1660.
Format: Qto. t/p + A, [no A2] A3-[A4] B-[B4v]
Copies: O Malone 746(3*).
Another edition, C7291A: in variant form as "A Poem Upon the Happy Restauration" in John Crouch, Census Poeticus (H. Brugis, 1663).
Copies: C Peterborough Q.2.23.

D65. D., M. THE / SUBJECTS / DESIRE / To see our Gracious King Charles / THE SECOND, / HIS SAFE ARRIVALL. / [rule] / [text] / [rule] / LONDON: / Printed for H. B. at the Gun in Ivy-Lane, 1660. / [rule]

   Format: mixed italic and bl brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(24), ms dated "16 May."

D334. Davenant, William. POEM, / UPON HIS / SACRED MAJESTIES / MOST HAPPY / RETURN / TO HIS / DOMINIONS. / [rule] / Written by / Sr William Davenant. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at / his Shop at the signe of the Anchor on the Lower walk / in the New Exchange. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-22; sigs. [A]-[C4v].
Copies: O Tanner 744 (l4); OW L.R.4.27, removed from B.B.1.5(39); OH J.38(7); OB 910.h.13(4); L 11626.d.11; LT E. 184(2), ms dated "25 June"; CH 1016521; CLC PR 2 P 81; WF D334; TU Wh/D272/660p; MH; WF; Y.
Reprint: The Works of Sr William D'avenant Kt. (1673), pp. 256-61.

D1007A/8. Denham, John. THE / PROLOGUE / TO HIS / MAJESTY / At the first PLAY presented at the Cock-pit in / WHITEHALL, / Being part of that Noble Entertainment which Their MAIESTIES received Novemb. 19. / from his Grace the Duke of ALBERMARLE. / [text] / [rule] / LONDON, Printed for G. Bedell and T. Collins, at the Middle-Temple Gate in Fleet-street. 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: O Wood 398(16), ms "John Denham Esq; at his Maties first coming into England; By Sr Jo: Denham Kt of ye Bath"; LT 669.f.26(30), ms dated "23 November"; LG; MH.
Reprint: Banks, ed., The Poems of Sir John Denham pp. 94-95; A. N. Wiley, ed., Rare Prologues (l940), pp. 8-12.

D2244. Dryden, John. Astræa Redux. / A / POEM / On the Happy / Restoration & Return / Of His Sacred Majesty / Charles the Second. / [rule] / By John Driden. / [rule] / Iam Redit & Virgo, Redeunt Saturnia Regna. Virgil. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by J. M. for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at / his Shop, at the Blew-Anchor, in the lower Walk of the New-/ Exchange, 1660.

   Format: Qto.
Copies: O1 Pamph 111(5) 1st state; O2 Gough Loudon 2(13) 2nd state; LT E.1080(6), ms dated "19 June" 2nd state; UL Sel. 3.162 (1); OM K.11.9 bound in after p. 288, 2nd state, with light pencil marks on some borders (bound with extensively annotated copy of Absalom and Achitophel); CH 125994 2nd state; WF D2244 2nd state; LVF; BN; CN; CLC; MH; Y.
Commentaries: MacDonald, 5Ai. Advertized in Mercurius Publicus (21-28 June, 1660).

/not Wing/. Duncombe, Giles. A Counter-blast to the Phanaticks.

   Format: brs.
Copies: L c.112.h.4(29).

D2599a and B3557 [mistaken double entry]. Duncombe, Giles. Verses in: Scutum Regale, / THE / Royal Buckler; / OR, / VOX LEGIS, / A / Lecture to Traytors: / Who most wickedly murthered / CHARLES the I, / AND / Contrary to all Law and Religion banished / CHARLES THE II. / 3d MONARCH of / GREAT BRITAIN, &c. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / Salus populi, Salus Regis. / LONDON, 1660. / [enclosed within double-rule box] [printed in black and red inks].

   Format and date: 8to. Advertised in the Parliamentary Intelligencer 22 (21-28 May), p. 348.
Copies: O1 Tanner 624, has an additional cut after the t/p and before the Epistle to the Reader showing Charles about to be crowned by an angel, followed by a dedication page "To His Most Sacred Majestie"; O2 Linc 8to c.183, has the additional engraving of Charles between sigs A and B; L1 292.a.15, the plate of shepherd missing; L2 1483.aa.26; L3 G3535, ms note: "This Copy belonged to the Royal Library of Charles 2d whose cypher is on the binding. It has not only a very fine impression of the Frontispiece, but it has also a 2d Plate which precedes the "Shepherd's Complaint" at the end of the book, & is very seldom found with it. This Plate has been by some called "Charles 2d" but it is so unlike that it is not easy to believe it could be meant for his portrait"; C Adams 8.66.8; WF 140413 has the additional engraving of Charles between sigs A and B; CT; P; CH; CN; MH; Y; Exeter.

E238. Edwards, Thomas. TO / His Sacred Majesty, / CHARLES / The Second, / ON HIS / HAPPY RETURN.

   Format: F. t/p + pp. 1-2; sigs. [A-A2v].
Copies: LT E.1080(7) 1st state, ms dated "26 June"; O Gough Loudon 2(4) 2nd state (see line 21); Y.

E575. Ellis, Clement. TO THE / KING'S / Most Excellent Majesty: / ON HIS / Happie and Miraculous / RETURN / To The Government of his Three (now) flourishing / KINGDOMS. / [text: pp. 1-6] / LONDON: / Printed by James Cottrel, for Humphry Robinson, at the / three Pigeons in St. Paul's Church-yard. / M D C L X.

   Format: F.
Copies: LT E.1080(5), ms dated "11 June" with ms note: "The gift of the Author, my son George's Tutor."

E660-1. Elys, Edmund. ANGLIA REDIVIVA. / OR / The Miraculous Return of / THE BREATH OF OUR NOSTRILS. / A POEM. / [rule] / by EDMUND ELIS, Master of Arts. / [rule] / [design: crowned rose and thistle] / [rule] / Printed in the Year, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-10; sigs. [A]-[B4v].
Copies: OB 910.h.13(9), 1st uncorrected state, Nicholas Crouch's copy for which he paid 6d.; L 1347.d.50, reported mislaid, January 1996; O Pamph c.110(28) 2nd state; LLP KA446, 2nd state, with additional ms verses; MH; CLC PR 3431.E59A6.
Latin edition at E661: F. [1662].
Copies: O Ashm.F.4(41); OB 670.e.8(14), Nicholas Crouch's copy for which he paid 2d.
Commentaries: Madan, #2493, 2950; according to Madan, the Oxford publisher Henry Hall printed the English version "about June."

E2951A. Englands Captivity Returned, / WITH / A Farwel to COMMON-WEALTHS. / To the Tune of, The brave Sons of Mars.

   Format: bl brs. Partial text only; probably for Francis Grove.
Copies: O Firth b.20(f25).
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 8:787. See "When Charles King of England Safe on Shore" below.

E2955A. Englands day of Joy and Reioycing, Or, Long lookt for is come at last. / Or the true manner of proclaiming CHARLS the Second King of Eng- / land, &c. Ths Eighth day of this present May; to the ever honored praise / of Generall Monck, being for the good of his Country and the Parliament. / To the Tune of, Jockey. / [two cuts]/ [text] / London, Printed for W. Gilbertson, at the sign of the Bible in Giltspur-street.

   Format: bl brs. [largely illegible].
Copies: MH *pEBB65.

E2965. ENGLANDS Genius / PLEADING FOR / KING CHARLES / To the Right Honorable the / LORDS and COMMONS / in PARLIAMENT, &c. / And to the Lord MONCK Generall of all the forces in England, / Scotland and Ireland, &c. / [text] / London, Printed for J. Jones, 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: O Wood 416(80), ms dated "April"; LT 669.f.25(3), ms dated "30 April"; L1 c.20.f.4(69), removed from Luttrell II(69); L2 c.121.g.9(6), reported missing 1995.
Commentaries: Frank, #776.

E2972. Englands / Gratulation / on / the Landing of Charles the / Second, by the grace of God, King of England, / Scotland, France, and Ireland at Dover, and / his advance from thence to the City of Lon- / don, May the 29. being His Birth Day. / [space] / Attended with all the ancient Nobility and Gentry / of this nation, and a great part of the army commanded / by his Excellence the Lord Generall MONK, His / magnificant entertainment in the City of Lon- / don by the Right Honourable the Lord / Mayor and his Brethren, and the great / preparation for his Coronation, / which wil be more ful of State / and tryumph then ever King / of England had before. / [design -- winged skull with motto "Spes Daddibit{?} Alas"] / [text] / London, Printed for William Gilbertson.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-6; sigs. [A]-[A4v].
Copies: MH *p EC65.A100 660e2.

E2974A. England's Great Prognosticator, / Foretelling when England shall enjoy a settled peace and happinesse again, / Not by Planets, Signes, nor by Stars, But truly tells when ends these bloody wars. / To the Tune of, When the King injoyes his own again. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Francis Grove on Snow-/ hill, without Newgate. / Entred according to Order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 96.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93.

E2988aA. Englands Joy in a Lawful Triumph. / Bold Phanaticks now make room / CHARLS the Second's coming home. / As it was voted in the House on May-day last 1660. / To the Tune of, Packingtons Pound. / [text] / London, Printed for F.G. on Snow-hill. Entred / According to Order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 98.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xxvii-xxix.

E3017A. Englands pleasant May-Flower / OR, / Charles the second, as we say, / Came home the twenty ninth of May. / Let Loyal hearts rejoyce and sing / For joy they have got a Gracious KING. / The tune is, Upon Saint Davids day. / [cut] / [text] / Printed for W. Gilbertson.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 100.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xxx-xxxi; dates it 29 May.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 95.

E3022A. Englands rejoycing at that happy day / That peace and truth it may bear sway, / Being th'Election of that thing, / In chusing us a Royal King, / To the Tune of, Gallant Souldiers do not muse. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for F. G. on Snowhill / Entred according to Order.

   Format: bl brs. Woodcuts similar to those on Gallant News, and The Loyal Subjects Exultation.
Copies: GU Euing 95.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 95.

E3870. AN EXIT / TO THE / EXIT TYRANNUS: / OR, / Upon Erasing that Ignominious and Scandalous Motto, which / was set over the place where KINGS CHARLES / the First Statue stood, in the Royall Exchange, / LONDON. / To the Tune of I made a Voyage into France, &c. / [rule] / [text]

   Format: brs.
Copies: O Wood 416(61), ms dated "March 1659"; OW L.R.8.32, removed from G.5.10(58); L1 c.20.f.4.(249); L2 82.l.8(44); L3 c.40.m.9(68); LT 669.f.24(18), ms dated " March"; MH.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:663-64.

F110. Fairebrother, William. AN / ESSAY / OF A / LOYAL BREST; / In four Copies of Verses, viz. / I. To His Majesty, CHARLES the 2nd. / II. To His two Houses of PARLIAMENT. / III. To His General, the Lord MONCK. / IV. To that His good Angel, Madam JANE LANE. / [rule] / By WILLIAM FAIREBROTHER, of Kings / Colledge in Cambridge. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by JOHN FIELD, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-12; sigs. [A]-[B2v].
Copies: L; O Wood 319(11), ms dated "June: 1660"; CT Y.9.108 (5); MH; Y; NYPL.

F1149. Flatman, Thomas. A / PANEGYRICK / To His Renowed MAJESTIE, / Charles the Second, / King of Great Britaine, &c. / [text] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for HENRY MARSH at the Princes Arms in / Chancery Lane near Fleetstreet, MDCLX.

   Format: brs.
Copies: O1 Wood 416(83), ms dated "May"; O2 Firth b.20(26); LT 669.f.25(51), ms dated "30 June"; MH; WF; Y.

F1225. Flecknoe, Richard. "The Pourtrait of His Majesty" in HEROICK / PORTRAITS / With other / Miscellary [sic] Pieces, / Made, and Dedicate to His / MAJESTY. / By Rich. Flecknoe. / [rule] / Principibus placuisse viris non ultima laus est, Hor. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by Ralph Wood for the / Author. 1660.

   Format: 8to. "The Portrait of His Majesty" appears at sigs B-B4.
Copies: L Huth 99; O Mal 479; LIU; CLC PR3461 F4H5; CH 121692; WF 233175; BN, IU, MH
Reprint: in A / COLLECTION / Of the choicest / EPIGRAMS / AND / CHARACTERS / OF / Richard Flecknoe. / Being rather a New Work, / then a New Impression / of the Old / [rule] / [design] / Printed for the Author. 1673., sigs. A3-A4v.
Copies: L 11623.aa.12; C Hib 8.673.4; CH; CLC; CN; MH; TU; WF.
Commentary: Corser, 3.2: 36 2-

F1261. Fleming, Giles. Verses in: STEMMA SACRUM, / The / Royal Progeny / Delineated, and with some / Notes explained, Shewing His / SACRED MAJESTIES / Royal and Lawful Descent to / His Crown and Kingdoms, from all / the Kings that ever reigned in this / NATION. / [rule] / By Giles Fleming, Rector of Wadding-/ worth, in the Diocess and County of / LINCOLN. / [rule] / Blessed art thou O Land, when thy King is the Son of / the Nobles, Eccles. 10. 7. / And the remnant that is escaped of the house of Ju- / dah, shall yet again take root downward, and / bear fruit upward, 2 Kings 19. 30. / [rule] / London, Printed for Robert Gibbs, at the golden / Ball in Chancery-lane. 1660. / [ruled boxed]

Copies: LT E.1914(1), ms dated "July"; O1 Ashm 916; O2 Pamph. E.109(15), missing genealogical table but has additional portrait; C; MR 16971, genealogical table missing; ES; CH 123829; CU; MH; NU; WF F1261; Y.
Reprint: His Majesty's Pedigree (1664). This is not so much a reprint as the original work with a cancel titlepage -- "Printed for Tho. Rooks at the Lamb and Inkbottle at the East end of S. Pauls near S. Austins gate, 1664" -- and a final leaf listing works printed by Rooks. The colophon has been erased from the genealogical table.
Copies: O Bliss B.283, contains portrait of Charles II by William Faithorne.

F1549/F1550. Forde, Thomas. "Upon His Sacred Majesty" in: Virtus Rediviva / A Panegyrick / On our late / King CHARLES the I. &c / of ever blessed Memory. / ATTENDED, / With severall other Pieces from the / same PEN. / Viz.[bracketing I-IV] / I. A Theatre of Wits: Being a Col-/ lection of APOTHEGMS. / II. Foenestra in Pectore: or a Century of / Familiar LETTERS. / III. Loves Labyrinth: a Tragi-comedy. / IV. Fragmenta Poetica: Or Poeticall / Diversions. / Concluding, with / A PANEGYRICK on His / Sacred Majesties most happy / Return. / [rule] / by T. F. / [rule] / Varietas delectat. / [rule] / Printed by R. & W. Leybourn, for William Gran- / tham, at the Sign of the Black Bear in St. Pauls / Church-yard neer the little North door; / and Thomas Basset, in St. Dunstans Church-/ yard / in Fleet-street. 1660. / [ruled box]

   Format: 8to. Verses in Fragmenta Poetica at pp. 21-4; sigs C3-[C4v].
Copies: LT E.1806, ms dated "Octob"; O Harding D1088, with new cancel t/p dated 1661; L 1080.g.6, with new cancel t/p dated 1661; OW F1550, with new cancel t/p dated 1661, signed "W. Gower"; EN; CH1 151598; CH2 26553; CLC; CN; LC; MH; WF 138401, contains additional frontispiece portrait of Charles I.
Reissue, F1550: A / THEATRE / OF / WITS, / Ancient and Modern/ etc. 1661.
Copies: CH; CU; MH; WCL; WF; Y; AUP; O1 Douce F.303; O2 Harding E.245(2); O3 Harding D.1088(2).
Ms version: O Eng. poet e.4(167), ms dated "1672," first twenty lines only.

F2452. Fuller, Thomas. A / PANEGYRICK / TO HIS / MAJESTY, / ON HIS / Happy Return. / [rule] / By Tho. Fuller B. D. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for John Playford at his Shop in the / Temple, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-11.
Copies: L 11626.d.17, 1st state; O Malone 746(1), 2nd state; OW L.R.4.34, removed from B.B.1.5(41), 2nd state; C; MR R147668; LLU; GK; CH 51710; MH; NP; WF F2452, 2nd state.
Reprint: see the entry on Worcestershire in The History of the Worthies of England (1662), pp. 182-84; Alexander B. Grosart, The Poems and Translations in Verse ... of Thomas Fuller (Edinburgh: Crawford and McCabe, 1868), pp. 91-105.
Commentary: John Eglinton Bailey, Life of Thomas Fuller (1874)

G172B. Gallant News of late I bring, / Tidings of chusing now a King, / Whereby true Subjects may rejoice / In chusing them so sweet a choyce / That love and peace may so agree, / To end the days of misery, / To the Tune of, Royal News, Royal News. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Francis Grove on Snow-hill. Entered according to Order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 130.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, pp. 94-5; Ebsworth RB, 9:12.

G852. A Glimpse of Joy for the happy Restoring of the Kings most Excellent Majesty: / OR, / The Devoirs of a nameless Poet. / To the Generall's Excellence, and to all the Noble Sparks of Great Brittain's / Heroarchy, that have hopes to survive their Countreys Sufferings. / [cut: portrait] / [text] / London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.

   Format: brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(53), ms dated "30 June."

G883. The Glory of these Nations. / Or, King and Peoples happinesse, being a brief Relation of King / Charles's Royall progresse from Dover to London, how the Lord Generall and / the Lord Mayor with all the nobility and Gentrey of the Land, brought him tho-/ row the Famous City of London to his Pallace at Westminster the 29. of May last, be-/ ing his Majesties birth-day, to the great comfort of his Loyall Subjects. / The Tune is, When the King enjoys his own again. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Charles Tyus on London Bridge.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: L c.120.h.4.(5), a "trunk" ballad.
Reprint: Wright, Political Ballads, pp. 223-228; Ebsworth, RB, 9:xxxvii-xxxix.

G1482. GRAMPIUS / CONGRATULATION / In plain / SCOTS LANGUAGE / TO HIS / MAJESTIES / Thrise Happy Return. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / Printed Anno Dom. 1660. / [ornamental double-ruled box]

   Format: brs.
Copies: E JA 2069/16; OW BB.1.5(35); Y.
Reprint: Laing, Various Pieces (1823), np.

/not Wing/. [Grove, Francis -- printer], "When Charles King of England Safe on Shore"

   Format: brs.
Copies: O Firth b.20(25). This item is 8 stanzas of a ballad under the generic heading, "The second part, to the same Tune." It is printed on the verso of "England's Captivity Returned" (see above). This title follows the catch-phrase of the chorus.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:788.

H1386A??. H., C. Hells Master-piece discovered: / Or Joy and Sorrow mixt together. / Being a breife and true Relation of the Damnable Plot, of those / invetrate Enemies of God, and the King; who intended to a mixt / our Joy for the Nativitie of Christ, with the blood of the King, / and his faithfull Subjects. /Being a fit Carrall for Royallist to sing, / That alwaies fear God, and honour the King. / To the Tune of, Sommer Time. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Francis Grove dwelling on Snowhill.

   Format: brs.
Copies: GU Euing 138.

H136A. H., T. Iter Boreale, the Second Part. See: The Noble Progresse.

H495. Hammond, Charles. Verses in: Londons Triumphant Holiday. / Printed for Francis Grove, 1660.

   Format: Qto.
Copies: O Gough Loudon 282(14); CT.

H500. Hammond, Charles. Verses in: The Worlds Timely Warning-piece / [design] / [verses] / Licens ed, and entred according to order. / [rule] / London, Printed for Fr. Grove near the Sarazen's / Head on Snow-hill. 1660.

   Format: Qto. [A reissue of a 1651 tract with new titlepage??]
Copies: CH R197008; L Cup.408.d.8(4).

H1958. Higgons, Thomas. A / PANEGYRICK / TO THE / KING. / By His Majesties most humble, / most Loyal, and most Obedient / Subject and Servant, / THOMAS HIGGONS. / Virg. Æn. Lib. 2. / Quæ Tantæ tenuere moræ? queis CAROLE ab oris / Expectate venis? ut te, post multa tuorum / Funera, post varios hominumque urbisque labores / Defessi aspicimus! / [text pp. 1-11] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Herringman, at the signe of / the Anchor in the Lower Walk of the / New-Exchange. 1660.

   Format: F. t/p + pp 1-11; sigs, A, B, C [D].
Copies: O1 Gough Loudon 2(5); O2 Pamph. A111(6); LT E.1080(4), ms dated " June"; C SEL.81; CLC PR 3515.H15P1;CH 133288; MH; Y; TU; WF 156740.

H2086+. HIS / MAJESTIES / WELCOME / In an honest blunt Ballad. / [rule] / To the Tune of Cook-Lorrell. / [text] / LONDON: Printed for Henry Marsh12

   Format: brs.
Copies: OW LR.8.32, removed from G.5.10(104).

H2444-A. Holland, Samuel. To the best of MONARCHS / HIS / MAIESTY / OF GREAT BRITTAIN, &c. / CHARLES / THE SECOND, / A GRATULATORY POEM / On the most happy Arrival of his most Excellent Majestie Charles the second, by the Grace of God, KING of England, Scot-/ land, France, and Ireland, who landed at Dover Friday, May the 25. to the most unspeakable joy of his SUBJECTS / [text] / Entred according to Order, and Printed by S. Griffin for Matthew Wallbancke, 1660.

   Format: brs. Variant printings.
Copies, H2444: LT 669.f.25(42), ms dated "14 June."
Another edition, H244A: "EDINBURGH, Re-printed by Christopher Higgins, in Harts Close, over against the Trone Church, 1660."
Copies: EN S.302.b.2(127).
Commentaries: Aldis, #1645.7.

H3003. Howard, Robert, "A Panegyrick to the King," in POEMS, / viz. / 1. A PANEGYRICK to the KING. / 2. SONGS and SONNETS. / 3. The BLIND LADY, a COMEDY. / 4. The Fourth Book of VIRGIL, / 5. STATIUS his ACHILLEIS, / with ANNOTATIONS. / 6. A PANEGYRICK to GENERALL / MONCK / [rule] / By the Honorable / Sr ROBERT HOWARD. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at his / shop at the sign of the Anchor on the lower Walk / of the New Exchange. 1660.

   Format: 8to. Verses appear pp. 1-9, sigs. B-B5.
Copies: LT E.1824.(2), ms dated "June"; O missing since 1962; C; CT Munby d.11; LVD, CT; Fellows' Library, Winchester School; CH; CLC; CN; LC; MH; NC; TU; WC; WF; Y.
Reprint, H3004: Howard, Poems (1696).
Copies: CLC PR 3517 H3A17; L; LIU; MH; NP; TU; WF.

H3087-8-9. Howell, James. "Grebner's Prophecy" from Lexicon Tetraglotton, / AN / English-French-Italian-Spanish / DICTIONARY: / WHEREUNTO IS ADJOINED / A large NOMENCALTURE of the proper Terms / (in all the four) belonging to several Arts and Sciences, to Recreations, to / Professions both Liberal and Mechanick, &c. / Divided into Fiftie two SECTIONS; / [rule] / With another Volume of the Choicest / PROVERBS / [etc.] / LONDON, Printed by J. G. for Samuel Thomson at the Bishops head / in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1660.

   Format: F. Variant printings.
Copies, H3087: O Douce H.432.
Another edition, H3088:
Copies: WF.
Another edition, H3089: LONDON, Printed by J. G. for Cornelius Bee, at the Kings Armes in Little Brittaine.
Copies: L 71.f.4.

H3354. Huish, Alexander. Two English poems in Musa Ruralis. / [rule] / In Adventum / Augustissimi Principis & Monarch, / CAROLIII, / D. G. Mag. Britannia, Franciæ, & Hiberniæ / Regis Sereniss. Fidei Defensoris, &c. / Vota, Suspiria, Gaudia; & rursum Vota. / [rule] / Quæ suo, aliorumque Rectorum, non Rectorum, / Ruralium nomine, effudit / ALEX. HUISSUS, S. T. B. / Rector, non Rector, Ecclesiarum de Beckington, / & Hornblawton, in agro Somersetensi. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDINI, / Excudebat Thomas Milbourn, M DC LX. [double-rule box]

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. [i] 1-17; sigs. [A-A3v], B-[B4] + C-[C4]
Copies: LT E.765(12), ms dated "10 May"; LLP NN 196.3(1); OB 670.b.4(11), Nicholas Crouch's copy for which he paid 4d.; Y.
Commentaries: Erskine-Hill, Augustan Idea, pp. 208-12.

H3886. Ingelo, Nathan. "A Song of Thanksgiving," a printed translation of the separately printed Latin verses, Hymnus Eucharisticus.

   Format: brs.
Copies: O1 Wood 416(87), ms annotations; O2 Smith newsbook a.3(15), ms annotations.
Latin edition:
Copies: O3 Wood 398(13) Latin version, ms annotations identify Ingelo as the author and translator; the music was by Benjamin Rogers of Windsor.

I1090. Iter Australe / Attempting something upon the happy / Return of our most Gracious So-/ veraign Lord, / CHARLS II. / FROM / BANISHMENT / TO HIS / THRONE. / [rule] / By a Loyal Pen. / [rule] / -- -Virum non arma Cano. / [rule] / LONON,13 / Printed by Tho. Leach, in the Year, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 3-18; sigs. [A]-[C2v].
Copies: O1 Firth e.157(2), 1st state; O2 Tanner 744(18), 2nd corrected state; L 1066.f.32, 2nd corrected state; WF 187583, 2nd corrected state; MH; Y; EN [not found]
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 94.

J29b. Joy, Thomas. A Loyal Subjects Admonition, or, a true Song of / Brittains Civil Wars. / [text] / Composed by loyal T. J. / FINIS. / London, Printed for F. Grove on Snow-hill.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 160.

J730. Jevon, Rachel. Exultationis Carmen / TO THE / KINGS / MOST EXCELLENT / MAJESTY / UPON HIS MOST / Desired Return. / [rule] / By Rachel Jevon, Presented with her own Hand, Aug. 16th. / [rule] / CAROLUS En rediit, redeunt Saturnia regna. / [rule] / [design: royal arms] / [rule] / London, Printed by John Macock, 1660. / [ruled box]

   Format: F.
Copies: LT E.1080(11), ms dated "16 August"; O Gough Loudon 2(6); LL; CS; CH 125996; MH; WF; Y.
Commentaries: for Jevon, see CSPD, and Hobby, Virtue of Necessity, pp. 18-19.

J945. Jones, Henry. The Royal Patient Traveller, / OR, / The wonderful Escapes of His Sacred Majesty King CHARLES the Se-/ cond from Worcester-Fight; And his maiing a Hollow Oke his Roy-/ all Pallace. The going in a Livery Cloak with Mis. Lane. And the / Discourse between the Kings Majesty, and the Cook-maid im-/ ploying the King to wind up the Jack; but being not / used to do it, did wind it up the wrong way. / To the tune of, Chivy Chase, Or, God prosper long our Noble King. / [cuts] / [text] / By Henry Jones of Oxford: Printed for the Authour.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: O Wood 401(171/172), ms dated "1660."
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:638-41; and Broadley, Royal Miracle, pp. 91-97.

K547. THE / King Advancing, / OR GREAT BRITTAINS / Royal Standard, / WITH / His Majesties Gracious Speech to His Loyal Subjects; / And the Investing Him in His Royal Throne, / Crown and Dignities. / [cut: royal arms surmounted with C R] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Charles Prince, in the year, 1660./ [ruled box]

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. [1]-7; sigs. [A]-[A4v]; mispaginated "2, 3, 4, 4, 6, 7". Latin with English translation.
Copies: O G.Pamph 1119(4); LT E.1017(28), ms dated "21 March"; OW Huth copy from Fairfax collection; MH; AVP.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93.

K553. King Charles his Glory and Rebells Shame / "To a Pleasant New Tune: Or, The Crost Couple"

   Format: bl brs. This is a variant title of The Traytors Downfall.
Copies: L c.20.f.4.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:661-2.

L87. L., W. GOOD / NEWES / From the / NETHERLANDS, / OR / A Congratulatory Panegyrick, composed by a true Lover of his King, / and Country. / [text] / W. L. / [ruled box]

   Format: brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(35), ms dated 31 May.

L168A. LÆTITIÆ CALEDONICÆ, / OR, / SCOTLANDS Raptures, / Upon the thrise happy Return of Her / Sacred Soveraign CHARLES / the Second, Monarch of Great / Britain, &c. / [text]

   Format: brs.
Copies: EN Ry.III.c.34(2).
Reprint: Laing, Fugitive Scottish Poetry (1853), np.
Commentaries: Aldis, #1646.3.

L714. Lawson, John. UPON THE BLESSED RETVRN OF OUR / Gracious Sovereign / KING CHARLES / The Second. / Presented to his sacred Majesty / by a Person of Honour the next day. / [rule] / [text] / [rule] / LONDON, Printed by Thomas Ratcliffe, 1660.

   Format: brs. Printed in triple columns.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(39), ms dated "6 June"; MH *pEB65.L4456.660u.

L2628-A. Lluellyn, Martin. TO THE / KINGS / MOST EXCELLENT / MAJESTY. / [text: pp. 3-8] / TO HIS HIGHNESSE / THE / DUKE / OF / YORKE. / [text: pp. 9-10] / TO HIS HIGHNESSE / THE / DUKE / OF / GLOCESTER. / [text: p. 11-12]

   Format: F. t/p + pp. 3-12; sigs. [A-Cv].
Copies, L2628: O Gough Loudon 2(8), 1st uncorrected state without colophon; LT E.1080(1) ,ms dated "24 May," 2nd state, without colophon; EtonC; LU; CH1 125998; CH2 33289; CU; MH; TU; WF 156719, colophon present.
Another edition, L2628A: TO THE / KINGS / MOST EXCELLENT / MAJESTY. / [text] / LONDON, / Printed for J. Martin, Ja. Allestry, T. Dicas, and are to be sold / at the Bell in St. Pauls Church-yard, 1660.
Format: Large-paper folio, t/p + pp. 3-12; sigs [A-A2] B-[B2] C-[C2].
Copies: OB 670.e.8(9), Nicholas Crouch paid 3d., some ms underlining; 1st state of this edition; see lines 45-46;OW LR.8.32, removed from G.5.10(105), colophon present, severely trimmed; L 1505/311, 2nd state; Y.

L2889A. London and England Triumphant: / At the proclaiming of King Charls the Second, by / both the Houses of Parliament, the Judges of the Land: / with the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, and Council of the / City, as it was performed with great Solemnity, and loud Acclama-/ tions of joy by the people in general. May the 8th. 1660. / To the Tune of, I am a Jovial Batchelor. / [text] / London, Printed for F. Grove on Snow hill. Entered according to Order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 167.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 94.

R781. Lower, William. "An Acrostick Poem. / In honour of his Majesty" in: A / RELATION / IN FORM of JOURNAL, / OF THE / VOIAGE And RESIDENCE / Which / The most EXCELLENT and most MIGHTY PRINCE / CHARLS THE II / KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, &C. / Hath made in Holland, from the 25 of May, / to the 2 of June, 1660. / Rendered into English out of the Original French, / By / Sir WILLIAM LOWER, Knight. / [garter arms] / HAGUE, / Printed by ADRIAN VLACK, / Anno M. DC. LX. / With Priviledge of the Estates of Holland and West-Freesland.

   Format: F. Verses, p. 115.
Copies: L1 1565.69(2) Dutch language version; L2 808 m.5; C R.7.5(1); OB 1080.d.37; MR 13057; SU; EN C.18.a.11; DT; OAS; LIU; Y; CH; CLC; MHL; NS; WF R781.

M1446. Mayhew, Thomas. Upon the Joyfull and Welcome / RETURN / OF HIS SACRED MAJESTIE, / Charls the Second, / OF / England, Scotland, France and Ireland / KING, / Defender of the Faith, &c. / To his due and indubitate Right of Govern- / ment, over these His Majestie's Kingdoms / and Dominions. / A PANEGYRICK. / [rule] / Flebile Principium melior Fortuna sequunta14 By THO. MAYHEW, Gent. / [rule] / London, Printed for Abel Roper, at the Sun in Fleet-street / over against St. Dunstans Church. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-13; sigs. [A]-[B4v].
Copies: O1 Tanner 744(16), ms corrections; O2 Pamph. c.109(1); OH J.38(9); OB 910.f.13(11), Nicholas Crouch's copy bought for 2d.; LT E.1025(14), ms dated "29 May"; MR1 W/M1446; MR2 R13075, ms signed "Charles Harris"; EN LC 3338(l9); CH 146818; WF 184043, ms dated "29 May"; IU; MH; TU; WF; Y.

M151-M153. McKenzie, Sir George. "A POEM, by the same Author, / upon His Majesties happy Return" in: ARETINA; / Or, The Serious / ROMANCE. / [rule] / Written originally in English. / [rule] / Part First. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / EDINBURGH, / Printed for Robert Broun, at the / sign of the Sun, on the North-/ side of the Street, 1660. / [ornamental box].

   Format: 8to. Verses, pp. 12-13.
Copies, M151: L c.57.aa.28; EN; Washington.
Commentaries: Aldis, #1623.
Date: The volume contains verses on the death of Henry, Duke of Gloucester, so after September.
Another edition, M152: ARETINA; / Or, The Serious / ROMANCE [rule] / Written origially in English / [rule] / Part First. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] LONDON: / Printed for Ralph Smith, and are to be / sold at the BIBLE in Corn-hill, / near the Royall Exchange, / Anno Dom. 1661. [ormamental box].
Format: 8to.
Copies: O Ferguson 121; EN; WF 135248.
Another edition, M153: for George S[awbridge, 1661]
Format: 8to.
Copies: Y.

G941. Nicols, Daniel. "To his Majestie's loyall subject and my dearly-beloved Friend," See Theophilus Cleaver, above.

N1214. The Noble Progresse; / Or, A true Relation of the Lord Generall Monks / Politicall Proceedings with the Rump, the calling in the Secluded Members, / their transcendent Vote for his Sacred Majesty, with his Reception at / Dover, and Royall conduct through the City of London, / to his famous Palace at White-hall. / The tune is, when first the Scottish warrs began. / [cut] / [text] / Printed for F. Coles, T. Vere and W. Gilbertson.

   Format: bl brs. Variant printings.
Copies: L c.120.h.4(2), a "trunk ballad."
Reprint: Wilkins, Political Ballads, 1:153-58.
Another edition, H136A: Iter Boreale, the Second part, \ RELATING \ The Progress of the Lord General Monk, \ Calling in the Secluded Members, their Voting King \ CHALRS the Second home, his Joyfull reception at Dover. \ and his Glorious Conduct through London, to His Royal Palace at White Hall. \ By T. H. a Person of Quality \ To the Tune of When first the Scottish Wars began. \ [text] \ LONDON Printed for Henry Brome, at the Gun in Ivy-Lane 1660.
Format: bl brs.
Copies: L c.40.m.11(16); MH.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:670-71.
Commentaries: see also "T. H." The Cavaliers Thanksgiving (1661) at LT E.1087(4). Without evidence, Ebsworth suggests "T. H." might be Thomas Houghton or Handford, RB 7:671.

0840. Oxenden, Henry. Non est mortale quod opto. / 1647.15 / CHARLS / TRIUMPHANT, / &c. / [rule] / This is that CHARLS, who did from CHARLS proceed; / Who shall in Greatness CHARLS the Great exceed. / [rule] / CAROLUS e CAROLO descendens, / erit CAROLO magno major. / [rule] / [design: laurel crown] / [rule] / LONDON, Printed in the year, MDCLX.

   Format: 8to.
Copies: O Bliss A.199; CH 55905; IU; WF.

O863. Oxford, University of. BRITANNIA / REDIVIVA. / [rule] / [University Arms] / [rule] / OXONIÆ, / Excudebat A. & L. Lichfield, / Acad. Typogr. M. DC. LX.

   Format: Qto. t/p + [foreign language poems] + Aa-[Ff4v]
Copies: LT E.1030(16), ms dated "7 July," correctly gathered; L 161.b 55; O1 4.M.16(1) Art. BS, misgathered at sig. Cc; O2 Pamph. c.112(13), correctly gathered; OM Magd. a.6.7, misgathered at sig. Cc; OH J.38(11), misgathered at sig. Cc, additional parentheses at sig. Ff4v; C; CT III.9.81 (3); EN H.38.a.22; E Df.7.5; CLC; CN; LC; MH; TU; WF 143558, correctly gathered sig. Cc, but no parentheses at sig. Ff4v; Y.
Commentaries: Madan, #2466.

P56. P., J. The Loyal Subjects hearty Wishes / To King CHARLES the Second. / [text] / London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: L c.120.h.4(1), a "trunk ballad."
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xl-xliii.
Commentaries: reproduced in Weber, Paper Bullets, p. 55.

P193. A pair of Prodigals Returned: / OR, / ENGLAND and SCOTLAND agreed. / In a Conference between an Englishman and a Scot, concerning the Restauration of / CHARLES II. to his Crown and Kingdomes. / To the Tune of Cook-Laurel. / [text] / In the Year. 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: L c.20.f.4(157); LT 669.f.25(52), ms dated "30 June"; LG; OW LR.8.32(110), removed from G.5.10, poorly trimmed along right margin.

P441. Parker, Martin. The KING enjoys His own again. / To be joyfully Sung with its own proper sweet Tune.

   Format: brs. Variant printings.
Copies: L1 1876.f.3, in roman type.
Another edition: L2 Rox.III.256, in bl.
Ms version: EN ADV l9.3.4 (29).
Reprint: Ebsworth RB, 7:682-84, based on L2.

P1042. Pecke, Thomas. TO / The Most High and Mighty MONARCH, / Charles the II. / By the Grace of GOD, / King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, / Defender of the Faith: / THOMAS PECKE of the Inner Temple, Esq; / Wisheth an Affluence of both Temporal and / Eternal FELICITY; / And most humbly Devoteth this / Heroick Poem, / In Honour of His Majesties Establishment / in the Throne of His Ancestours. / [rule] / LONDON: / Printed by James Cottrel. MDCLX.

   Format: Qto. t/p.+ 1-14; sigs. A2-[B4v]. Two states evident, see lines 289-90 (p. 12, lines 9-10).
Copies: L 1077.h.68, 1st state; OW L.5.9, 1st state; O Vet A3 e.1767, 2nd state; Sheffield U; CH 16897.

P1676A. Pestell, William. A Congratulation / TO HIS / SACRED MAJESTY, / UPON HIS / Safe Arrival and happy Restauration / TO HIS / Three Kingdoms, / MAY 29th, being his Birth-Day, / and our Year of JUBILE, 1660. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed in the Year 1661.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 3-7.
Copies: O Wood 319(12); CH; WF P1676A.

T1115. "Philobasileus." THREE / Royal POEMS / UPON THE / Return of Charles the II. / KING / OF / ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, / France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith. / [rule] / The Most Illustrious / Prince James Duke of York. / [rule] / The Illustrious / Henry Duke of Glocester. / [rue] / [design: garter arms] / [rule] / LONDON: / Printed by Edward Cole, Printer and Book-seller, at the Sign of the / Printing-press in Cornhil, neer the Royal Exchange. 1660. / [ruled box]

   Format: F.
Copies: LT E.1080(9), ms dated "4 August"; TU.

P2976. Pordage, Samuel. "A Panegyrick On his Majesties Entrance" in: POEMS / UPON / SEVERAL / OCCASIONS. / [rule] / By S. P. Gent. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON, Printed by W. G. for Henry Marsh / at the Princes Arms in Chancery-lane, / and Peter Dring at the Sun in the / Poultrey neer the Counter, / 1660.

   Format: 8to.
Copies: O1 Mal 413; O2 Mal 259(3); L 1076.g.16(2); LG; LIU; CH 147340; CLC PR 3639.P25P7; CN; CU; MH; PU; Y; WF 222587, ms signed "Hen. Williams."

R2146. "Possibilis, Facidius." A ROYAL PROPHECY, / Written long since concerning the / KINGS RESTAURATION / To his Crown in 1660. / [text] / London, Printed for H. B. at the Gun in Ivy-Lane. By Facidius Possibilis. /

   Format: brs with partial blackletter.
Copies: L1 c.20.f.4(37);L2 c.20.f.2(39)

P3389A-3390A. Price, Laurence. Win at first, lose at last; or, a New Game at Cards; / Wherein the King recovered his Crown and Traitors lost their heads. / To the Tune of, Yee Gallants that delight to play. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Fran. Grove on Snow-hill. Entred according to Order.

   Format: brs. Variant printings.
Copies, P3389A: O1 Wood 401(149/150); O2 Wood 402(70/71) [catalogued as "c. 1645"]. Another edition, /not Wing/: roman type, single cut, no date, colophon reads: "Licens'd according to Order. Printed by and for C. Brown, and T. Norris, and sold by J. Walter, in Holborn High."
Copies: O3 Firth b.20(24), catalogued as "c. 1660" but none of the stationers named were active until well after 1660; see Morrison, Index.
Another edition, P3390: "For Fra. Coles, Tho. Vere, Io. Wright and Io. Clarke 1680," bl brs. with three cuts
Copies: L Rox.II.522; O; MH.
Another edition, P3390A: "for I. Wright, I. Clark, W. Thackerey and T. Passinger" [c. 1681-84].
Copies: Pepys Library, CM.
Another edition, /not Wing/: A Knave at the Bottom, The Dealer's Sure of a Trump. London: Printed by J. Ranger, in the Strand. [n.d.].
Copies: O Firth b.20(23), with tune in musical notation at top under title. Ms versions: O1 MS Rawl. D.383(113), catalogued as "c.1712"; O2 Top. Oxon.c.108.f83.
Reprint: Wilkins, Political Ballads, 1:144-49.

P4148. A / PSALME / SUNG / By the PEOPLE, before the / BONE-FIRES, / Made in and about the City of / LONDON, / On the 11th of February. / [rule] / To the Tune of Up tayles all. / [text] / THE RUMP END.

   Format: brs.
Copies: O Wood 416(40), ms dated "1659"; LT 669.f.23(43), ms dated "11 Feb"; CH microfilm copy of LT.

R89B. R., T. The Royall Subjects Warning piece to all Traytors / You Traytors all both great and small, I wish you to beware. / In time reprent, and be content, for you must all to Hide-Park Fair. / There is Hemp'n toyes for you brave boys, which murdered Charles the first, / The Hangmen he your guide must be, for thither go you must. / To a pleasant new Tune, Come back my own sweet Duck. / [cut] / [text] / FINIS T. R.

   Format: brs.
Copies: GU Euing 310.

R881. A Relation of the ten grand infamous * Traytors / who for their horrid Murder and detestable Villany against our / late Soveraigne16 Lord King CHARLES the first, that ever / blessed Martyr, were Arraigned, Tryed, and Executed / in the Moneth of October, 1660. Which in / perpetuity will be had in remembrance / unto17 the worlds end. / The tune is, Come let us Drinke the time invites. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Fr. Coles, T. Vere, M. Wright, and W. Gilbertson.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: L c.120.h.4.(6), a "trunk ballad."
Reprint: Wright, Political Ballads; Ebsworth, RB, 9:xlix-l.

R1374. Richards, Nathanael. [cut: royal arms] / UPON THE / DECLARATION / OF HIS MAJESTY / KING CHARLES / Of ENGLAND the Second. / [text] / London, Printed for J. G. 1660. [left & right margins: long pointed towers]

   Format: brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(28), ms dated "18 May"; MH *pEB65.R3954660u, severly trimmed with loss of ornamental borders; CH 189.95, microfilm of LT copy.

R87A and R1650D. Robins, Thomas. The Loyall Subjects Joy, / OR, / Joyfull news to all that faithfull be, / And doth desire a happy year to see, / To see the same let all good Christians pray / That Charles in peace, may Crown and Scepter sway, / Then should we see such love in fair England, / No forreign Nation durst against us stand. / The Tune is, Sound a charge. / [cuts] / [text] / London, Printed for Charles Tyus on / London-Bridge.

   Format: bl brs. Variant title.
Copies: L Rox.III.160a; GU Euing 309, gives title as "Royall Subjects Joy."

[R2127A]. The Royall Entertainment, / Presented by the Loyalty of the City, to the Royalty of their Soveraign, on Thursday the fourth of July / 1660. When the City of London invited his Majesty, the Duke of York, the Duke of Gloucester, and / their Royall Retinue, to a Feast in the Guild-hall, London, to which the King was conducted by the / chiefest of the City Companies on Horse-back, entertained by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Com-/ mon-Councill, Guarded from White-hall to Guild-hall by the Artillery-men, led by the Illustrious / James Duke of York; met by diverse Pageants, with sundry devices, and the Livery attending in / their Order. The Hall was richly appointed with costly Hangings, the Floores raised, Organs erected / [wi]th all sorts of Musick, performed by the Ablest Masters in England, with all Varieties that Art, Plen-/ [ty], and Curiosity can present, / To the Tune of Packington's pound. / [cuts] / [text] / London, Printed for Francis Grove, on Snow[-hill.] / Entred according to Order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: Manchester Central Library BR F821.04 B49 vol.1 p.7; NYPL photocopy of above; MH photocopy of above.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xliv-xlvi.

R2157A. The Royal Wanderer: / OR, / Gods Providence evidently manifested,in the most mysterious Deliverance of the / Divine Majesty of CHARLS the Second, King of Great Brittain. / Though bold Rebellion for a time look brave, / Man shall not slay what God resolves to save. / To the sune of, The wandring Prince of Troy, or, Troy town. / [cut] / [text] / London Printed for F. Grove on Snow-hill. Entred according to order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 312.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93.

S25. S., G. Britains Triumph, / FOR HER / Imparallel'd Deliverance, / And her Joyfull Celebrating the / PROCLAMATION / Of her most Gracious, Incomparable KING / CHARLES / THE SECOND, &c. / Defender of the FAITH, / Being a happy Fore-runner of the Day of his / Nativity and as is hoped of his Coronation. / [rule] /C. [crown ornament] R. / [rule] / London, Printed for W. Palmer at the Palm-treee, / neer St. Dunstans Church in Fleet-street, 1660. [ornamental box composed of fleurs-de-lys]

   Format: Qto.
Copies: LT E.1023(13), ms dated "14 May"; EN Crawford, removed from HH [W/S25 at MR], ms dated "May 1660"; CH; OSU.

S267. Sadler, Anthony. MAIESTIE Irradiant, / [rule] / OR / The Splendor Displayd, / OF / Our Soveraigne / KING CHARLES.

   Format: brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(4), ms dated "1 May"; CLC Pamph. Coll. folio drawer; CH microfilm of LT; MH1 *pEB65.Sal52.660m; MH2 *pEB65.A100.B675b v.2 A144, Marquis of Bute broadsides (microfilm).

S273. Sadler, Anthony. [frontispiece] / Sold at the greyhound in St. Pauls Church yeard // THE / SUBJECTS JOY / FOR / The Kings Restoration, / Cheerfully made known / IN / A Sacred MASQUE: / Gratefully made publique / FOR / His saCRed Majesty. / [rule] / By the Author of / INQUISTIO ANGLICANA. / [rule] / 2 King. XI. 12. / And he brought forth the Kings Son, and put the Crown upon / him; and gave him the Testimony, and they made him / King; and Anointed him, and clapt their hands, and / said -- -God save the KING. / [rule] / LONDON: / Printed, in the year of Grace, for James Davis, and are to be / sold at the Greyhound in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1660. / [rule]

   Format: Qto. Frontispiece + A-F4=25 leaves.
Copies: O Mal. 194(4); L1 644.f.43, removed from LT, ms dated "17 May," reported missing January 1996; L2 163.h.52, frontispiece missing; WF 154181 frontispiece missing; CH 147664; LC; MB; MH; Y.

S758. Saunderson, Thomas. A / ROYALL / LOYALL / POEM. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for W. Place, and are to be sold at his / Shop at Grayes-Inne Gate in Holborne, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 3-7; sigs. [A]-[A4v].
Copies: O Tanner 744(23), ms corrections; L 11632.df.39; EN Crawford, removed from HH W/S758 at MR, ms dated "June 5th, 1660"; CH 14676; WF 184045, ms dated "4th June"; MH.

L2544. SCOTLANDS / PARÆNESIS / To Her Dread Soveraign, / KING / CHARLES / THE SECOND. / [rule] / Mens Scotiæ. / All Presbyterians, pure, sincere and true, / Afflicted by that Independent crue, / Are here untouch'd, and are declar'd to be / Joyn'd in the League and Covenant with me. / [rule] / [design] / [rule ] / Printed in the Year, 1660.

Copies: EN1 1.234(28); EN2 1.88(2); E [not found]; OW B.B.1.5(35); MH; Y.
Reprint: Laing, Various Pieces (1823), np.
Commentaries: Often ascribed to William Lithgow, but the attribution is rejected by DNB and disputed by James Maidment, ed., The Poetical Remains of William Lithgow, The Scottish Traveller, 1618-1660 (Edinburgh: Stevenson, 1858), pp. xxxii-xxxiii, who further writes: "The Editor is very much inclined to suspect that the real author of the "Paraenesis to Charles II.," was one William Douglas, author of a poem entitled "Grampius' Gratulation to his High and Mightie Monarch, King Charles," which will be found at the end of a volume of "Addresses by the Muses of Edinburgh to his Majesty," printed in small 4to by the heirs of Andro Hart, 1630" (Appendix, p. l).

R2104. Selden, John. Verses in: THE / Royal Chronicle: / Wherein is contained, / An Historical Narration of His Majesties Royal Progress; The / Princely Cabinet laid open, with an Embleme to Great Britain; / The Peoples Diadem, proceeding from the Ornament / and Crown of their gracious Lord and Soveraign; The / incomparable Studies of His Majesty in the Governement of / Kings, to the admiration of all forreign Princes; and His / Majesties Liege People within these His Realms and Dominions; / His great Endowments and Experience, in Religion, Law, and / Governments; His Mercy rejoycing over Justice, and his Justice / cutting out work for his Mercy; His gracious Pardon to / Offenders, and His Christian Speech to the London Ministers. / [line] / C [DESIGN] R / [line] / LONDON, Printed for G. Horton, living near the three / Crowns in Barbican. 1660.

   Format: Qto.
Copies: LT E.1034(2), ms dated "17 July."

S3480A. Shirley, James. AN ODE / UPON THE / HAPPY RETURN / OF / King Charles II. / TO His / LANGUISHING NATIONS, / May 29. 1660. / [rule] / By JAMES SHIRLEY, Gent. / Composed into Musick by Dr. Coleman. / [rule] / Et capitur minimo Thuris Honore Deus. / [rule] / LONDON, Printed 1660,

   Format: Qto.
Copies: MH *EC65.Sh662.660o.
Reprint: George Thorn-Drury, ed., A Little Ark Containing Sundry Pieces of Seventeenth-Century Verses (London: Dobell, 1921), pp. 19-25; and in Shirley, Poems, ed. Armstrong.

S4273. Smith, William. Carmen Triumphale: / OR, / ENGLANDS / TRIUMPH / FOR / Her Restored LIBERTIE. / WITH / WHITE-HALLS SPEECH to her / Royal Master, CHARLES the Second KING of Great / BRITAIN, FRANCE and IRELAND, / Also her sad Complaint against the pretended Committee of Safety, Rumpers, / and the rest of those Cruel Tyrants, and unjust Judges, who not / only defaced and spoiled Her Stately Buildings, but / also unjustly condemned her to be sold. / With two short Panagyricks to the Right Honourable18 the City of LON-/ DON, and the University of CAMBRIDGE. / -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Numquam LIBERTAS gratior extat / Quam sub REGE pio. -- -- -- -- -- -- -- / Claudianus. / [rule] / By WILLIAM SMITH, Gent. / [rule] / LONDON, Printed for W. Jones, 1660.19

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-6; sigs. [A]-[A4v].
Copies: O Tanner 744(21); OH J.38(3); CH 49630.

G1052C. Starkey, A. Good News for England: / OR, / The Peoples Triumph. / Then let's be joyful, and in heart content, / To see our King united with the Parliament. / Long live CHARLES the Second. / To the Tune of, Bodkins Galliard. / [cuts] / [text] / London, Printed for M. Wright, at the Kings Head in the Old Bailey,

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 131.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93.

T222. Tatham, John. Verses in: Londons Glory / Represented by / TIME, TRUTH, and FAME: / AT / The Magnificent TRIUMPHS and / ENTERTAINMENT / of His most Sacred MAJESTY / CHARLS the II. / The DUKES of York and Glocester, / The two Houses of Parliament, / Privy Councill, Judges, &c. / At Guildhall on Thursday, being the 5th day / of July 1660. and in the 12th Year of His / Majesties most happy Reign. / [rule] / TOGETHER / With the Order and Management of / the whole Days Business. / [rule] / Published according to Order. / [rule] / London, Printed by William Godbid in Little Brittain. 1660. / [ornamental box]

   Format: Qto, t/p + pp. 1-10; sigs [A]-[B3v]. Verses on pp. 1-4, sigs. A3-[A4v].
Copies: LT E.1030(13), ms dated "6 July"; O1 G.A.Loud 4to.63; O2 Ash. 677(6); OW B.B.8.8(75), poorly inked copy; WF 205431; LG; CT; Lampeter, St Davids; EN; DT; CH; CN; CU; LC; MH; NP; WF.
Reprint: James Maidment and W. H. Logan, eds., The Dramatic Works of John Tatham (Edinburgh: William Patterson, 1879), pp. 293-304. See Fairholt, Lord Mayor's Pageants (London: Percy Society, 1843).

S5874. "In the eight Kings reign," verses in: The Strange and Wonderfull / PROPHESIE / OF / DAVID Cardinal / OF / FRANCE, / Touching His Sacred Majesty / King Charles II. / DESCRIBING / The manner how part thereof hath been / already fulfilled, And also foretelling what shall happen / in the Kingdom of England for the space of / three hundred years yet to come. / [rule] / Newly translated out of the French Chronicles into English, but never / suffered to be put to publick view till this present. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by J. C. for S. R. and are to be sold near the Royal Exchange / in Cornhill, 1660

   Format: Qto; verses on pp. 4-5, sigs. [A3v-A4].
Copies: LT E.1053(11); LNC.

W528. TO THE / KING, / UPON HIS / MAJESTIES / Happy Return. / [rule] / By a Person of Honour. / [rule] / [design: royal arms] / LONDON, / Printed by J. M. for Henry Herringman, and are to be / Sold at his Shop at the Blue-Anchor in lower Walk / of the New-Exchange, 1660. / [ruled box]

   Format: F. Incorrectly attributed to Edmund Waller.
Copies: LT E.1080(2), ms dated "3 June"; CH 473577.

/not Wing/. The Traytors Downfall, / OR, / A brief relation of the downfall of that Phanatick crew who Trai-/ terously Murthered the Late Kings Majesty of blessed Memory. / To the Tune of, Fa la la, &c: / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Francis Coles, in the Old-Baily.

   Format: bl brs. This is a variant reprint of a Luttrell item, King Charles his Glory and Rebells Shame "To a Pleasant New Tune: Or, The Crost Couple" (Wing K553), reprinted in Ebsworth, RB, 7:661-2.
Copies: GU Euing 350.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:liii-lv, citing a copy in the Trowbesh Collection, Manchester.

U113, N1014, A3046A. Upon the KINGS Most Excellent / MAJESTIE / An Anagam & Acrostick. / CHARLES STUART / ANAGRAM / Arts Chast Rule. / [text] / Printed for Theodorus Microcosmus 1660.

   Format: brs. Variant printings.
Copies: O1 Wood 416(55), ms dated "feb"; O2 13.é.79(69), missing since 1979.
Another version, N1014: News From The Royall Exchange: / OR, / Gold turn'd into Mourning: / [text] / London, printed for Charles King. 1660.
Copies: LT 669.f.24(15), ms dated "16 March"; L C.40.m.11(27); O3 Wood 416(69), ms dated "March"; MH; Y.
Another version, A3046A: An Anagram and Acrostick on / CHARLES STVART KING,
Copies: OW L.R.8.32, title cut away, no colophon.

C1205. "Upon the Kings Prerogative and Person" in: The Case stated / Touching the / SOVERAIGN'S / PREROGATIVE / AND THE / Peoples Liberty, / According to Scripture, Reason, and the / Consent of our Ancestors. / Humbly offered to the Right Honorable / GENERAL MONCK, / And the / OFFICERS in the ARMY. / [rule] / Regi qui perfidus, nulli fidus. / [rule] / London, Printed for Charles King. 1660.

   Format: verses p. 8.
Copies: LT E.1017(40), ms dated "24 March";OFX=Fairfax collection (dispersed); MH; NU; WF 189631.

/not Wing/. The Valiant Seamans Congratulation / to his sacred Majesty King Charls the second. / With their wonderfull Heroicall Atchievements, and their Fidelity, / Loyalty, and Obedience. To the Tune of Let us drink / and sing, and merrily troul the bowl. Or, The stormy / winds do blow. Or, Hey Ho, my Hony. / [cut] / [text] / Printed at London for F. Grove living on Snow-Hill, Entred according to order.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 368.

V734. Vox Populi Suprema Rex Carolus. / Or, The Voice of the People for / KING CHARLES. / With a true / ACCOMPT of the Actions of the KINGDOMS Grand / Trappanners, since the year 1641 to this present / year 1660. / [text] / LONDON, Printed by Theodorus Microcosmus, 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: L1 c.20.f.2.40; L2 c.20.f.4(229), Luttrell II(229); O1 Wood 416(75), ms dated "April"; O2 Firth b.20(27); OW G.5.10(75), George Clarke's copy.

V735-6. Vox Populi, / THE / Voice of the PEOPLE, / Congratulating / His Majesty, KING CHARLS / the II. of England, Scotland, France and Ire-/ land, in thirty Heroick Stanza's. / With a brief Panegirick, / in Praise of his Illustrious / MAJESTY. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for H. Brome, at the Gun in Ivie-Lane, 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 2-8; sigs A2-[A4v]. Variant printings.
Copies, V735: OC A.73.37, misbound giving t/p + A, [A4], A2, A3; L not found; O not found; MR W/V735, ms dated "May. 28. 60"; MH.
Another edition, V736: "Printed at London, and Re-printed at Edinburgh by / a Society of Stationers, 1660."
Copies: EN 1.234(31); MH; Y.
Commentaries: Aldis, #1680.

/not Wing/. W., J. "A Second Charles." [Title cut away] catch: "A Second Charles Once more Shall Reign" / [text and one cut only] / London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: EN Crawford Ballad 990, removed from MR.

/not Wing/. W., J. The Royall Oak: / OR, / The wonderfull travells, miraculous escapes, strange accidents of his sacred Majesty King Charles the Second. / How from Worcester fight by a good hap, Our Royall King made an escape; / How he dis-rob'd himself of things that precious were, / And with a knife cut off his curled hair; / How a hollow Oak his palace was as then, And how King Charles became a serving-man / To the Tune of, in my freedom is all my Joy. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for Charles Tyus on London-Bridge.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 308.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:lxv-lxvi.

W41A. W., I. Englands honour, and Londons glory. / With the manner of proclaiming Charles the second King of England, this eight of / May, 1660. by the honourable the two houses of Parliament, Lord Generall Monk, / the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Counsell of the City. / The tune is, Vive la Roy. / [text] / London, Printed for William Gilbertson.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 97.
Ms copy: O Firth c.20 f.102, see Crum, C 482.

W116. W., T. Dolor, ac Voluptas, invicem cedunt. / OR / ENGLANDS / Glorious Change, by Calling Home of / KING CHARLES / THE SECOND. / Together with the Royalists Exaltation, / And the Phanatiques Diminution. / [text] / LONDON, Printed in the year 1660.

   Format: brs.
Copies: LT 669.f.25(10), ms dated "8 May"; L L.23.C.1(88).

/not Wing/. Wade, John. The King and Kingdoms joyful Day of Triumph. / OR, / The Kings most Excellent majesties Royal and Triumphant coming to London, / accompanied by the ever Renowned, his Excellency the Lord General Monck, / and an numerous company of his Royal Peers, Lords, Knight, / Citizens, and Gentry, who conducted his Royal Majesty / in Honour and Triumph from Dover to London. / To the Tune of, The Scottish Lady, or, Ill tide that cruel peace that gain'd a War on me. / [cut] / [text] / London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: GU Euing 146.
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xxxiii-xxxiv.


   Format: F. t/p + pp. 1 [no 2 or 3] 4-8; sigs. [A]-[B2v]. no colophon. Variant printings.
Copies, W528: O1 Gough Loudon 2(9), t/p signed by author, reported missing in 1995; O2 Ashm.1819(22); C Sel.3.162(6); IU; TU.
Another edition, W529: Printed for Richard Marriot, in St. Dunstans Church-yard, Fleetstreet.
Format: Large paper F. t/p + pp. 1 [no 2 or 3] 4-8; sigs. [A]-[B2v].
Copies: LT E.1080(3), ms dated "9 June." Thomason incorrectly began to inscribe this as if it were the Ellis poem "The gift of the Author, my son George's Tutor," so he presumably collected it on or around 11 June; C; O3 Pamph. A.111(4), heavily trimmed; OW LR.8.32, removed from G.5.10(110), trimmed; CH 125997; IU; MH; WCL; Y; CLC.

B4852. Walton, Izaak. "To My Ingenious Friend Mr. Brome." See Brome item above.

W2306. Willes, Samuel. TO THE / KINGS / MOST SACRED / MAJESTY, / Upon his Happy and Glorious RETURN / An endeavoured / POEM. / [rule] / BY / SAMUEL WILLES. / [rule] / Cressa ne careat pulcra dies nota. Horat. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by T. R. for John Baker at the sign of the / Peacock in St. Pauls Church-yard 1660. / [double-ruled box]

   Format: Qto, t/p + pp. 1-12; sigs. A2-[B3v].
Copies: LT E.1027(15), ms dated "15 June"; O Malone 746(3); C1 Syn 7.66.11 (2); C2 Peterborough K.4.22(15), contains variants.

W3361. The Wonderfull and Miraculous escape of our / Gracious King, from that dismal, black and gloomie defeat at Worcester: / Together with a pattern to all true and faithfull Subjects, by the five / Loyal and faithfull Brothers, with their care and diligence, obser-/ vance and obedience 8 dayes in the time of his Majesties obscurity. / The tune is, Come lets drink the time invites. / [cut] / [text] / Printed for F. Coles, T Vere, and W. Gilbertson.

   Format: bl brs.
Copies: O Wood 401(173/174), ms dated "1660."
Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:lxvii-lxix.

W106. Woodford, Samuel. Epinicia Carolina, / OR AN / ESSAY / Upon the Return of His / SACRED MAJESTY, / Charles the Second. / [rule] / By S. W. of the Inner Temple. / [rule] / [design] / LONDON, / Printed for Robert Gibbs, at the Golden Ball in Chan-/ cery Lane. 1660.

   Format: Qto. t/p + pp. 1-19; sigs. A2-[C3v].
Copies: LT E.1027(8), ms dated "7 June"; O Malone 746(2); OH; CH 47864, ms emendations.
Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 636.

W3475. Woodstock Grammar School. VOTIVUM CAROLO, / OR / A WELCOME to his Sacred / MAJESTY / CHARLES the II. / [rule] / From the Master and Scholars of Wood-/ stock-School in the County of Oxford. / [rule] / [design: crowned rose and crowned thistle] / [rule] / Printed in the Year 1660./ [ornamental box]

   Format: Qto. t/p + [A]-[D4], last two blank. Published in Oxford by Henry Hall, according to Madan.
Copies: L 11626.d.68; O1 Wood 319(10), ms dated "June 1660" but unreliable [see below]; O2 Pamph.c.109(3); OC F.127(2); OB 910.h.13(21), Nicholas Crouch's copy bought for 4d.; CS Ee.6.10 (3); CN; MH; TU; Y.
Commentaries: Madan, "#2540: "The royal borough of Woodstock contained a free Grammar School, founded in 1585, and at this time presided over by Francis Gregory, a native of that town and educated at Westminster and Cambridge. He had already issued several school-books, and according to Wood (Fasti Oxon. ii.258) 'did much good by his sedulous instruction'. Anyway he induced his scholars to weep over Charles I in correct style and to rejoice in the new King to order he himself showing them how to do it, by example. Any sincerity there might have been was disturbed by the unfortunate doubt whether Charles after all would not be sent off, bag and baggage, to Holland again (p. [7]). In fact, the poems were a little 'previous' when written. The Verses are fairly correct, and dictionaries and grammars produced. . . The volume seems to have been issued after [Britannia Rediviva] which is referred to in the preface, that is to say, not before the middle of July."

/not Wing/. A Worthy Kings Description / Both Country and City give ear to this ditty, / Whilst that I the praises sing, / And fame his honour out doth Ring, / That best deserveth to wear the Crown; / For Worth there's none can put him down / And this is no flattering, to describe a worthy King; / His Subjects here their desires explain, / Desiring that he may enjoy his own again. / [cut] / [text]

   Format: bl brs. The initial cut was also used by the stationer Charles Tyus for The Covenant.
Copies: GU Euing 404.


[9] Nicholas Crouch was elected fellow of Balliol in 1640, returned in 1650 and survived the interregnum; see John Jones, Balliol College: A History 1263-1939 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).

[10] title. CHARLES] CHALES copytext

[11] Tyus] Yyus

[12]\257Henry Marsh] blackletter\257 at the Princes Armes in / Chancery-Lane near Fleet-Street, 1660.

[13] LONON] O1, O2, L

[14] sequunta] "n" inked out O1, O2, MR, LT, OH, OB; but not WF\257 est. Ovid. Met.

[15] The first line is missing from O

[16] Soveraigne] Soveriagne copy text\257

[17] unto] nnto copy text

[18] Honourable] ed; Honourble \344

[19] 1660.^] ed; 7E.. \344

Appendix I: Some Ghosts

g1. Boyle, Roger [Lord Broghill, Lord Orrery].

    Reference: "He wrote a Poem upon the King's Restoration, which was well received, but which I never met with." Eustace Budgell, Memoirs of the Lives and Characters of the Illustrious Family of the Boyles (London, 1737), p. 91.

g2. Oldys [Oldis], Valentine (1620-1685). "A Poem on the Restoration of King Charles."

   References: Corser 4:1, 34, 36, mentions this poem under the entry for "Bold," a claim repeated in the entry for Oldys in DNB; L Birch ms. 4240 contains memoirs of the Oldys family.

g3. A Psalm of Mercy. To the tune of "Now thanks to the powers below".

   References: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 94, dating it 26 January 1660; reprinted in Rump Songs (1662), but the original has not been found: perhaps a confusion with P4 above?

g4. Rapsodion Eutakia, or, Select Poems. Wing P66 ?

   References: once reported in Wing for P66, listing copies at L, CH, MH; but none have been found?

g6. Stubbe, Henry.

    References: Thomas Flatman, in Montelion's Almanac for 1661, says that Stubbe wrote a "Panegyrick to the King when the tide turned." This item is not part of Stubbe's Animadversions on the Commonwealth of Oceana proposed by James Harrington (1660) [NUC listing NS1020311] at PL; reported private letter, 1986.

Appendix II: Manuscript poems relating to the Restoration in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, based on Crum's Index.

A 1888. "Attend & list awhile / Brethren Hypocriticall.

    Copies: Firth b.20(141).

A 1309. [Ashmole, Elias], Sol in Ascendente.

    Copies: Ashmole 36,37 f.17; Ashmole 38, f.230. Corrected autograph copy of printed version; see Ashmole above.

A 1938. Ford, Thomas, "On the King's Return, May 29 166[0]."

    Copies: ms Eng. poet. e.4, 167.

A 1937. [Philips, Katherine?], "Upon his Majesties most happy restauration."

    Copies: Firth b.20, f.140.

B 600. "Copy of verses . . . in Charles the 2nd time."

    Copies: ms Top. oxon. b.116, f.111.

C 482. W., I., England's Honour and London's Glory.

    Copies: Firth c.20 f.102. A transcription of W41A above.

D 4656. "Dread Sir, the prince of Light / Our Monarch . . ."

    Copies: ms mus.c.26, f.115. Set to music by Dr. John Blow; see Music and Letters, 46 (1965): 0000.

G 551. Wase, Christopher, "To the King's Majesty."

    Copies: ms Eng. poet. e.4, 46.

H 38. [Philips, Katherine?], "Upon the Hollow Tree."

    Copies: Firth b.20, f.140.

H 99. [Chatwin, John], "On the Royall Oke."

    Copies: ms *Rawl. poet. 94, 173.

H 298. P[hilips], K[atherine], "Upon the Numerous accesse /of the English Gentry to his Matie., in Flanders."

    Copies: ms Tanner 306, f.367; printed in Poems (1664) p. 3.

H 350. Philips, Katherine, "On the Coronation."

    Copies: Locke e.17, 94; printed in Poems (1664), but not Poems (1667).

I 868. P., E., "Charles the 2nd. after he was crowned King of Scotland, was proclaimed Traytor . . . by the Rump."

    Copies: ms Rawl. poet. 26, f.163.

I 1059. "On the returne of King Charles 2nd."

    Copies: ms Rawl. poet. 84, f.10.

L 57. "The Starry Vision."

    Copies: ms Ashmole 47, 164.

H 607. Fairfax, Thomas Lord, "Upon the Horse which hisMajestie Rode upon att his Coronation 1660."

    Copies: ms *Fairfax 40, 612 [autograph]; ms *Fairfax 38, 274.

M 511. K., P., "Carolisimus. Or the Royal Patent On The Soveraigne Touch."

    Copies: ms Tanner 306, f.387.

N 203. "On Charles II, 1660."

    Copies: ms Add.B.8, f.70v.

R 239. M. P. Q. A., "Rise up brave worthy for thou art divine."

    Copies: ms Ashmole 36,37 f.165.

T 840. "Verses presented to Charles 2d at a New Year."

    Copies: ms Eng. poet. d.152, 16v.

T 1250. Waller, Edmund, "To his Majty K. Charles 2. on his happyReturn."

    Copies: ms Rawl. poet. 173, f.108v. A late ms copy made by John Dunton.

T 1291a. C., J., "Verses on a cut by William Faithorne, of Charles II, owned by Thomas Rawlinson."

    Copies: ms Hearne's Diaries 57, 80. Printed version in Lord, POAS, 1: frontispiece.

T2848. "A new ballad on the 29th of May To the Tune of "over the Hills and far away."

    Copies: ms Rawl. poet. 155, 115.

W 221. "To the King."

    Copies: ms *Don.f.5, f.35.

W 1532. Polwhele, John, "March 1659 [1660] Upon the Reporte of King Charles the 2d being att Calice . . ."

    Copies: ms *Eng. poet. f.16, f.64v.

W 2111. "Mr. [John] Ayton's New Yeares guift to the King, with severall Peices of Coyne, 1661."

    Copies: mss Ashmole 36,37, f.120; adapted from Sir Robert Ayton's poem to Queen Anne, 1604.

Y 308. "Win at first and lose at last."

    Copies: ms Top. oxon.c.108, 83. A version of Laurence Price's ballad, see P3389A-3390A above.

Appendix III: A Selection of Manuscript Poems in the British Library.

   I have made no systematic search through the manuscript collections of the British Library, but can report that verses concerning the Restoration are to be found in the following:

ms1. Add.Ms 4457.ff.74,75.

ms 2. Add.Ms 36916.

ms 3. Add.Ms 34,217.f.27b; "Nemesis ad Carolum," with English translation.

ms 4. Sloane.MS 655.

ms 5. Add.Ms 28,758; Sacheverell poems (1651-62).

ms 6. Add.Ms 15,950.f.139; John Evelyn.

ms 7. Add.Ms 21,094; Rochester.

ms 8. Burney.MS 406.f.36; Latin verses.

Works Cited and Abbreviations

   This list contains references to publications that are regularly cited in the editorial material, but does not list every seventeenth-century printed work used in the annotations to particular poems.

   Place of publication for printed works is London unless otherwise stated. Dates are given Old Style, but with the year regarded as starting on 1 January.

   When referring to these works in the headnotes and annotations, I have sometimes provided a full reference; otherwise I have used an Author plus Short Title form, except when adopting an abbreviated form for frequently cited works as indicated below.

Aubin: Aubin, R. A. London in Flames, London in Glory: Poems on the Fire and Rebuilding of London, 1666-1709. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Studies, 1943.

Aldis: Aldis, Harry G. A List of Books Printed in Scotland before 1700, including those printed furth of the realm for Scottish booksellers. With brief notes on the printers and stationers. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Bibliographic Society, 1904.

Arber: Arber, Edward, ed. A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London, 1554-1640. 5 vols. London: HMSO, 1875-1894.

Ashmole, Elias. Memoirs of the Life of the Learned Antiquary, Elias Ashmole, Esq; Drawn up by himself by way of Diary. Ed. Charles Burman. London: J. Roberts, 1717. Reprinted in The Lives of those Eminent Antiquaries Elias Ashmole, Esquire, and Mr. William Lily, Written by themselves. London: T. Davies, 1774.

Bell, Maureen. "Hannah Allen and the Development of a Puritan Publishing Business, 1646-1651." Publishing History 26 (1989): 5-66.

Bennett, H. S. English Books and Readers, 1603-1640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Broadley, A. M. ed. The Royal Miracle: A Collection of rare tracts, broadsides, letters, prints, and ballads concerning the wanderings of Charles II. After the Battle of Worcester. London: Stanley Paul, 1912.

Brome, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Brome. 2 vols. Ed. Roman R. Dubinski. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

Capp, Bernard. Astrology and the Popular Press: English Almanacs 1500-1800. London: Faber and Faber, 1979.

CJ: Journals of the House of Commons

CSPD: Calendar of State Papers, Domestic

CSPV: Calendar of State Papers, Venetian

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. Ed. W. Dunn Macray. 6 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1888.

Collop, Poems. The Poems of John Collop. Ed. Conrad Hilberry. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1962.

Corser, Thomas. Collectanea Anglo-Poetica: Or, a Bibliographic and Descriptive Catalogue of a Portion of a collection of Early English Poetry, with occasional remarks biographical and critical. 5 vols. Manchester: Chetham Society, 1860-1863.

Cowley, Abraham. The Collected Works of Abraham Cowley. 2 vols to date. Edited by Thomas O. Calhoun et al. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1989 --

Crane and Kaye: Crane, R. S., and F. B. Kaye. A Census of British Newspapers and Periodicals 1620-1800. 1927. Reprint. London: Holland House, 1979.

Cressy, David. Literacy and the Social Order: Reading and Writing in Tudor and Stuart England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Crawford, James L. Lindsay, Lord. Catalogue of English Broadsides, 1505-1897. Privately printed: 1898.

Cronk, Anthony. St Margaret's Church, Horsmonden: An Historical and Descriptive Account. Horsmonden: Church Farm House, 1967.

Crum: Crum, Margaret, ed. First-Line Index of English Poetry 1500-1800 In Manuscripts of the Bodleian Library Oxford. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.

DNB: Dictionary of National Biography

Davies, Godfrey. The Restoration of Charles II, 1658-1660. San Marino, CA.: Huntington Library, 1955.

Denham, Poems. The Poems of Sir John Denham. Ed. T. H. Banks. 2nd ed. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1969.

Draper, John. W. ed. A Century of Broadside Elegies. London: Ingpen and Grant, 1928.

Dryden, Works. The Works of John Dryden. Ed. H. T. Swedenberg et al. 24 vols to date. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1956 --

EHR: English Historical Review

Ebsworth, MDC: Ebsworth, Joseph Woodfall, ed. 1875. Merry Drollery Compleat. Boston, Lincs, 1875.

Ebsworth, RB: Ebsworth, J. Woodfall, ed. The Roxburghe Ballads. 9 vols. Hertford: The Ballad Society, 1871-1897.

Edie, Carolyn. "News From Abroad: Advice to the People of England on the Eve of the Stuart Restoration." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 76 (l984): 382-407.

Edie, Carolyn. "Right Rejoicing: Sermons on the Occasion of the Stuart Restoration, 1660." Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 62 (1979-80): 61-86.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth. The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transforamtions in Early-modern Europe. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

ELR: English Literary Renaissance.

Erskine-Hill, Howard. The Augustan Idea in English Literature. London: Arnold, 1983.

Evans, David. "Charles II's 'Grand Tour': Restoration Panegyric and the Rhetoric of Travel Literature." Philological Quarterly 72:1 (1993): 53-71.

Exeter Cathedral. "Charles II and the Restoration: An Exhibition to Commemorate the Tercentenary of the Restoration of the Monarchy held in The Chapter House, Exeter held 18- May, 1960." Exeter Cathedral Library, 1960.

Fagan, Louis Alexander. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of William Faithorne. London, Quaritch, 1888.

Firth, C. H. "The Ballad History of the Reign of James I." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Third series, 5 (1911): 21-61.

Firth, C. H. and R. S. Rait, eds., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660. vols. London: HMSO, 1911.

Fortescue, George, ed. Catalogue of the Pamphlets, Books, Newspapers, and Manuscripts Relating to the Civil War, The Commonwealth, and Restoration, Collected by George Thomason, 1641-1661. 2 vols. London: British Museum, 1908.

Frank, Joseph. Hobbled Pegasus: A Descriptive Bibliography of Minor English Poetry, 1641-1660. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1968.

Fuller, Poems Grosart, Alexander B. ed. The Poems and Translations in Verse ... of Thomas Fuller. Edinburgh: Crawford and McCabe, 1868.

Gardiner, Dorothy ed. The Oxinden and Peyton Letters 1642-1670. London: The Sheldon Press, 1937.

Gardiner, S. R., ed. Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution, 1628-1660. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1889.

Gardiner, Samuel R. The History of England ... 1603-1642. 10 vols. London: Longman, Green 1883.

Gaskell, Philip. A New Introduction to Bibliography. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.

Greaves, Richard L. Deliver Us From Evil: The Radical Underground in Britain, 1660-1663. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Greetham, David. Textual Scholarship: An Introduction. New York and London: Garland, 1992.

Groden, Michael. "Contemporary Textual and Literary Theory." In Representing Modernist Texts: Editing as Interpretation, ed. George Bornstein. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1991), pp. 259-86.

Guizot, M. The History of England From the Earliest Times to the Accession of Queen Victoria. Edited by Madame de Witt. Trans. Moy Thomas. 3 vols. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1877-79.

HLQ: Huntington Library Quarterly

Habukkuk, Sir John. "The Land Settlement and the Restoration of Charles II." Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Fifth Series, 28 (1978): 201-222.

Harris, Tim. London Crowds in the Reign of Charles II: Propaganda and Politics from the Restoration Until the Exclusion Crisis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

Harris, Tim, Paul Seaward, and Mark Goldie, eds. The Politics of Religion in Restoration England. Oxford: Clarendon, 1990.

Hazlitt, Handbook : Hazlitt, W. Carew. Handbook to the Popular, Poetical, and Dramatic Literature of Great Britain, From the Invention of Printing to the Restoration. London: John Russell, 1867.

Hazlitt, Collections : Hazlitt, William Carew. Collections and Notes: 1867-1876. London: Reeves and Turner, 1876.

Hazlitt, Collections : Hazlitt, William Carew. Second Series of Bibliographical Collections and Notes, 1474-1700. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1882.

Hazlitt, Collections : Hazlitt, William Carew. Third and Final Series of Bibliographical Collections and Notes. London: Bernard Quaritch, 1888.

Healey, Thomas and Jonathan Sawday, eds. Literature and the English Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977.

Hill, Christopher. The Experience of Defeat: Milton and Some Contemporaries. New York: Viking, 1984.

Hobby, Elaine 1988. Virtue of Necessity: English Women's Writing, 1649-1688. London: Virago.

Horrox, William Arthur. A Bibliography of the Literature Relating to the Escape and Preservation of King Charles II after the Battle of Worcester, 3rd September, 1651. Aberdeen: University Press, 1924.

Howell, Proverbs : Howell, James 1659/60. Proverbs or Old Sayed-Sawes and Adages in the Enligsh Toung; Some Choice Proverbs. 1659; includes Lexicon Tetraglotton. 1660.

Hutton, Ronald. The Restoration: A Political and Religious History of England and Wales 1658-1667. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Hutton, Ronald. Charles the Second, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Jones, J. R. ed. The Restored Monarchy, 1660-1688. London: Macmillan, 1979.

Jones, John. Balliol College: A History 1263-1939. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Jose, Nicolas. Ideas of The Restoration in English Literature, 1660-71. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.

Josselin (plus date of entry) : Josselin, Ralph. The Diary of Ralph Josselin, 1616-1683. Ed. Alan Macfarlane. London: British Academy, 1976.

Keeble, Neil. The Literary Culture of Nonconformity in Later Seventeenth-Century England. Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1987.

LJ: Journals of the House of Lords

Laing, Various Pieces (1823) Laing, David, ed., Various Pieces of Fugitive Scottish Poetry. Edinburgh: W.& D. Laing, [1823].

Laing, Fugitive Scottish Poetry (1853) Laing, David, ed., Various Pieces of Fugitive Scotish Poetry: Principally of the Seventeenth-Century. Second Series [Edinburgh: np, 1853].

Lilly, William. Monarchy or no Monarchy in England. Grebner his Prophecy concerning Charles son of Chalres, his Gretnesse, Victories, Conquests. The Northern Lyon, or Lyon of the North, and Chicken of the Eagle discovered who they are, of what Nation. English, Latin, Saxon, Scotish and Welch Prophecies concrning England in particular, and all Europe in generall. Passages upon the Life and Death of the late King Charles. Ænigmaticall Types of the future State and Condition of England for many years to come. 1651. [copy at O Ash. 553(1) contains Ashmole's ms annotations.

Lilly, William. Mr. William Lilly's History of His Life and Times, From the Year 1602, to 1681. London: J. Roberts, 1715.

Lithgow, William. The Poetical Remains of William Lithgow, The Scottish Traveller, 1618-1660. Ed. James Maidment. Edinburgh: Stevenson, 1858.

Loewenstein, Joseph. "The Script in the Market Place," Representations 12 (Fall 1985): 101-114.

Lord, POAS: Lord, George de Forrest, gen. ed. Poems on Affairs of State. vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963-75.

Love, Harold. Scribal Publication in Seventeenth-Century England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1

Lowndes, Thomas William. The Bibliographers Manual of English Literature. 1834.

Ludlow, Edmund. A Voyce from the Watch Tower, 1660-1662. Ed. A. B. Worden. Royal Historical Society, Fourth series, vol. 21. London: RHS, 1978.

MacDonald, Hugh. John Dryden. A Bibliography of Early Editions and of Drydeniana. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939.

MacLean, Gerald. "An Edition of Poems on the Restoration." Restoration 11 (1987): 117-21.

MacLean, Gerald. "The King on Trial: Judicial Poetics and the Restoration Settlement." The Michigan Academician 17 (1985): 375-88.

MacLean, Gerald. "Literacy, Class, and Gender in Restoration England, TEXT 7, eds. David Greetham and W. Speed Hill (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995), pp. 307-335.

MacLean, Gerald. "Literature and Politics in Revolutionary England, 1640-1660," Review 16 (1994): 177-95.

MacLean, Gerald. "Literature, Culture, and Society in Restoration England." In Culture and Society in the Stuart Restoration: Literature, Drama, History, pp. 3-27. Ed. Gerald MacLean. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

MacLean, Gerald. Time's Witness: Historical Representation in English Poetry, 1603-1660. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990.

MacLean, Gerald. "Poetry as History: The Argumentative Design of Dryden's Astraea Redux." Restoration 4 (1980): 54-64.

MacLean, Gerald. "What is a Restoration Poem? Editing a Discourse, Not an Author." In TEXT 3, pp. 319-346. Ed. David Greetham and W. Speed Hill. New York: AMS Press, 1987.

Madan: Madan, Falconer. Oxford Books: A Bibliography of Printed Works Relating to the University and City of Oxford. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895-1931.

Marotti, Arthur. Manuscript, Print, and the English Renaissance Lyric. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Marvell, Poems and Letters : Marvell, Andrew. The Poems and Letters of Andrew Marvell. Ed. H. M. Margoliouth. 3rd ed. rev. Pierre Legouis with E. E. Duncan-Jones. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971.

Masson, David. The Life of John Milton. 7 vols. Revised edition. Rpt. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1965.

Matthews, William, ed. Charles's II's Escape from Worcester: A Collection of Narratives Assembled by Samuel Pepys. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Mayer, Robert. "Nathaniel Crouch, Bookseller and Historian: Popular Historiography and Cultural Power in Late Seventeenth-Century England." ECS 27:3 (1994): 391-419.

McGann, Jerome J. A Critique of Modern Textual Criticism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

McGann, Jerome J., ed. Historical Studies and Literary Criticism. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985.

McKeon, Michael. Poetry and Politics in Restoration England: The Case of Dryden's "Annus Mirabilis". Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1975.

Milton, John. The Poems of John Milton. Ed. John Carey and Alastair Fowler. London: Longmans, 1968.

Milton, John. The Complete Prose Works of John Milton. Ed. D. M. Wolfe et al. 8 vols. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953-82.

Miner, Earl. "The Restoration: Age of Faith, Age of Satire." In Poetry and Drama, 1570-1700. Ed. Antony Coleman and Antony Hammond. London: Methuen, 1981.

Mordaunt, John Viscount. The Letter-Book of John Viscount Mordaunt, 1658-1660. Ed. Mary Coate. Camden Third Series, vol. 69. London: Cambden Society, 1945.

Morrison, Paul G. Index of Printers, Publishers and Booksellers in Donald Wing's STC. Charlottesville: The Bibliographic Society, 1955.

Mundy, Peter. The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667. Ed. Sir R. C. Temple, 5 vols. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1907-1936. Vol 5, Travels in South-west England, with a Diary of Events in London, 1658-1663. Ed. Temple and L. M. Anstey, ser. no. 78, 1936.

Nelson, Carolyn and Mathew Seccombe. British Newspapers and Periodicals: A Short Tite Catalogue. New York: MLA, 1987.

Nevo, Ruth. The Dial of Virtue: A Study of Poems on Affairs of State in the Seventeenth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.

Nicholas, Sir Edward. The Nicholas Papers: Correspondence of Sir Edward Nicholas. Vol. 4. 1657-1660. Edited by Sir George F. Warner. Camden Third Series, vol. 31. London: Camden Society, 1920.

Norbrook, David. Poetry and Politics in the English Renaissance. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.

OED: Oxford English Dictionary

O'Donoghue, Freeman, et al. Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum. 6 vols. London: British Museum, 1908-1925.

Ollard, Richard. The Escape of Charles II after the Battle of Worcester. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1966.

Patterson, Annabel. Censorship and Interpretation: The Conditions of Writing and Reading in Early Modern England. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.

Patterson, Annabel. Pastoral and Ideology: Virgil to Valéry. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.

Pepys (plus date of entry) : Pepys, Samuel. The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Ed. R. C. Latham and W. C. Matthews. 11 vols. Los Angeles and Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970-83.

Potter, Lois. Secret Rites and Secret Writing: Royalist Literature, 1641-1660. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Raymond, Joad. "The Daily Muse; Or, Seventeenth-Century Poets Read the News." The Seventeenth Century 10:2 (Autumn 1995): 189-218.

Raymond, Joad. The Invention of the Newspaper: English Newsbooks, 1641-1660. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.

Richards, Kenneth 1977. "The Restoration Pageants of John Tatham." In Kenneth Richards and David Mayer, eds. Western Popular Theatre, pp. 49-73. London, 1977.

Rivers, Isabel. The Poetry of Conservatism, 1600-1745: A Study of Poets and Public Affairs from Jonson to Pope. Cambridge: Rivers Press, 1973.

Rollins, Hyder E., ed. Cavalier and Puritan: Ballads and Broadsides Illustrating the Period of the Great Rebellion, 1640-1660. New York: New York University Press, 1923.

Rollins, Hyder E., ed. The Pepys Ballads. 8 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1929.

Roper, Alan. "A Critic's Apology for Editing Dryden's The History of the League." In The Editor As Critic and The Critic As Editor, papers Read at a Clark Memorial Library Seminar, November 17, 1971. Los Angeles, William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1973.

Rugg ms. Rugg, Thomas. "Mercurius Politicus Redivivus, or a Collection of the Most Materiall Occurances and Transactions in Publick Affairs since Anno Domini 1659," BM Add. Mss. 10116-17.

Rugg, Thomas. The Diurnal of Thomas Rugg, 1659-1661. Ed. William L. Sachse. Camden Third Series, vol. 151. London: Camden Society, 1961.

Sachse, W. L. Restoration England, 1660-1689. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

Saintsbury, George, ed. Minor Poets of the Caroline Period. 1905. Reprint. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.

Sawday, Jonathan. "Re-Writing a Revolution: History, Symbol, and Text in the Restoration." The Seventeenth Century 7:2 (1992): 171-99.

Scott, Jonathan. Algernon Sidney and the Restoration Crisis 1677-1683. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Scott, Walter, ed. The Somers Collection of Tracts. A Collection of Scarce and Valuable Tracts, On the Most Interesting and Entertaining Subjects. 7 vols. London: Cadell and Davies, 1812.

Seaward, Paul. The Cavalier Parliament and the Reconstruction of the Old Regime, 1661-1667. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Seaward, Paul . "The Restoration, 1660-1688." In Stuart England. Ed. Blair Worden. Oxford: Phaidon, 1986.

Sharpe, Kevin. Criticism and Compliment: The Politics of Literature in the England of Charles I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Sharpe, Kevin, and Steven Zwicker, eds. The Politics of Discourse. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.

Shirley, Poems. The Poems of James Shirley. Ed. R. L. Armstrong. New York: King's Crown Press, 1941.

Smith, Nigel. Literature and Revolution in England, 1640-1660. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Smith, Nigel. Perfection Proclaimed: Language and Literature in English Radical Religion, 1640-1660. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988.

Spalding, Ruth. Contemporaries of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675. Oxford: Oxford University Press, for the British Academy, 1990.

Spufford, Margaret. Small Books and Pleasant Histories. Athens. GA: University of Georgia Press, 1981.

Staves, Susan. Player's Scepters: Fictions of Authority in the Restoration. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

Tatham, John. The Dramatic Works of John Tatham. Eds. James Maidment and W. H. Logan. Edinburgh: William Patterson, 1879.

Thorn-Drury, George, ed. A Little Ark Containing Sundry Pieces of Seventeenth-Century Verses. London: Dobell, 1921.

Tilley, Morris Palmer. A Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1950.

Underdown, David. Revel, Riot, and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603-1660. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

Vann, William Harvey. Notes on the Writings of James Howell. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 1924.

Watt, Tessa. Cheap Print and Popular Piety, 1550-1640. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Watts, Robert. Biblioteca Britannica. 4 vols. Edinburgh, 1824.

Weber, Harold M. Paper Bullets: Print and Kingship under Charles II. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 1996.

Wedgwood, C. V. 1968. Poetry and Politics Under the Stuarts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968.

Whitelocke (plus date of entry) : Whitelocke, Bulstrode. The Diary of Bulstrode Whitelocke, 1605-1675. Ed. Ruth Spalding. Oxford: British Academy, 1990.

Wilkins, W. Walker ed. Political Ballads of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. vols. London: Longmans, 1860.

Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Revised edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Wilson, John Harold. Court Satires of the Restoration. Columbus: Ohio University Press, 1976.

Wing: Wing, Donald, et al., eds. Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 1641-1700. 2nd ed. 3 vols. New York: MLA, 1972-88.

Wood, AO. : Wood, Anthony. Athenae Oxoniensis. 2 vols. London: for Thomas Bennet, 1691, 1692.

Worden, Blair. The Rump Parliament, 1648-1653. 1974. Reprint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.

Wright, Thomas ed. Political Ballads Published in England During the Commonwealth. London: Percy Society, 1841.

Würzbach, Natascha. The Rise of the English Street Ballad, 1550-1650. Trans. Gayna Walls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Zwicker, Steven N. Dryden's Political Poetry. Providence: Brown University Press, 1972.

Zwicker, Steven N. Lines of Authority: Politics and English Literary Culture, 1649-1689. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Zwicker, Steven N. Politics and Language in Dryden's Poetry: The Arts of Disguise. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.

I. Anticipation

Martin Parker: The King Enjoys His own Again

The King enjoys his own again [undated]

England's Great Prognosticator [undated]

A Worthy Kings Description [before May?]

   Frequently imitated before and after the Restoration, Martin Parker's ballad was by far the best known of the popular cavalier songs of the civil war and commonwealth period, keeping alive in a communal form the wish that the king would soon return.20 According to Ebsworth, it was first printed between 1643 and 1646 in a five-stanza version entitled Upon Defacing of Whitehall, to the tune of "Marry me, marry me, quoth the Country Lass."21 But in several reprintings and subsequent versions, the tune -- and the stanzaic patterning that accompanies it -- soon came to be known and recognized as "When the King enjoys his own again." Several ballads printed during 1660 imitate other features of Parker's original, but making versions of it was not an activity confined to print since the familiarity of the tune and refrain would surely have provoked any number of ad hoc performances and versions among royalists.22 At least one vanquished cavalier wrote a version into his commonplace book.23

   Other notable ballads to this tune include the "trunk" ballad The Glory of These Nations, and The Last News from France which purports to offer Jane Lane's account of the king's escape.24 The tune remained popular once the king was back. One blackletter ballad on the coronation signed "By me O. G.," Englands Joyfull Holiday, or, St Georges-Day, holy[. . .] Honoured being the joyfull Solemnity, so long lookt for, of the Coronation of King CHARLS the second, who was most highly attended by all his Dukes, Earls, and Barons from the Tower, through the City to Westminster, where he was Crowned on St. Georges Day, being 23. of April: To the Tune, The King enjoys his own again, is printed on the verso of another ballad; a ms note reads "This page and fol 28b were covered with thick paper till 1881."25


[20] For Martin Parker, see DNB and Rollins, Cavalier and Puritan.

[21] Ebsworth, RB, 7:633-34. I have not been able to find the original of this ballad, also mentioned by the DNB entry on Parker, so have followed Ebsworth's text in the subsequent notes and comments when referring to this work.

[22] See Lois Potter, Secret Writing, pp. 33-5, on the singing of subversive songs by defeated cavaliers.

[23] Now in the Edinburgh National Library at shelfmark ADV l9.3.4(29).

[24] I have only seen the copy at GU Euing 181. This undated ballad provides such an inaccurate account of the events that it was probably issued shortly after the events it describes.

[25] The colophon reads: London, Printed for Richard Burton at the Horse-shoe in Smithfield; O Wood 401(27/28b).

The King enjoys his own again26

   Martin Parker


In its often imitated opening line, Parker's ballad refers to one of the more celebrated fortune tellers of the time, John Booker, engaging the theme of prophecy in order to describe a wish. Booker (23 March 1603-8 April 1667), was born in Manchester but apprenticed to a London haberdasher; disliking the business, he taught writing at Hadley School in Middlesex. According to Mr. William Lilly's History of His Life and Times, From the Year 1602, to 1681 (1715), "he wrote singularly well both Secretary and Roman" and served as clerk to various London Aldermen "and by that Means became not only well known, but as well respected of the most eminent Citizens of London, even to his dying day" (p. 28). His first almanack was Telescopium Uranium (1631). After successfully predicting the deaths of Gustavus Adolphus and the Elector Palatine, Booker gained the position of licenser of mathematical books. Elias Ashmole bought his papers for £140 -- "far more Money than they were worth" according to Lilly (p. 29) -- and erected a gravestone for him (Ebsworth, RB, 7:634). "To say no more of him," wrote Lilly, "he lived an honest Man, his Fame now questioned at his Death" (p. 29).27

   The original stanzas map a program of loyal resignation suitable for the second half of the 1640s when royalist affairs were going poorly. The stanzas added in 1660 touch on several topics that seem to have been commonly in the thoughts of hopeful royalists that year: reform of the universities, settlement of the church, agreement between parliament and the crown, and a return of many things -- prosperous trading, justice, law, security, peace, and marital harmony.

   There are two printed versions in the British Library, one in roman type, the other in blackletter, that presumably belong to the year of the king's return, though both are undated. The text given here follows the version in roman type (L1) rather than that in blackletter (L2), since it contains more substantive variants from earlier versions, suggesting a greater degree of revision specifically for the occasion. The major difference between the two printings is that the roman version maintains focus on domestic issues, trusting that treacherous "Rogues," rather than "Frenchees," will flee with the king's return (line 77). The xenophobic note, however, is sharpened in another version of this ballad -- England's Great Prognosticator -- which is given next.

[26] /.FL Wing: P441. Copies: L1 1876.f.3, brs. roman type COPYTEXT. L2 Rox. III. 256, bl brs. no use of roman. I have reported here only variants of whole words or phrases. HH [not found]. Ms variant at EN ADV l9.3.4(29). Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:682-84, based on text of L2.

[27] See also DNB.

The KING enjoys His own again.

To be joyfully Sung with its own proper sweet Tune.28
1: WHat Booker can prognosticate,
2:       or speak of our Kingdom's present state?
3: I think my self to be as wise,
4:       as he that most looks in the Skies:
5: My Skill goes beyond the depth of the Pond,
6:      or Rivers29 in the greatest Rain;30
7: By the31 which I can tell, that all things will be well,
8:      When the King comes Home in Peace again.

9: There is no Astrologer then I say
10:      can search more deep in this than32 I,
11: To give a33 reason from the Stars,
12:       what causeth Peace or civil Wars;
13: The Man in the Moon may wear out his shoon34
14:       in running after Charles his Wain.
15: But all to no end, for the times they will mend,
16:       When the King comes Home in Peace again.

17: Though for a time you see White-hall
18:       with Cob-webs hanging over the Wall,35
19: Instead of Silk and Silver brave,
20:       as formerly it us'd to have;
21: In every Room,36 the sweet Perfume,
22:       delightfull for that Princely Train;
23: The which you shall see, when the time it shall be,
24:       That the King comes Home in Peace again.

25: Two Thousand Years37the Royal Crown,
26:       hath been his Fathers and his own;
27: And I am sure ther's none but he
28:       hath right to that Soveraignitie.
29: Then who better may the Scepter sway38
30:       than39 he that hath such Right to Reign?
31: The hopes of your Peace, for the Wars will then cease
32:       When the King comes Home in Peace again.

33: Till then upon Ararat's-hill,
34:       my Hope40 shall cast her Anchor still,
35: Until I see some Peaceful Dove
36:       bring Home that41 Branch which I do Love,
37: Still will I wait till the Waters abate,
38:       which most disturbs my troubled Brain;
39: For I'll42 never rejoyce, till I hear the43 Voice,
40:       That the King's come Home in Peace again.

41: Oxford and Cambridge shall agree
42:       crown'd with Honour and Dignitie;
43: Learned Men shall then take place,
44:       and bad Men silenc'd with Disgrace,
45: They'll know it was then but44 a shameful Strain
46:       that hath so long disturb'd our[45] Brain,
47: For surely I can46 tell that all things will be47 well
48:       When the King comes Home in Peace again.

49: Church Government shall settled be,
50:       and then I hope we shall agree,
51: Without their help, whose high brain Zeal,
52:       hath48 long distrub'd our Common well
53: Greed out of date, and Coblers that do prate49
54:       of Wars that still disturb their Brain.
55: The which you shall see when the time it shall be
56:       That the King comes Home in Peace again.

57: Tho' many Men are much in Debt,
58:      and many Shops are to be set:
59: A Golden time is drawing near,
60:      Men shall take Shops to hold their Ware.
61: And then all our Trade shall flourish alamode,
62:      the which we shall e'er long50 obtain;
63: By the which I can tell that all things will be well
64:      When the King comes Home in Peace again

65: Maidens then shall enjoy their Mates,51
66:      and Honest Men their lost Estates:
67: Women shall have what they do lack,52
68:       their Husbands, who are coming back.
69: When the Wars have an end, then I &53 my Friend
70:      all Subjects freedom shall obtain.
71: By the which I can tell that all things will be well
72:      When the King comes Home in54 Peace again.

73: Though People now walk in great Fear
74:       alongst the Country every where:
75: Thieves shall then tremble at the Law,
76:       and Justice shall keep them in aw,
77: The Rogues55 shall flee with their Treacherie
78:       and all the Kings Foes most shamefulie,56
79: The which you shall see when the time it shall be
80:       That the King comes Home in Peace again.

81: The Parliament must willing be,
82:       that all the World may plainly see,
83: How they do labour still for Peace,
84:       that now these bloody Wars may cease:
85: For they'll57 gladly spend their Lives to defend
86:       the King in all his Right to Reign;
87: So then I can tell all things will be well,
88:       When the King enjoys58 sweet Peace again

89: When all these shall come to pass,59
90:       then farewell Musket, Pipe60 and Drum,
91: The Lamb shall with the Lyon feed,
92:       which were a happy time indeed:
93: O let us all pray, we may see the day,
94:       that Peace may govern in his Name:
95: For then I can tell all things will be well
96:       When the King comes Home in Peace again.61


[28] proper sweet Tune.] proper Tune.

[29] Rivers] River

[30] lines 5-6: Ebsworth suggests that "Booker's skill in measuring `the depth of a Pond, or Rivers, in the greatest rain'. . . was gained as an experienced Angler, and maker of fishing-tackle, resident in Tower-Street, temp. Caroli" (RB, 7:634).

[31] the] thee

[32] than] then

[33] give a] give you a

[34] shoon] shoone

[35] Wall,] wal

[36] Room] Roome

[37] Two Thousand Years] Full fourty years following Upon Defacing of Whitehall

[38] Scepter sway] Scepter to sway,

[39] than] then

[40] Hope] hopes

[41] that] the

[42] I'll] I'le

[43] the] that

[44] it was then but] it then to be

[45] our] their

[46] For surely I can] For I can surely

[47] will be] shal go

[48] hath] have

[49] line 53: Coblers, i.e. Col. John Hewson, a common butt of royalist satires because of his artisanal origins.

[50] we shall e'er long] ere long we shal

[51] Mates] Maiks L2. Ebsworth sees here evidence of a Northern printer, suggesting John White of Newcastle (RB, 7:684).

[52] lack] lake

[53] &] and

[54] the King comes Home in] we enjoy sweet

[55] Rogues] Frenches

[56] all the Kings Foes most shamefulie] the Kings foes a shamed remain

[57] they'll] they will

[58] the King enjoys] we enjoy

[59] shall come to pass,] things to pass shall come,

[60] Pipe] Pick

[61] When the King comes Home in Peace again.] GOD SAVE THE KING, AMEN.

England's Great Prognosticator62


This version of Parker's The King enjoys his own again more closely follows the text of the blackletter copy in the British Library (L2; see line 31) than the copy in roman type (L1), but displays sufficient independent and substantial variants from either to establish itself as a distinct variant. In several places, the versification has been improved. More generally, alterations here add edge to the satire against those who supported and benefitted from parliamentary government (eg. line 11), while shifts in verb tenses intensify the historical immediacy of the verses by signalling certainty that the king is about to arrive (eg. lines 21, 28-30). With the return of monarchy, the danger from treacherous "rogues" is replaced by that from "Papists" (line 95), adding international relations to the agenda: "a fig for Rome and Spain."

   One of several ballads published for Francis Grove to celebrate the events of 1660, this one bears an original cut representing an astrologer looking through a three-barrelled telescope alongside a stock cut of two noble knights riding.


[62] Wing: E2974A. Copies: GU Euing 96. E [not found]. Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93.

Englands Great Prognosticator,
Foretelling when England shall enjoy a settled peace and happinesse again,
Not by Planets, Signes, nor by Stars, But truly tells when ends these bloody wars.
To the Tune of, When the King injoyes his own again.


1: WHat Booker can Prognosticate
2: Concerning of our Kingdomes fate?
3: I think my self to be as wise
4: As most that gazes in the Skyes
5:      my skill goes beyond
6:      the Depth of Pond,
7: Or Rivers in the Greatest rain,
8:      by which I can tell
9:      all things will be well,
10: Now the King injoyes his own again.
11: There's neither Swallow, Dove, nor Dade,63
12: Can soare more high, nor deeper wade,
13: To give you a reason from the Stars,
14: What causeth Peace, or Civill wars,
15:       the man in the Moon,
16:       may wear out his shoon,
17: In running after Charls his wane,
18:       and all to no end,
19:       for the times they will mend,
20: Now the King enjoyes his own again.

21: Though for a time you saw White-hall
22: With cobwebs hanging on the wall,
23: Instead of Silk and silver brave,
24: As formerly it us'd to have,
25:       in every room,
26:       the sweet perfume
27: Delightfull for a Princely train,
28:       the which you may see,
29:       now the time it shall be,
30: That the King is come home in peace again.

31: Full forty years the Royall Crown,64
32: Hath been his Fathers, and his own,
33: And is there any more than he,
34: Hath right unto that Soveraignty?
35:       then who better may
36:       the Scepter sway,
37: Than he that hath such right to reign
38:       the hopes of our peace
39:       for the wars will cease,
40: Now the King is come home in peace again.

41: Till when, Ararat upon thy Hill,
42: My hopes did cast her Anchour still,
43: Untill I saw some peacefull Dove,
44: Bring home that branch which dear I love,
45:       till then I did wait,
46:       the waters abate,
47: Which most disturb'd my troubled brain,
48:       and never did rejoyce,
49:       till I did hear the voyce,
50: That the King enjoyes his own again.

51: Oxford and Cambridge still agree,
52: Crown'd with honour and dignity.
53: Learned men shall now take place,
54: Tub-men be silenc'd with disgrace,
55:       for they shall know
56:       'twas but an outward show
57: That they so long disturb'd their brain,
58:       so I can tell
59:       that all things will be well
60: Now the King is come home in peace again.


61: CHurch, Government shall settled be,
62: And then I hope we shall agree,
63: Without their helps whose hair-brain'd zeal,
64: Hath long disturb'd the Common-weal,
65:       Green's65 out of date,
66:       and the Cobler66 doth prate,
67: Of whimsies that disturbs his brain,
68:       the which you shall see,
69:       when the time it shall be,
70: Now the King enjoyes his own again.

71: Though many men are much in debt,
72: And divers shops are to be let,
73: A golden time is drawing neer,
74: Men shall want shops for their ware,
75:       all Trades shall increase
76:       by the means of a Peace67
77: The which ere long we shall obtain,
78:       for which I can tell
79:       all things will be well,
80: Now the King enjoys his own again.

81: Maydens shall injoy their Mates,
82: And honest men their lost estates,
83: Women shall have what they do lack,
84: Their husbands are a comming back
85:       when the wars have an end,
86:       then I and my friend,
87: A Subjects freedome shall obtain,
88:       for this I can tell,
89:       all things will be well
90: Now the King enjoys his own again.

91: People shall walk without any fear,
92: About the Country every where.
93: Theeves shall tremble at the Law,
94: And Justice keep them all in awe,
95:       Papists shall flye,
96:       with their trumpery
97: And then a fig for Rome and Spain,
98:       the which you shall see,
99:       when the time it shall be,
100: Now the King is come home in peace again.

101: The Parliament most willing be,
102: That all the world may plainly see,
103: Now they do labour still for Peace,
104: That all these bloody wars may cease,
105:       for they will spend
106:       their lives to defend
107: The King in all his rights to reign,
108:       so I can tell,
109:       all things will be well,
110: Now the King enjoys his own again.

111: When all these things to passe shall come,
112: Then farewell Musket, Pike, and Drum,
113: The Lamb shall with the Lion feed,
114: That were a happy time indeed,
115:       O let all pray,
116:       that we may see the day
117: That Peace may govern Charles his Wane,
118:       for then I can tell,
119:       all things will be well
120: Now the King enjoyes his own again.


   London, Printed for Francis Grove on Snowhill, without Newgate. Entred according to Order.


[63] Thomas Swallow, Jonathan Dove and William Dade all gave their names to well-known almanacs published throughout the century; see Bernard Capp, Astrology and the Popular Press, pp. 357, 358, 380-81. According to Ebsworth, each of them prospered during the commonwealth: "Swallow had been a corn-cutter, cheiropodist, in Gutter-Lane, helped into favour by Pennington's wife whom he literally set on her feet again. Dove, a cobbler at Whitecross-street, had told Sir William Waller that `The Lord would fight his battles for him!' and after Waller's success in Cambridgeshire Dove was rewarded, being subsidized as an almanack-maker. Dade, seller of fiddle-strings and pensioner of parliament, had fooled them with flattery" (RB, 7:634).

[64] "forty years" follows Upon Defacing of Whitehall and the blackletter version of Parker at@@####

[65] Probably a compositor's error for "Greed's" as in Parker, line 53.

[66] Presumably Col. John Hewson, commonly thus termed in satires of the time.

[67] An improvement on Parker line 61.

A Worthy Kings Description68

   [undated: before May?]

This anonymous and undated blackletter broadside loosely follows Parker's stanza, retaining the metrics of the refrain. It bears woodcuts that were also used by Charles Tyus for The Covenant.

   Evidently composed before Charles arrived, the ballad sets general conditions for, and details specific results of, his return, including the rare and potentially startling claim that, once Charles is back, "Then will his power be absolute" (line 32).

A Worthy Kings Description

1: Both Country and City give ear to this ditty,
2: Whilst that I the praises sing,
3: And fame his honour out doth Ring,
4: That best deserveth to wear the Crown;
5: For Worth there's none can put him down
6:      And this is no flattering, to describe a worthy King;
7:      His Subjects here their desires explain,
8: Desiring that he may enjoy his own again.


1: BRave news there is I understand,
2: Brought by one that late did land,
3: Many that heretofore were sad,
4: Their hearts full merry are, and glad,
5: And rejoice for his sake,
6: That amends will us make,
7: And will please us all as then,
8:      for he that we did lack
9:      is now returning back
10: For to enjoy his own again.

11: Fair England will be well content
12: With the chief of men in government,
13: When the Churches Champion smiles upon her,
14: Earths Majesty and Natures honour;
15: His foes unto him he will draw,
16: Hee's the director of the Law.
17: And the Nations Rights he will maintain:
18:      these things will appear
19:      before the next new year.
20: When the King enjoys his own again.

21: When the Scepter of mercy he doth hold,
22: And true Justice doth unfold,
23: And when he doth his own imbrace,
24: There you may see the glass of grace,
25: And the terrour of Treason
26: Which is but Reason.
27: The poor mans Cause he will maintain;
28:      no man can this deny,
29:      hee's the life of Loyalty,69
30: When that he enjoys, &c.

31: His command if Right is without dispute,
32: Then will his power be absolute:
33: In him Wisdome is very rife,
34: And his favour will lengthen life;
35: His Subjects his charge will be,
36: And his care for their safety.
37: This pleasure will true peace maintain,
38:      which we shall prove
39:      his joy to be our love,
40: When the King, &c.

41: His wisedome is not to be paralel'd
42: By all that e're the Scepter held,
43: 'cause it is without all equallity,
44: We hope no man can this deny:
45: He is of great renown,
46: And best describes the Crown;
47: For why he hath most right to raign,
48:      thus saith the Trump of fame
49:      that he describes the same,
50: For to enjoy, &c.

51: If for the same he be appointed,
52: And he be call'd the Lords anointed;
53: Like a King he must be served,
54: And70 be tenderly preserved:
55: Then he the head must be
56: Of the publick body:
57: If that his right he doth regain,
58:      he will tender of us be
59:      if that we live to see
60: Him to enjoy, &c.

The Second Part,
To the same Tune.


61: HE's a blessing over his people by place,
62: And Gods Vicegerent full of grace:
63: He is no forreign Conqueror,
64: But our Supream Governour,
65: His safety his Counceils cares,
66: And his health his Subjects prayers:
67: Whilst that on Earth he doth remain,
68:      his pleasure is his Peeres,
69:      that great Jehovah fears,
70: And to enjoy his own again.

71: And for to chear his Subjects sadnesse,
72: His content will be their gladnesse,
73: His presence must Reverenced be,
74: According to his high degree;
75: His person must not be scorned,
76: But his civill Court adorned,
77: When in fair England he doth raign,
78:      all men shall be free,
79:      and set at liberty,
80: When the King, &c.

81: What rightfull71 thing by him is said,
82: Ought not for to be disobey'd;
83: One thing cannot be denied.
84: That his wants must be supplyed,
85: Nor his place unregarded,
86: But Royally Rewarded,
87: And richly his state maintain:
88:      then let our prayers be
89:      these happy days to see.
90: That the King may enjoy, & c.

91: Although a God he cannot be,
92: Hee's more then an ordinary man we see,
93: Wee do hope hee's so divine,
94: That from the right hee'l not decline.
95: Nor yet will he delay
96: Gods laws to obey,
97: And all mens Rights for to maintain,
98:      which suddenly will be,
99:      when that men do see
100: That the King, &c.

101: I now crave pardon for this bold thing,
102: For describing of a worthy King,
103: And heartily for him will pray
104: Unto the Lord both night and day,
105: And under Heaven him commend,
106: That the Lord will him defend,
107: That he in this Land long time may Raign,
108:      these blessings then will be
109:      who ever lives to see
110: The King, &c.

111: Then shall London Conduits run with Wine,
112: With melodious noise of Musick fine;
113: Then Bells shall Ring, and Bonefires burn,
114: For joy of his gracious return,
115: From sorrow we
116: Hope to be free,
117: From Tyranny and slavish pain,
118:      then let us all rejoyce
119:      both with heart and voice,
120: When the King enjoys his own again.


[68] Wing: [Not listed.] bl brs. Copies: GU Euing 404.

[69] Loyalty] Lyalty copy text, perhaps intended to draw attention to the bad rhyme?

[70] And] Add

[71] rightfull] righfull

II. The Escape from Worcester

J. W., Henry Jones, & John Couch

J. W.,

The Royall Oak

Henry Jones,

The Royal Patient Traveller

The Royal Wanderer

The Wonderfull and Miraculous escape of our Gracious King

John Couch,

His Majesties miraculous Preservation By the Oak, Maid, and Ship

   Among the most popular themes that poets used to celebrate Charles's return was his seemingly miraculous escape from the battle of Worcester back in 1651. The flight from battle, the early days in hiding, and the escape to France six weeks later had swiftly become the stuff of both royalist legend and parliamentarian propaganda. In the months following the battle, the London press had kept busy publishing all manner of speculation and misinformation about the Scottish king's "mad design": widely-circulated news reports maintained that he had escaped into Scotland, or was disguised as a woman and living in London.72 After safely arriving in France in mid October, Charles himself turned misinformation into disinformation by confirming false reports of his route that had appeared in the London press in order to protect those who had helped him escape.73 But nine years later, he was keen that the truth should be told. As soon as he set sail for England, Charles "fell in disourse of his escape from Worcester,"74 subsequently taking a personal interest in setting the record straight and rewarding those who had taken risks on his behalf.75

   Understandably, accounts of the escape published in 1660 tended to rely on the familiar, though often unreliable, stories that had been in circulation since 1651.76 Some of the grosser fabrications disappeared, but errors, such as the soujourn in London which Charles himself had confirmed,77 are frequently repeated. In order to understand how the events of those weeks have been retold by the poets, some facts and dates are useful.

   On Wednesday, 3 September, Charles left the battlefield accompanied by his personal servants and a group of principal noblemen, including Henry Wilmot.78 On Lord Derby's advice, the group herded north where the king had good hopes of being hidden by the recusant underground. By 3:00pm on Thursday they had got as far as Whiteladies and stopped. Here Charles met the five Penderel brothers -- tenant farmers, royalists, and recusants accustomed to hiding people -- who would keep him safely in hiding for the next week. Charles paid off his servants and went into disguise. After a day spent hiding in the woods, with Richard Penderel, Charles attempted but failed to cross the Severn; they retreated to Boscobel House where Charles spent Saturday hiding in an Oak tree. That evening William Penderel cut Charles's hair in an attempt to disguise his overly familiar features.

   Meanwhile John Penderel and Wilmot had been planning an escape in league with Colonel John Lane, whose sister Jane had a parliamentary pass to Abbots Leigh, near Bristol, for herself, her cousin Henry Lascelles, and a manservant. On Sunday evening, following a day at prayer during which he suffered a celebrated nose-bleed, the disguised king, carrying a billhook, set off with all five Penderels to meet up with Wilmot and the Lanes. At Moseley en route, Charles took leave of the Penderels, ending his sojourn among this branch of the loyalist recusant underground. Early on the morning of the 10th, Charles met up with Jane at Bentley and, taking on the guise of William, her manservant, set out riding pillion with Jane for Abbots Leigh, where he would be safely among royalists and close to one of England's busiest ports. As the party approached Stratford, parliamentary troops scared off Jane's sister and brother-in-law, who turned back home. But the rest carried on unmolested, arriving at Long Marston for the night of the 10th. It was here that manservant "William" was scolded by a kitchen maid for being too incompetent to turn a roasting handle. Travelling next day to Cirencester, where they put up at the Crown Inn, the fugitive party arrived at Abbots Leigh on Friday the 12th. Here, despite attempts at disguise, Charles was recognized by a butler named Pope. Finding no boat from Bristol, with Pope's advice and connivance, Jane, Lascelles, with their manservant "William" travelled on into Dorset to Trent. Once plans for a boat to take Charles to France had been arranged, Jane and her cousin returned to Bentley.

   As events turned out, it would take several more weeks before Charles would find passage for France; he finally left from Shoreham on the 15th of October. News that the king had escaped in the company of a woman was in print within a month of his arrival in Paris on the 20th, so there must have been a leak in or around the Lane household.79 The recusant underground handled secrecy somewhat better; the Penderels only enter the story in 1660. In any event, Jane and Colonel Lane, determined to escape any danger, walked to Yarmouth and took ship for the continent in December. Once there, they joined the court in exile. Details of Charles's escape, once Jane Lane had left him, remained obscure to the poets of 1 and so need not detain us here.80

    Restoration accounts of the escape from Worcester are clearly interested in claiming historical accuracy, especially when verisimilitude might contribute to royalist legend and help legitimate regal authority. But the truth about Charles's kingship was to be a gradual and continuing process of revelation. New details were invented, while established rumours, such as Charles claiming to be the son of a nail maker from Birmingham, persisted regardless of their historical accuracy. Harold Weber describes the escape narratives operating a pattern of disguise and revelation that characterizes and legitimates Charles's paradoxical status, rendering the king both human and royally other. By 1660, his defeat at Worcester had already been turned to his advantage, representing not "a military victory over his own people, but . . . a conquest of their hearts."81 Recycling the escape story was ideally suited to keeping that conquest alive by rendering Charles, both man and king, knowable and familiar. In keeping with their popular form, the ballads favor comic inversion -- such as a kitchen maid calling the king a booby -- a device which serves to reaffirm rather than disturb the established order.

   Since none can be dated exactly, the broadside verses given in this section are arranged in the order in which the information they provide became available. The first three reiterate a remarkably similar repertoire of narrative details that had mostly been available in printed form since 1651: Charles leaving the field only after several horses were shot from under him, the subsequent cutting of the king's hair, his disguise, his distributing £300 in gold among his servants, his hiding in an oak tree, his further disguise as a servant to Jane Lane, the £1, reward offered by Parliament for his capture, his taking ship for France. Some anecdotes found in the first three ballads seem to be the stuff of irreducible but undocumentable legend, such as the disguised king claiming to be the son of a Birmingham nail maker. Misinformation from the 1 news reports persists into some of these accounts: the story of Charles and the kitchen maid is set at an inn in Bristol, and he is imagined visiting London before sailing for France.

   The fourth ballad given here, The Wonderfull and Miraculous escape, however, depends on information generally available only after the king's return and fills in some of the details of the first week after Worcester when Charles was in company with the Penderels. John Couch's broadside verses are less interested in reporting historical narrative than with transforming historical detail into the magical forms of poetic iconography. Allusions, both casual and detailed, to the providential-seeming nature of Charles's escape persist in Restoration poems throughout the year. Poems in later sections that make full use of the story include John Crouch's Mixt Poem, Thomas Fairebrother's An Essay, and Thomas Fuller's Panegyrick.


[72] See The last Newes from the King of Scots (for G. Wharton, 1651), LT E.641.(24), ms dated 29 Sept.; The Weekly Intelligencer 16, for 9-16 September 1651, reports on "the madnes of that Design" (p. 281); and see the fuller account from early November, A Mad Designe (for Robert Ibbotson, 1651), LT 669.f.16.(32).

[73] Printed reports of Charles's own account include The Declaration of the King of Scots (for G. Horton, 1651), LT E.645.(5), ms dated "10 November," and A Mad Design.

[74] Pepys, 23 May 1660. Twenty years later, Charles gave Pepys a full account; and see Matthews, ed., Charles's II's Escape from Worcester

[75] On rewards for those who assisted, see Richard Ollard, The Escape of Charles II after the Battle of Worcester (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1966), pp. 139-48.

[76] See Harold Weber, Paper Bullets, chapter on the escape from Worcester stories.

[77] See The Declaration, pp. 2-3.

[78] Alone of the noblemen, Wilmot stayed with Charles during the escape, becoming an important member of the court in exile. He was created Earl of Rochester on 13 December 1652, remaining engaged in royal service until his death on 19 February 1658.

[79] A Mad Designe and The Declaration appeared in early Novemeber. An undated ballad, The last Newes from France (Printed for W. Gilbertson), to the tune "When the King enjoyes his own again," at GU Euing 181, tells the story in the voice of the un-named Lady.

[80] Jane entered the service of the Duke of Orange, whom she attended to Cologne in 1654. In 1660, she was voted £1,000 by the Commons to buy herself a jewel; Charles gave her a gold watch that was to become a family heirloom; a pension of £1, was also voted her (DNB).

[81] Weber, Paper Bullets, p. 40.

J. W.: The Royall Oak82

   [undated: before 29 May]

This undated ballad printed for Charles Tyus says little enough about the much venerated Royal Oak itself, but takes the king from the battle field as far as France in the company of Henry Wilmot and Jane Lane: the subsequent legend of the tree itself has been traced by A. M. Broadley.83 This ballad necessarily simplifies along the way: Charles did not leave the battle field accompanied only by Wilmot, or stop in the oak on the first night, for example. The narrative of events given here reappears in an identical sequence in the next ballad by Henry Jones.

   Although the ballad bears the initials "J., W," authorship remains uncertain. Despite the peculiarity of the punctuation -- initials usually put first name first -- Ebsworth suggests that this ballad is "probably" by John Wade. He also assigns "J. W."'s The King and Kingdomes Joyful Day of Triumph to Wade (RB, 9:33-34). But in neither instance does he provide supporting evidence, and I have found none. This latter ballad was printed for John Andrews who also published "J. W."'s "A Second Charles Once more Shall Reign." Weber notes: "In A Bibliography of the Literature Relating to the Escape and Preservation of King Charles II after the Battle of Worcester, 3rd September, 1651 (Aberdeen: University Press, 1924), William Arthur Horrox suggests the uncertainty of the ascription to Wade, and provides a tentative date of 1660 for publication".84 Since nothing is added to the printed accounts of Worcester available since 1651, and since the king's "presence" is "proclaimed" (lines 6, 11) but not described, we may presume that the ballad appeared early in 1660, before Charles actually arrived.


[82] Wing: /not Wing/. bl brs. Copies: GU Euing 308. Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:65-66.

[83] See Broadley, The Royal Miracle.

[84] Weber, Paper Bullets, p. 221 n1.

The Royall Oak:
The wonderfull travells, miraculous escapes, strange accidents of
his sacred Majesty King Charles the Second.

1: How from Worcester fight by a good hap, Our Royall King made an escape;
2: How he dis-rob'd himself of things that precious were,
3: And with a knife cut off his curled hair;
4: How a hollow Oak his palace was as then, And how King Charles became a serving-man
5: To the Tune of, in my freedom is all my Joy.


1: COme friends and unto me draw near
2: A sorrowfull dity you shall hear,
3: You that deny your lawfull Prince
4: Let Conscience now your faults convince,
5: And now in love and not in fear,
6: Now let his presence be your joy,
7:      whom God in mercy would not destroy.

8: The relation that here I bring
9: Concerning Charles our Royall King,
10: Through what dangers he hath past
11: And is proclaimed King at last;
12: The Princes sorrows we will sing
13: Which the fates sorely did anoy
14:      and God in mercy would not destroy.

15: After Worcester most fatall fight
16: When that King Charles was put to flight,
17: When many men their lives laid down
18: To bring their Soveraign to the Crown,
19: The which was a most glorious sight;
20: Great was his Majesties convoy
21:      whom God in mercy would not destroy.

22: In Worcester battle fierce and hot,
23: His horse twice under him was shot,
24: And by a wise and prudent thrift
25: To save his life was forc'd to shift,
26: Without difficulty it was not:
27: Providence did him safely convoy
28:      whom God in mercy would not destroy.

29: And being full of discontents
30: Stript off his Princely Ornaments,
31: Thus full of troubles and of cares,
32: A knife cut off his curled hairs,
33: Whereby the hunters he prevents:85
34: God did in mercy him convoy
35:      So that they could not him destroy.

36: A chain of gold he gave away
37: Worth three hundred pounds that day,
38: In this disguise by honest thrift
39: Command all for themselves to shift,
40: With one friend doth night and day:
41: Poor Prince alone to Gods convoy
42:      His foes they could not him destroy.

43: These two wandred into a Wood
44: Where a hollow Oak there stood,
45: And for his precious lives dear sake
46: Did of that Oak his palace make,
47: His friend towards night provided food,
48: So their precious lives the did enjoy
49:      whom God in mercy would not destroy

50: Lord Willmot most valiant and stout,
51: He was pursued by the Rout,
52: Was hid in a fiery kiln of Mault
53: And so escaped the Souldiers assault,
54: Which searched all the house about,
55: Not dreaming the kiln was his convoy
56:      which God in mercy would not destroy.


[85] On lines 29-33, see Weber, Paper Bullets, p. 41.

The Second Part,
To the same Tune.


57: ANd relates King Charles his miseries,
58: Which forces tears from tender eyes;
59: Mistrisse Lane entreats him earnestly,
60: For to find out his Majesty,
61: And him to save she would devise,
62: Unto her house they him convoy,
63: Whom God, &c.

64: King Charles a livery Cloak wore than,
65: And became a Servingman,
66: And Westward rode towards the Sea,
67: Intended transported to be,
68: And Mistrisse Lane now please he can,
69: Which was the Kings fastest convoy,
70: Whom God, &c.

71: The Captain commanded his men,
72: To the Right and Left to open then,
73: For harmlesse Travellers he them did take
74: And an intervall for them did make,
75: And so they passed on again
76: Unto King Charles's no small joy.
77: Whom God, &c.

78: His Mistresse coming to her In
79: Left William her man in the Kitchin;
80: The Cook maid askt where he was born,
81: And what Trade that he did learn:
82: To frame his excuse he did begin,
83: Thus his sorrow was turnd to joy,
84: Whom God, &c.

85: To answer mild he thus begun,
86: At Brumigan a Nailers son:
87: When said the maid the Jack stands still,
88: Pray wind it up if that you will,
89: Which he did, suspition to shun,
90: And somewhat did the same annoy,
91: Yet did not the same quite destroy.

92: As those that were by do say
93: He went about it the wrong way,
94: Which angred the Maid the same to see,
95: She call'd him a clownish Boobee
96: In all my life that ever I saw:
97: Her railing caus'd him laugh for joy.
98: Whom God, &c.

99: After many weeks in jeopardy,
100: He was wafted into Normandy,
101: The God of Heaven for his person car'd,
102: The Ship-Paster had a great reward.
103: Thus the good Prince from hence did flye,
104: To suffer hardship he was not coy.
105: Which now will be this nations joy.

   FINIS. J. W.

   London, Printed for Charles Tyus on London-Bridge.

Henry Jones: The Royal Patient Traveller86

A unique ballad from the collection, now in the Bodleian, of Anthony Wood who dated it "1660" after the colophon, and noted above the title that the ballad was "Made by Hen. Jones an old Ballad-singer of Oxon."

   What is specially interesting here is Jones's invention and recounting of comic incidents at the king's expense involving class and gender inversions. These incidents serve to humanize the king without actually subverting anything. Jones is specially good when imagining Jane Lane slapping the king's face, one of several incidents original to this ballad. It is worth noting that as soon as Lane has awed the soldiers, thereby recovering the incident from danger by means of her nobility, Jones immediately attributes the king's escape to divine, not female, agency. A classic instance of low-comic inversion merely re-confirming the old orders of class and gender once more.

   Jones appears to follow the stragegy of J. W.'s Royal Oak with an initial warning to those hostile to the king's return, reminding us that monarchy was far from popular with everyone.


[86] Wing: J945. Bl brs. Copies: O Wood 401(171/172), ms dated "1660." Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:638-41; Broadley, The Royal Miracle, pp. 91-97.

The Royal Patient Traveller,
The wonderful Escapes of His Sacred Majesty King CHARLES the Second from Worcester-Fight; And his making a Hollow Oke his Royall Pallace. The going in a Livery Cloak with Mis. Lane. And the Discourse between the Kings Majesty, and the Cook-maid imploying the King to wind up the Jack; but being not used to do it, did wind it up the wrong way.
To the tune of, Chivy Chase, Or, God prosper long our Noble King.


1: GOd hath preserved our Royal King
2:      the second of that name,
3: And those that will not pray for him,
4:      indeed they are too blame:
5: For thousands have against him spoke,
6:      but I shall so disclaim,
7: And with all others have a care
8:      how they should do the same,
9: David we read had enemies
10:      that did him sore annoy,
11: So CHARLES the Second had the same,
12:      who is fair Englands joy.
13: In May it was the twenty nine,
14:      King Charles of high Renown.
15: Being his birth-day (as 'tis known)
16:      to London came to town.
17: But had you seen the tryumph made
18: And Bonfires flaming high.
19:      and all the people for to cry
20: God save his Majesty.
21: I will rejoyce at his happiness,
22:      and pray he long may reign,
23: And of some passages he had
24:      with honest Mistris Lane,
25: From Scotland he to Worcester came
26:      though friends did look about,
27: Yet Cromwel came with a mighty Force
28:      and did give him the Rout.
29: A journey long I am sure he had
30:      with frinds the loving Scot,
31: King Charles mounting himself so brave,
32:      three times his Horse was shot.
33: The King did therefore for his safety,
34:      make friends to have some pitty,
35: For so our Saviour he doth say
36:      as I write in this Ditty:
37: If persecution being great,
38:      of such then have a care,
39: So at that time tis very true
40:      one did cut off his Hair.
41: His princely cloaths he off did strip,
42:      and did himself disguise,
43: So of King Alfred I have read,
44:      that was a Prince most wise.
45: A Chain of gold that he had then,
46:      worth hundreds without doubt
47: He gave away unto a friend,
48:      who lead him there about,
49: Into a wood where Inns was none
50:      nor Lodgings there bespoke,
51: The best of Lodgings he could get,
52:      was in a hollow Oke.
53: O happy Oke (saith Mistris Lane,
54:      that ever I did see,
55: A Pallace for a Prince thou wast
56:      but he will go with me.


57: HEr Serving-man King Charles became
58:      For so he thought it best,
59: And she to free him from his foes
60:      Did travel towards the West.
61: For all the Land was up in Arms
62:      in City and in Town.
63: And for King Charles to find him out,
64:      it was a thousand pound.87
65: But Mistris Lane vertuous and wise,
66:      so much did understand,
67: What woful hunting they did make,
68:      for Charles of fair England.
69: For through a Town they then must pass,
70:      for there was no back Lane
71: The Horses heels then up did trip,
72:      and down fell man and Dame.
73: The Souldiers seeing of the same,
74:      at them did laugh and jeer,
75: And she suspition for to shun,
76:      struck him a Box on the Ear.
77: With angry words she seemed to speak,
78:      I think I am well mann'd
79: For such another I am sure
80:      is not within the Land,
81: To second it her brother in Law
82:      so much in anger spoke,
83: Well, must my Father then said he
84:      carry your mans Cloak,
85: It was too heavy then (said she)
86:      what need you be so cross
87: The burthen off it was so great
88:      it threw us off the horse.
89: Her nimble tongue and wit in prime,
90:      and being a Lady gay,
91: The Souldiers laughing at them then
92:      did let them pass their way,
93: God freed them from their Enemies
94:      For with him there is pitty,
95: At the three Crowns King Charles then lay88
96:      which is in Bristow City,
97: For in the Kitchin he was plac'd
98:      by his most loving friend,
99: And modestly he there did stand,
100:      fearing he should offend, 100
101: It made the Kitchin-maid much muse,
102:      she could not understand,
103: That in the Kitchin by her stood
104:      King Charles of fair England.
105: For being by the fire-side,
106:      She asked what Country man,
107: At Brumingham the King replyed
108:      and a Naylors son.
109: With bobs and speeches for some Sluts,
110:      in words they are not slack,
111: At her command King Charles must be
112:      for to wind up the Jack.
113: Though mildly he did take this task,
114:      it seems he did want skill,
115: The wrong way he did go about
116:      and did do it some ill:
117: Great Clownish booby she him calls
118:      yet he was meek and mild,
119: And though she us'd such taunting words
120:      He at her did but smile,
121: He venters to another house,
122:      Where people came so thick.
123: That all the day his Chamber kept.
124:      as if he had been sick.
125: But comming down one night indeed,
126:      he spyed a servant old,
127: And for a glass of Wine he craves,
128:      because he was a cold.
129: The Butler quickly him describd
130:      and knew he was the King,
131: With hat in hand thus did he say,
132:      you may have any thing.
133: So easily his Majesty,
134:      although in cloth so plain,
135: No notice of his words he takes,
136:      to his Chamber goes again,
137: The Butler being not satisfi'd,
138:      with courage spake he can,
139: Of master Lastel89 he must know
140:      how long he had that man.
141: And whispering he told him then,
142:      I know it is my Liege,
143: And do not do him any wrong.
144:      I do you now beseech.
145: Designs still failing, yet no doubt,
146:      to God he still doth yeeld,
147: And to a trusty friend he went,
148:      that then was in the field.
149: And for three weeks the King conceald
150:      and then did back return,
151: And for a time he made a stay,
152:      it seems in fair London:
153: Where he beheld such things as was
154:      sad to his tender heart,
155: Some grief at that time did he feel,
156:      from London he did part.
157: A Master of a Ship at last
158:      it seems was a good man,
159: Did Hoise up sail,
160:      and so to France, as I do understand.

   By Henry Jones of Oxford: Printed for the Authour.


[87] This was the sum offered by parliament for information leading to the king's capture. The Proclamation for the Discovery and Apprehending of Charles Stuart was issued on 10 September (LT 669.f.16[25]), and reprinted in newsbooks; see, for instance, The Weekly Intelligencer 37 (9 to September, 1651), pp. 285-86.

[88] A confusion for the "Crown" at Cirencester.

[89] i.e. Henry Lascelles.

The Royal Wanderer90

   [undated: before May?]
Although undated, this ballad was presumably among those produced by Francis Groves during the early months following Charles's return, a time when there was still a lively market for tales of the king's adventures that were as historically unreliable as this one. The link between Charles's exile and the wanderings of Aeneis, suggested by the title and the tune, is not pursued in the text. Nevertheless, the miraculous escape is once again imagined to be a sign of divine providence protecting the royal heir rather than the result of human agency and cunning.


[90] Wing: R2157A. Bl brs. Copies: GU Euing 312. Commentaries: Hazlitt, Handbook, p. 93.

The Royal Wanderer:
Gods Providence evidently manifested,in the most mysterious Deliverance of the Divine Majesty of CHARLS the Second, King of Great Brittain.

1: Though bold Rebellion for a time look brave,
2: Man shall not slay what God resolves to save.
3: To the sune of, The wandring Prince of Troy, or, Troy town.


1: WHen ravishing Rebellion reignes,
2: Then Loyalty is lead in chaines,
3: The Royall Princes of the blood,
4: By Traitors are not understood,
5:      but they could not his fate pull down,
6:      that was preserv'd for Englands Crown.

7: Witnesse the heat at Worcester fight,
8: Which put our Royall King to flight,
9: When twice a stately horse was there,
10: Shot under him by chance of warre.
11:      but all that chance could not throw down
12:      a Prince preserv'd for Englands Crown.

13: Yet was he forc'd to quit the field,
14: Princes sometimes to slaves must yield:
15: He with some faithfull Lords did fly,
16: To places for obscurity.
17:      And at a farm house there did he
18:      disrobe himself of Royaltie.

19: A chain of Gold, whose good account
20: Did to three hundred pounds amount,
21: He gave a trusty servant, and
22: Discharg'd them all from his command.
23:      then the Lord Wilmot with their knives
24:      cut both their hair, to save their lives.

25: Thus with one friend faithfull and good,
26: He wanders through an obscure wood:
27: Untill a hollow Oake unknown
28: Was made the King of Englands Throne,
29:      and all the succour that was brought,
30:      was by this Loyall servant sought.

31: But Wilmot in his wanderings,
32: A Souldier met of the old Kings,
33: That knew him, and with true good will,
34: Secur'd him in a Malt-house Kill,
35:      where he lay sweating, almost fier'd
36:      till Souldiers came, search'd, and retir'd.

37: 'Twas nere the house of Mistresse Lane,
38: Whose name let no wilde tongue prophane,
39: The Lord, with dangers much distrest,
40: Told how the poore King was opprest,
41:      to Mistresse Lane, whose sighs and tears,
42:      did shew her sorrows, griefs, and fears.

43: She humbly doth implore that he,
44: Would seek his sacred Majesty:
45: And bring him thither, that she might
46: Take speedy order for his flight.
47:      brave Wilmot he with eyes nere shut,
48:      till with much search he found him out.

49: Then from the hollow tree he brings
50: This heart of Oake, and best of Kings,
51: To Mistresse Lanes, where after shee,
52: Did kneel unto his Soveraignty:
53:      they call a counsill how he shou'd,
54:      in safety passe the Ocean flood.

The second part,
to the same Tune

55: BRistol was thought the privat'st place,
56: Where shipping might attend his Grace,
57: And as her servant William he,
58: Must cloak it in her Livery.
59:      Like wise before her he must ride,
60:      only her father in Law beside.

61: He was as weary of the Cloak,
62: As he was lately of the Oake:
63: But Master Lastell as most fit,91
64: Uncloak'd the King and carryed it.
65:      no danger in the way they saw,
66:      untill they met her Brother in Law.

67: The Brother spy'd and quickly spoke,
68: Sir, why bear you your servant's cloak?
69: But shee made answer, 'tis so great
70: That it doth thrust me from my seat.
71:      her Brother (answered thus by art)
72:      they talk no more, shake hands and part.

73: But note a change of more renown,
74: As they were passing through a Town,
75: They met a Troop of horse which might
76: Have put them all into a fright.
77:      but their good fate so gentle was
78:      they through the Captains troop did passe.

79: When they came to their Inne at night,
80: The Cook-mayd gave the King delight,
81: She asked his birth, and whence he came?
82: A Naylors son in Brumageham
83:      reply'd the King; prethee quoth shee
84:      my Jack in down, wind't up for me.

85: The King unus'd to deal in Jacks,
86: Winds up untill the tackling cracks:
87: At which the wench (if all tales true be)
88: Rayld at the King, and call'd him booby.
89:      the King went out and laught, but they
90:      next day to Bristol made their way.

91: At Bristol all their hopes were drown'd,
92: For no convenient ship was found:
93: From Mistresse Lane he parts, and goes
94: With trusty Wilmot 'mongst his foes.
95:      to London and to Westminster,
96:      ith'Hall, where the Scotch Ensignes were

97: He wandered up and down the Town,
98: By some conceal'd, to most unknown:
99: Twas not a thousand pound could make
100: Them their fidelities forsake.
101:      a ship is hir'd, the Master straight
102:      begins to understand his fraight.

103: Quoth he, what lading do you bring,
104: I surely know this is the King.
105: If I this strange, adventure run.
106: I shall be utterly undone.
107:      but with his heart they did prevail,
108:      and valiantly he hoysts up sayl.

109: Quoth he, if I on Tiburn swing,
110: Tis for the safety of a King:
111: And if he ever crowned bee,
112: He surely will remember me.
113:      the winds blew fair, Aver de grace
114:      in France became their landing place.

115: He rides to Roan, and writes from thence
116: To Paris, of Gods Providence.
117: The Duke of Orleance did come
118: With friends, to bid him welcome home.
119:      and now in London 'tis well known
120:      he was preserv'd for Englands Throne.

London Printed for F. Grove on Snow-hill. Entred according to order.


[91] Henry Lascelles.

The Wonderfull and Miraculous escape92

   [undated: before May?]
To the previous ballad accounts of the king's escape, this broadside offers the first version of the story of the loyal Pendrel brothers, members of a recusant family who helped disguise the king in the days immediately after the battle when Charles, accompanied by Derby, Lauderdale, Buckingham and Wilmot, sought refuge while planning his escape. Other reports of the Pendrel's activities to appear in 1660 include An Exact Narrative and Relation,93 and "T. H."'s The Five faithfull Brothers,94 a prose tract purporting to be a transcription of the conversation between Charles and the brothers after the king's return.

   With characteristic enthusiasm for the Stuart cause, Ebsworth considered this "the best and most important of the many `Restoration Ballads' of the `Royal Oak' which we have had the privilege of bringing back to the notice of loyal Cavaliers" (RB, 9:69).


[92] Wing: J945. Bl brs.
Copies: O Wood
401(173/174). Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:67-69.

[93] Thomason dated his copy "20 July."

[94] The colophon reads "Printed for W. Gilbertson, 1660"; L

The Wonderfull and Miraculous escape of our Gracious King, from that dismal, black and gloomie defeat at Worcester: Together with a pattern to all true and faithfull Subjects, by the five Loyall and faithfull Brothers, with their care and diligence, observance and obedience 8 dayes in the time of his Majesties obscurity.

   The tune is,Come lets drink the time invites.


1: COme you learned Poets let's cal
2:      our Fathers and our Mothers,
3: For wee'l write Historicall,
4:      of five Loyall faithfull Brothers.
5: Richard, Humphry, John and George
6: William once who had the charge
7:      of brave King Charles and others.

8: After Worsters dismall day,
9:      here's a true Relation,
10: How our King escapt away,
11:      and who was the preservation,
12: Of his Sacred Majesty,
13: In his great necessity.
14:      beyond all admiration.

15: He great Kingly acts did doe,
16:      with a brave intention.
17: Ventred Crown and Kingdoms too,
18:      in one day for our Redemption,
19: But in this Ile not insist,
20: The books doth make it manifest,
21:      beyond my wits invention.

22: For when he perceiv'd in sight,
23:      the un-even ground did rout him,
24: Five and twenty miles that night
25:      he rid with all his Lords about him,
26: But it would have griev'd your heart
27: For to have seen them all depart,
28:      What sorrow was throughout them.

29: Though with grief and double feare,
30:      they yet did hold together,
31: On the confines of Staffordshire,
32:      but to goe they knew not whether.
33: The conclusion in the end,
34: Earle Derby said he had a friend,
35:      hard by and they'd goe thither.

36: Then to the place they all did goe,
37:      where the Earle intended,
38: But the people did not know
39:      from what blood they were descended
40: But they set them Bread and Cheese,
41: And the King did highly please,
42:      his sorrow much amended,

43: The Earle of Derby in the end,
44:      all his mind disbursed,
45: Askt if there was any friend
46:      that wherein he might be trusted?
47: William Pendrall then came in,
48: Who said he would be true to him,
49:      else let him be accursed.

50: And further said if't 'twas the King,
51:      nothing should be lacking,
52: In any part that lay in him,
53:      for the escape which he was making.
54: And like unto the Turtle-Dove,
55: This honest William still did prove,
56:      in all his undertakings.


57: ANd George the yongest brother he
58:      made hast and set his clothing,
59: For his Sacred Majesty.
60:      cause the country should not know him
61: Richard he did round his haire,
62: For true Loyallists they were,
63:      all five were faithfull to him.

64: Humphry fetcht him Hat and Band.
65:      of the Country Fashion.
66: Shipskin gloves for his white hand,
67:      likewise John had great compassion
68: Fetcht him shirt and shooes the while,
69: Then the King began to smile.
70:      at his accommodation.

71: Richard fetcht his coat by stealth,
72:      and his best arrayment.
73: Then the King discriv'd95 himselfe,
74:      of his rich and Princely Garment.
75: Nimbly he did put them on,
76: And a Wood Bill in his hand,
77:      this was our Kings preferment.

78: William then went with the King,
79:      Richard he did leave them,
80: Cause Intelligence hee'd bring,
81:      least the Wood it should deceive them,
82: George and Humphry scouting were,
83: Seeing if the coasts were cleare
84:      none might come aneere them,

85: The tydings Humphry had in Town,
86:      put his vaines a quaking,
87: hearing twas a thousand pound96
88:      bid for any one to take him.
89: The King was somthing then dismaid,
90: To think what baits the Jews had laid,
91:      and horrid Plots were making.

92: All the day they wandred then,
93:      in great consultation,
94: Like forlorne distressed men,
95:      that ne'r were in such condition.
96: William to the King bespoke,
97: And said he knew a hollow Oake,
98:      might be his preservation.

99: Then through bushes they did rouze,
100:      the trees were so beronnded,97
101: With brakes and bryers leavs & bows,
102:      that in number they abounded.
103: It was the Castle of our King,
104: And his Royall Court within,
105:      for ever is renowned,

106: William he did bring him food,
107:      like he were a ranger,
108: While he staid within the Wood,
109:      though good King he was a stranger:
110: Hollow Oaks his dwelling place,
111: Where he staid for five days space,
112:      in sorrow and in danger.

113: At last he came to the Lady Lane,
114:      being all disguised,
115: And to her exprest his name,
116:      she good Lady then advised,
117: And appointed out a day,
118: When they both might come away,
119:      and never be surprised.

120: Then Humphry, Richard, John & George
121:      safly did surrender,
122: The King which they had in their charg
123:      on the eighth day of September,
124: The King he leave then took of them,
125: And said if e'r he came agen,
126:      their loves he would remember.

   Printed for F. Coles, T. Vere, and W. Gilbertson.


[95] sic: not in OED.

[96] The Proclamation was not issued until September, after the Penderels had handed Charles over to Jane Lane.

[97] "beronnen" obscure past participle of "berun": OED 1. trans "to run or flow about, or over the surface" 2. "To run round about, encompass."

John Couch: His Majesties miraculous Preservation98

   [undated: before May?]

John Couch was among those anglican divines who suffered sequestration during the civil war. In 1640 the living of St. Margaret's Church, Horsmonden in Kent, became vacant on the death of the rector Dr. Geoffery Amhurst.

   Dr Amhurst's place was first filled by one Elliston, and a little later Mrs Beswicke introduced John Couch, who in due course also found himself in trouble from the Puritan members of his flock, becoming a second victim of sequestration in 1653. He was supplanted by Edward Rawson, a recent graduate of Harvard, who is described as `a New England man and a violent Presbyterian.' . . .

   The unfortunate Mr Couch, with his wife and six or seven children, was turned out of the rectory with an allowance of only £20 per annum, but was able to claim the benefice again at the Restoration, a claim strongly resisted by Rawson, who made belated efforts to legalize his own position. It appears that neither contender had ever been legally inducted. Rawsons's battle-cry had always been `No bishop': now he found himself in urgent need of one, and twice contrived to secure an induction mandate (in August 1660 and August 1661) for the vacancy `per mortem naturalem Gaudfridi Amhurst' (who had died in 1647). These manoeuvres being subsequently declared to be invalid, John Couch was restored to the rectory amid general approbation in 1661, and held it until his death in 1673.99

   The most poetic, learned and witty of the Restoration broadsides on the king's escapades after Worcester, Couch's verses hearken back to the emblem tradition, meditating on three agents of the "miraculous" escape that are signs of a special providential promise to the nation. Not for Couch the narrative stanza of ballad form. Indeed, the heroic exploits of the English king outgo biblical, classical, and legendary precedents, just as the heroic virtues of the Englishwoman Jane Lane surpass and obliviate those of the heroic Frenchwoman, Joan of Arc. For this treatment of events, only the elevated style of the classical pentameter couplet would do.

   Couch imagines Charles endangered by lions and tigers in his flight across the English countryside, a peculiar poetic fancy that he shared with the writer of The Countrymens Vive le Roy.


[98] Wing: C6508A. brs. Copies: L c.20.f.4(38).

[99] Anthony Cronk, St Margaret's Church, Horsmonden: An Historical and Descriptive Account (Horsmonden: Church Farm House, 1967), p. 45. My thanks to B. E. Fowler, Clerk of Horsmonden Parish Council; personal letter including a copy of Cronk's notice, October 1995.

His Majesties miraculous Preservation By the Oak, Maid, and Ship.

The Oak.

1: WHen Absalom rebell'd against his King,
2: An Oak betray'd him to a suffering:
3: Boughs hang'd him first; then Joabs Dart,
4: Thrice striking, wounded his perfidious Heart.100
5: When second CHARLES by Rebels lost the Field,
6: An Oak 'gainst Rebels was to him a Shield;
7: It open'd wide, and in the Hollow where
8: Once lay its Heart, the King concealed there.101
9: Men may suspend their Thoughts, Trees can define
10: Rebellion sinful, Royalty Divine.


[100] See II Sam. 18.9-14 for the story of Absalom, the oak tree, and Joab's three darts.

[101] "This Tree is not hollow but of a sound firm Trunk, onely about the middle of the body of it there is a hole in it about the bignesse of a man's head, from whence it absurdly and abusively (in respect of its deserved perpetual growth to outlast Time itself) is called Hollow," An Exact Narrative, p. 9.

The Maid.

11: THe Oak discharg'd his Trust: a Female found
12: (Men are but Trees inverted from the Ground)
13: Who next takes care: the weaker seems the Hand,
14: The Wonder more admiring doth command:
15: The Sun was then in Virgo; Heaven's Maid15
16: Sent down a potent Influence and Aid:
17: They both agree: Acted by Starry might,
18: Lady Jane Lane conducts the King, in spight
19: Of Armed Bands, safe through the numerous force
20: Of Those, who King from Kingdom would divorce.
21: William was seen: As if sh' had Gyges Ring,102
22: Invisible went Royal CHARLES the King.
23: In vain ye search, Blood-thirsty Men, to find
24: Vail'd Majesty, her Virtue makes you blind;
25: Her Faith out-acts your Malice; and your Swords,
26: First drawn, are melted by her softest Words.
27: Silence in France of Orleans Jone the Fame,
28: Whilst England doth record the worth of Lane.


[102] According to Plato, Gyges was a Lydian shepherd who, discovering a magical ring that made him invisible, used it to help him usurp the throne; Republic 2.359d.

The Ship.

29: POor Cottage of the Sea, we admire thee,
30: Not for thy State, or Pomp, or Pedegree;
31: No Neptune and no Triton stand in Gold
32: About thy Deck, no Statues grace thy hold;
33: Nor Mermaids with their Combs; Nor Stars that make
34: Sometimes the Sea be calm, sometimes to quake:
35: No Pontick Masts, whose towring Summets shew
36: How high the Sun's above the Sea below.
37: Thy Oaky Ribs swell not the Forests Pride,
38: Nor canst thou boast of th'Ankers by thy side,
39: Nor Royal Sails: Ships fram'd by Art most wise,
40: Are thus ennobled of the vastest size.
41: Thy low Condition, various is from them;
42: Once thou secur'dst our King, the best of Men:
43: They Glory is, though mean, yet strong hast stood
44: 'Gainst Rage of Tempests, and 'gainst Waves of Blood;
45: When Lyons, Tygers, and those Beasts of prey,103
46: Hunted his Life, and most would him betray.
47: Talk now no more of Theseus Ship, no more
48: Of that which brought Prince Lothbrook to our Shore:
49: Drown ye the Fame of former Ships, none yet
50: Strange to relate before so small, so great:
51: Worthy of water, more renown'd then Thames,
52: Though the like Tagus yeilded Golden Sands.
53: If Springs of Helicon could make a Main,
54: Thou shouldst ride there, and Muses by their Brain
55: Would make thee more then Mortal; their sweet Breath
56: Would fill thy Sails, and long preserve from Death.
57: Depths are above the Clouds, those Waters there
58: May suit thee well, worthy the Starry Sphere:
59: But if in place beneath the Moon thou rest,
60: Which, for admiring Visitors is best,
61: Gaz'd on by thousands; and when aged Time
62: Thy Body shall dissolve, and Limbs untwine,
63: May Seamen holy Relicts them account,
64: And with them still the Waves when high they mount:
65: Each piece an Amulet 'gainst Shipwracks harm
66: Will stand; 'gainst Winds and Rocks a Charm.


   By John Couch, M. in A. sequestred from Horsmonden in Kent.


[103] Compare The Countreymen's Vive le Roy: "By Tigers, wolves and beasts of prey" line 14.

III. Hoping for the King
December 1659-April 1660

Calendar of Poems In This Section

J. W., "A Second Charles" [February?]

A Psalme Sung by the people, before the bone-fires (15 February)

Thomas Robins, The Royall Subjects Joy [late February?]

Upon the King's Most Excellent Majestie (February)
Variant reprints: (1) News From The Royall Exchange
(16 March), (2) "Arts Chaste Rule"

An Exit to Exit Tyrannus (17 March)

The Case is altered [after 16 March?]

Thomas Joy, A Loyal Subjects Admonition [after 16 March?]

An Exit to Exit Tyrannus (17 March)

The King Advancing (21 March)

"Upon the Kings Prerogative and Person", from The Case Stated (24 March)

John Ogilby, "The Second Charles" (28 March)
Variant reprints: (1) "The Second Charles
(2) in The Manner of the Solemnity (6 September)

England's Rejoycing at That Happy Day [March/April?]

Vox Populi Suprema Rex Carolus. Or the voice of the People for King Charles (April)

England's Genius Pleading for King Charles (30 April)

"Facidicus Possiblis," A Royal Prophecy [late April?]

Gallant News of late I bring [late April?]

Richard Flecknoe, "Pourtrait of His Majesty" [later in the year]

Preface: Hoping For the King

   The sixteen poems included in this section were printed during, or describe events from the perspective of, the period between December 1659 and the end of April 1660. They demonstrate how both poetic genres and political opinions were hesitant and uncertain during these months when royalists lived in hopeful anticipation of a return to monarchy. Experimentation in a wide variety of poetic genres contributed to the sense of general uncertainty about possible futures even as General Monk -- "the most important single agent in bringing about the Restoration"104 -- led his army south to London. These poems offer numerous revisions of recent past events, while also attempting to document the immediate present as closely as they can in order to interpret, advise, and set the terms for what they hope will come about. 105

   Milton scholars will be familiar with these weeks as the period when The Readie and Easie Way was being written and revised, in a desperate attempt to prevent a return to monarchy. Austin Woolrych's "Historical Introduction" to the revised seventh volume of The Complete Prose Works of John Milton (1980) provides an indispensible and detailed guide to the political and social activities of these weeks. In what follows, I will presume that readers will refer to Woolrych's account for a more fully detailed account of persons and events; here I seek only to offer a broad outline focussing on matters of interest to royalist poets.

   While General Monk was bringing his army south to London and negotiating with both Parliamentary and city interests, poets writing in support of restoring the king commonly set conditions, often quite specific ones, to that recall. Although Charles would not be formally acclaimed until Tuesday 8 May, during the previous two months, royalist poets expressed confidence that he would be recalled, and felt empowered to begin enumerating the advantages his return would, or should, bring to a broad range of social, economic, and political interests.

   Poems have been included in this group when there is evidence, usually marginal dates from George Thomason and Anthony Wood, for dating their availability, or if the work addresses events specific to this period but does not claim that the king's return has been formally proclaimed. This group has been further restricted to poems that advocate the king's return by directly addressing the figure of the king himself. Left out, then, are the large number of topical anti-Rump satires that Lucy Hutchinson remarked upon in her description of the king's return:

And indeed it was a wonder in that day to see the mutability of some, and the hypocrisy of others, and the servile flattery of all. Monck, like his better genius, conducted him, and was adored like one that had brought all the glory and felicity of mankind home with this prince.
The officers of the army had made themselves as fine as the courtiers, and everyone hoped in this change to change their condition, and disowned all things they had before adored. And every ballad singer sung up and down the streets ribald rhymes made in reproach of the late commonwealth and of all those worthies that therein endeavoured the people's freedom and happiness.106

    Lucy Hutchinson was by no means alone in her responses during the spring of 1660, and her sensitive account of what Christopher Hill calls "the experience of defeat," should come to mind whenever we are reading the often quoted words of Pepys and Evelyn.

   Also left out are all the verses, in a wide variety of genres, that were addressed to General Monk. Although I have included two broadsides that are properly anti-Rump satires (see A Psalme and The Case is Altered), I have not attempted to catalogue all such works; though doing so would enable us to examine how they represent the possibility of a return to monarchy. Recent studies by David Norbrook, Laura Knoppers, Nigel Smith and others have started to extend our understanding of these important works by examining specific titles, but a fully historicized and archivally informed study of anti-Rump satire is very much needed.107

   So too, Monk's importance as the subject of verse propaganda is sufficiently massive a topic to deserve independent study. I have included, as an appendix to this preface, a preliminary checklist of works containing poems to Monk: it does not claim to be comprehensive. The most deserving of close analysis are the verses addressed to him during the entertainments and masques held in his honor by the various London Guilds, many of which were subsequently published. How might the evidence of these omitted works change the picture of poetic activity that emerges from these sixteen pro-monarchy pieces? Do the satires on the Rump invariably recommend a return to monarchy? How influential were the various masques and "Entertainments" organized for Monk after his arrival in London? Leaving these works out remains a practical matter of limiting the scope of this edition to the work of a single life-time, but the consequences are worth briefly exploring.

   By including only poems addressing the king as a desired monarch, my concern has not been to suggest that poets constituted or imagined themselves an early consensus; on the contrary I am concerned rather with charting how the specific differences in form and attitude show a discourse being constructed from disparate ideological programmes. As these sixteen poems demonstrate, poets advocating the king's return in these months before his formal recall by Parliament frequently disagreed among themselves about what such a return should mean and how to write about it. Although the trade Guilds comissioned poets to address and advise Monk, and stationers comissioned ballads that encouraged pro-Restoration sentiments, such activities hardly constitute evidence that the press was being enrolled on behalf of an organized pro-Restoration campaign of verse propaganda during these early months. On the contrary, the common use of anonymous or false colophons and imprints on royalist publications -- such as "printed for Charles Prince, in the year, 1660" -- suggests there were still perceived dangers. Harold Weber in Paper Bullets has powerfully demonstrated how Charles and his governments used and controlled the press for their own purposes, but as Brian Weiser has noted, such efforts at control were neither uniform in operation nor consistent throughout Charles's reign.108 Certainly, during the early months of 1660, there is little evidence of a centralized royalist effort to control the published representations of the king. Moreover, poems representing the king were far fewer in number than the verse attacks on the Rump and the poems addressed to Monk which I have omitted, reminding us that the king was not yet fully the center of poetic attention.

[104] Harold Love, ed., The Penguin Book of Restoration Verse (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968), p. 96.

[105] On the conditional nature of the Restoration in popular writing throughout the year, see Carolyn Edie, ""Right Rejoicing" and ""News from Abroad."

[106] Lucy Hutchinson, Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson (London: Dent, 1995), p. 278.

[107] See Norbrook, Writing and the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627-1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), Knoppers, Constructing Cromwell, and Smith, Literature and Revolution.

[108] Brian Weiser, "Owning the King's Story: The Escape from Worcester," The Seventeenth Century 14:1 (Spring 1999): 43-62.

Monk Marches on London

   Diarists of the time confirm that these first months of 1660 were a time of hesitation and uncertainty. In December 1659, when Pepys began his Diary in anticipation of great events, it would not have seemed very likely, even to him, that the king would be back in power by May. Pepys recalls personal and family events, money troubles and illnesses, but keeps a keen eye on current events. For Bulstrode Whitelocke, negotiating with the Stuart exiles seemed a reasonable option before Christmas; for him, loyalty to the old regime proved impossible to maintain once the regicides, Thomas Scot and John Lambert, struggled to keep the Rump in power. Skirmishes and bloodshed as early as 5 December resulted from demonstrations on behalf of recalling the excluded members.

   Freeing Parliament from the Rump was on many people's minds; but not all were necessarily hoping for the return of a Stuart king. The General Counsel of the officers signed against kingship on the 13th. By the 20th of December, Whitelocke wished "himselfe out of these dayly hazards, butt knew not how to gett free of them, the distractions were strangely high & daily increasing," and later records personal and political anxieties over what Monk and the army would demand once they arrived in London. Many began fearing that the king would be recalled; on 2 January a bill was approved by all members of Parliament against the title of Charles to the throne.

   With the collapse of the Rump on 16 January, Whitelocke saw the tide turning and went into hiding. He noted increasing evidence that Monk was playing an ambiguous game from news that was being brought to him by his wife who, from then on, served as his public intelligencer.

   Meanwhile, in Essex, Ralph Josselin had been nervous of renewed civil disturbance since August 1659, but December was for him as for Pepys a month of family illnesses and reassuring reports that all seemed mercifully quiet in London. Reporting word of Monk's journey to London as early as 15 January, Josselin reserves judgment: "General Monck is coming up to London, wee shall see to what intent, god remember his in mercy and all shall bee well."

   Monk's journey south is the subject of the best known poetic account of events during the first months of 1660. Robert Wild's Iter Boreale may mostly be remembered for drawing Dryden's contempt in the Essay of Dramatic Poesy (1668). Wild, Eugenius pronounces, "is the very Wither of the City ... When his famous poem first came out in the year 1660, I have seen them reading it in the midst of 'Change time; nay so vehement they were at it, that they lost their bargain by the candles' ends."109 This scene of reading could not have occured until after 23 April when Wild's poem appeared, mere days before the Convention Parliament sat for the first time. Whether real or imagined, Dryden's recollection of a moment, eight years previously, when the appearance of Wild's Iter Boreale interfered with the more important business of making money, suggests a sustained interest in reading about Monk and his journey to London, at the head of the army that would pressure the Rump to restore the excluded members and dissolve itself, thus precipitating the call for Charles to return.

    By late April, Monk was already a national hero much celebrated in print. Since January, he had been the direct subject of more than twenty poems, while Charles was the direct subject of fewer than sixteen. On the second of January Monk crossed the Tweed and immediately began attracting a great deal of attention from poets and propagandists. In short order, the ruddy-faced Devonian squire became the subject of a mythology linking him with the legendary Christian knight, St George. Before Monk left Scotland, his name was linked with the patron saint of England, though by witty negation. "'Tis not Saint George we sing of here," declared The Noble English Worthies, a broadside that Anthony Wood collected in December. Monk's Westcountry origins were swiftly and regularly elaborated upon as the mythology of a new St George, the "glory of the West," took shape.110

   By Wednesday, 11 January he reached York and on this day "complete victory was his" (Hutton 1985: p. 84) since any danger of armed resistance from Lambert's supporters had crumbled away. On Saturday 14 January, Monk's fellow Devonians, the "gentlemen" of Exeter, took it upon themselves to be among the very first to declare themselves publicly in favor of restoring the excluded members111. Bulstrode Whitelocke recorded in his diary on 23 January that he had received word how a "tumult in Excester, the people declaring for a free Parlement, [had been] quieted" (Whitelocke, Diary, p. 563).

   During the last days of January, petitions for restoring the excluded members appeared from various parts of the country. Many were addressed to Monk personally. On 24 January, Canterbury and Northampton had joined Exeter petitioning for Parliamentary reform. On the 25th, Ralph Josselin cynically noted in his diary, "the nacion looking more to Charles Stuart [than to Cromwell's family] out of love to themselves not him." The republican and friend of Milton, Colonel Robert Overton, declared himself ready to defend Hull against Monk's army, if need be, until 12 March, when he obeyed the Council of State and handed the city over to Fairfax. 112

   Whitelocke, Josselin, and Overton were by no means alone in feeling ill-disposed to the way events seemed to be going as Monk and his army moved south on London. Not all writers wanted to see in Monk a new St George from the West. Before January was over, the mythology surrounding Monk took a new turn as he became involved in the published libels of the times. An obscene and scurrilous prose tract that George Thomason dated "20 Jan." and entitled To His Excellency General Monck. The Humble Petition of the Lady Lambert,113 imagines "Lady Lambert" offering herself to Monk, hoping to divert him from his course. Three days later, however, Thomason collected another tract, A Curtain-Conference, in which John and "Lady" Lambert are imagined in bed, planning for the inevitable return of monarchy. 114 Before Monk had even reached London, royalist satirists were already imagining the dissolution of the Rump to be inevitable, given unfolding events, and sought to defame and demoralize opponents of the movement toward monarchy. But verses addressed to Monk were seldom scandalous. On the last day of January, a broadside appeared advising Monk to bring in a king:

NOw George for England, that brave Warrior bold,
That would not be by Lambert's force controul'd;
But did endeavour for the good o'th'Nation,
We hope to work a blessed Reformation,
And settle Kingly Power in this Dominion,
And then thou shalt be great in the Opinion
Of all good people that do fear the Lord,
And then no doubt they will with thee accord,
And say, Long live brave George in Wealth and Peace,
Bless thee with Honors, Plenty and Increase.

   Once he arrived in London on 3 February, poets announced the arrival of England's new St George who would victoriously rout the dragonish Rump Parliament. Some advised him that he must bring in the king, others hoped he would. An acrostick from later this month shows how Monk's very name mysteriously offered him advice:

M    Mount thy Horse,
O    On thy Army bring,
N    Neuter stand till
K    Restores the KING.

   Historians have noticed how Monk's "studied neutrality" continued during his negotiations with political forces in the capital city.116 Throughout the year, poets continued to recollect various details of incidents that took place from the time of Monk's arrival, suggesting that many of them were themselves in London at the time, or turned to newsbooks to refresh their memories.

   On Wednesday, 8 February, two days after Monk first addressed the House of Commons, householders and freemen of the city of London petitioned the Lord Mayor not to permit any authority that could not rightly claim legislative authority. Their petition started a rumour that citizens were preparing to withold taxes, in response to which the Committee of Safety ordered the Secretary of State, Thomas Scott, to command Monk to use his troops to subdue the city. Almost immediately, the Common Council of the city voted a tax strike that would remain in effect until the excluded members were readmitted. The next morning, Thursday the 9th, Scott ordered Monk to display his power over the city by arresting those citizens named as ringleaders in the tax strike, by removing the chains used to secure city streets, and by removing the city gates. Monk equivocated. On the 9th, Monk reluctantly complied with part of the order, arresting nine of the eleven named ringleaders and removing the chains. But he demurred about taking down the gates until the 10th, and then only after receiving a repeat command to do so (see Davis 1955: 278-79; Hutton 1985: 91-93). The next day, however, Monk turned on the Rumpers and presented his own ultimatum demanding new elections. This was "the first good omen" according to John Evelyn. Others agreed. That night, 11 February, the citizens of London took back the streets in a night of bonfires and carnival that Ronald Hutton has called "possibly the greatest expression of popular rejoycing London has ever known" (Hutton 1985: 93).

   Details about these days of early February often surface in the works of poets writing after Charles had returned, and there is plenty of contemporary evidence that, for many who were caught up in these events, the tensions and excitement that began with Monk's arrival in London and ended with the bonfires of 11 February marked a moment after which the Restoration seemed a likely option, however much Monk might keep his intentions to himself. At the time, nothing was very certain. One supporter of the king who seems to have been printing his personal chronicle of these events even as they were taking place, a young law student named Giles Duncombe, captured the passionate uncertainty of eager royalists during early February in his Scutum Regale: The Royal Buckler; or, VOX LEGIS, A Lecture to Traytors: Who most wickedly murthered CHARLES the I, AND Contrary to all Law and Religion banished CHARLES THE II. 3d MONARCH of GREAT BRITAIN. Towards the end of his peroration against those who have brought down and kept out monarchy, Duncombe vividly describes the indignity felt by many Londoners when Monk destroyed the defences which had been erected against royal intrusion back in 1643:

Monck prov'd worse than Pharaoh himself, and instead of relieving of our distressed Jerusalem ... he heaped misery to misery, and executed such a grand piece of Tyranny that none in the world ... could invent. On Thursday the ninth day of February, 1659 ... he drew up all his souldiers into the City, with their matches lighted, in a warlike posture, doubled his guards, and tore down all the gates, and posts of the City; neither did his intoxicated malice stay upon the gates, but leapt upon the Aldermen, and other Citizens, whom he presently cast into prison, so that now he is become odious, and stinks in the nostrils of all the Citizens and People: and whereas he was the common hopes of all men, he is now the common hatred of all men, as a Traytor more detestable than Oliver himself; who, though he manacled the Citizens hands, yet never took away the doores of their City, whereby all manner of beasts, (as well the Wolves at Westminster, as other out-lying Foxes, and Birds of prey) may come in, and destroy them when they please. (pp. 373-74).

   Within three pages, however, Duncombe starts all over again with a new section -- "Englands Redemption" -- and finds himself recanting his earlier complaint rather than cancelling the earlier pages:

No sooner had I written these last words of the momentary prosperity of the wicked, but immediately the same hour, news was brought me, that General Monck and the City were agreed, and resolved to declare for a free Parliament, and decline the Rump ... I was strucken with amazement, joy made me tremble, and the goodnesse of the news would scarce permit me to believe it. (p. 377)117

   Duncombe's interrupted narrative makes Scutum Regale one of the most interesting ephemeral publications of the Restoration year. Advertized in the Parliamentary Intelligencer 22 for the week 21-28 May (p. 348), copies of Scutum Regale show evidence of considerable stop-press actitivity. The Virgilian motto "Iam redit Astræa, Redeunt Saturnia regna," used by Dryden in June, also appears as a motto to the frontispiece found in some copies of Scutum Regale, one of which comes from Charles II's own collection. The Epistle to the Reader, anagrammatically signed "Cimelgus Bonde," ends with a prayer for the arrival of "Charls the 2d our Augustus, and Cæsars Successor" (sig. A4v), suggesting that Duncombe may very well have been the earliest writer to name Charles as Augustus in print.

   Throughout February and March, verses addressing Monk and his heroic achievements battling the Rump continued to appear. On Tuesday 21 February, he brought in the excluded members,118 and poets were quick to celebrate the event in ballads such as Saint George, and the Dragon, Englands Triumph. Or The Rump Routed, which declares itself written "To the Tune of, Fill up the Parliament full," "G. Tichwhit"'s General Monks Welcome ... To the Tune of, When the King Enjoys his Own again, and Redemptio Ab Aquilone which ends:

Then George for England strike up thy Drum
And do thy devoir this Rump destroy,
That Noble King Charles the second may come,
And our streets may eccho with Vive le Roy.

   Similar works continued to appear during March (see Appendix). In this month William Davenant and John Denham published the first formal panegyrics addressed to the general on behalf of royalist interests. The Clothworkers and Drapers were the earliest of the London guilds to commission verse speeches addressing Monk to be performed at entertainments held in his honour. During April, the Skinners, Goldsmiths, Vintners, and Fishmongers all held entertainments for Monk involving performance pieces that were subsequently printed. On St George's day, 23 April, Wild's Iter Boreale appeared. Two weeks later, the Convention Parliament declared Charles king and by May, Monk had resigned his position as centre of interest to the poets. But not entirely. Monk continued to appear in poems directly addressed to the king and continued to attract poems in his honour well into the summer.

   Once it started to look extremely likely that Charles would be returned, poets began directing their attentions more directly to the man who was about to become king. Several ballads representing Charles appeared following the dissolution of the Rump on 16 March. Engraved portraits of Charles, with verses by John Ogilby, appeared early as late March, marking a distinct interest in the personal appearance of the future king. But during April, the presses remained relatively quiet on the subject of the king.

   This section ends with the formal verse "portrait" by Richard Flecknoe, although this undatable work almost certainly appeared later in the year.

[109] Cited by George de Forrest Lord, anthology of POAS, headnote to standard scholarly edition of Wild's poem. Did Dryden's attack on Wild have anything to do with the poem being published by Thomason, a friend of Milton? how was Dryden feeling about Milton at the time?

[110] See the broadside, The Glory of the West or, The Tenth Renowned Worthy, and most Heroick Champion of this Brittish Island. Being an unparallel'd Commemoration of General Monck's coming towards the City of London (London, printed for Charles Gustavus. O Wood 416(39), ms dated "January 1659"; L1 c.20.f.2(36), L2 82.L.8(25)) which seems to have appeared as early as January.

[111] See A Letter from Exeter, advertising the state of affairs there (Printed for Thomas Creake), LT 669.f.22(74).

[112] Whitelocke, Diary, p. 575; on Colonel Robert Overtson, see Spalding, ed., Contemporaries, p. 233, DNB.

[113] London, Printed for Henry James. Prose brs. LT 669.f.23(6), ms dated "20 Jan."

[114] A Curtain-Conference, Being a Discourse betwixt (the late Lord Lambert, now) John Lambert Esq; and his Lady, As they lay a Bed together one night at their House at Wimbleton. London, printed for W. L. the Common-Wealths Fortune Teller. Prose brs. LT 669.f.23(10), ms dated "23 Jan."

[115] Advice to Gen. Monck: By a Friend that wisheth his Happiness LT 669.f.23(19), ms dated "31 Jan 1660"; OW L.R.8(32), ms dated "Feb 1659."

[116] David Ogg, England in the Reign of Charles II, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934), 1:21.

[117] [Compare Pair of Prodigals on Monk's activities at this stage.]

[118] See Public Intelligencer 219 (20-27 February), p. 1119.

Appendix: An Annotated Calendar of Poems Addressing General Monk on the Eve of the Restoration, December 1659-July 1660.

   This list of verses addressed to Monk is certain to have omitted works that should have been included. It requires supplementing by a carefull examination of the many prose tracts in the Thomason Tracts and elsewhere.

   Works are calendared in chronological order; shelfmarks are given to copies I have examined and are not a comprehensive list of extant works.

December and January

   The Noble English Worthies. "'Tis not Saint George we sing of here." LONDON, Printed by Tho. Milbourn and are to be sold at his House in Jewen Street. brs. 0 Wood 416(24); LT 669.f.22(36), ms dated "December 1659"; L c.20.f.4(75).

   The Glory of the West or, The Tenth Renowned Worthy, and most Heroick Champion of this Brittish Island. Being an unparallel'd Commemoration of General Monck's coming towards the City of London. London, printed for Charles Gustavus. brs. O Wood 416(39), ms dated "January 1659"; L1 c.20.f.2(36); L2 82.L.8(25).

   Advice to Gen. Monck: By a Friend that wisheth his Happiness. brs. LT 669.f.23(19), ms dated "31 Jan 1660"; OW L.R.8(32), ms dated "Feb 1659."


   Saint George, and the Dragon, Anglice, Mercurius Poeticus: To the Tune of, The Old Souldjour [sic] of the Queens, &c. brs. LT 669.f.23(66), ms dated "28 Feb 1659/60"; OW L.R.8.32.

   Englands Triumph. Or The Rump Routed By the true Assertor of Englands Interest, Generall George Monck. A Sonet. To the Tune of, Fill up the Parliament full. London: Printed for James Johnson. O Wood 416(48), ms dated "Feb. 1659."; L1 c.20.f.2(34); L2 c.20.f.4(72).

   Redemptio Ab Aquilone, Or some Good out of Scotland, To the Tune of Cook Laurell. O Wood 416(46), ms. dated "1659: feb".

   "G. Tichwhit," General Monks Welcome (From the Citie) to Whitehall. To the Tune of, When the King Enjoys his Own again. O Wood 416(52), ms dated "Feb 1659"; OW L.R.8.32.


   Monasticon, OR LONDON's Gratulation to the Lord General. The sixth of March, 1660. brs. L 82.L.8(24).

    The Second Part of Saint George for England. To the Tune of, To drive the cold Winter away brs. O Wood 416(54), ms dated "March 1659/60"; LT 669.f.24(4), ms dated "7 March 1659/60."

   A Speech Made To The Lord General MONCK, at Clotheworkers Hall in London The 13. of March, 1659. at which time he was there entertained by that Worthie Companie O1 Wood 398(3); O2 Firth b.20(16); LT 669.f.24(8); L c.20.f.2(27).

   William Davenant, A Panegyrick to his Excellency, The Lord General MONCK. London, Printed for Henry Herringman, 1659. O Wood 416(66), ms dated "March"; LT 669.f.24(33), ms dated "24 March"; L c.20.f.2(25).

   A Speech Spoken to his Excellency the Lord General Monk, By one Representing the Genius of ENGLAND at Drapers-Hall, Wednesday the 28. of March. Printed for Richard Andrews. brs. LT 669.f.24(46); L c.20.f.2(26); OW L.R.8.32.

   Dialogue betwixt Tom and Dick The former a COUNTRY-MAN, The other a CITIZEN, presented to his EXCELLENCY and the COUNCIL of STATE, at Drapers-Hall in LONDON, March 28. 1660. (To the tune of I'le never love thee more.) O Firth b. 20(21); LT 669.f.24(49), ms dated "30 March"; L1 c.20.f.2(38); L2 c.20.f.4(63); L3 c.40.m.11(5).

   Walter Yeokney, A Speech Made to his Excellency The Lord General MONCK, and the Councell of State, at Drapers-hall in London: The 28th of March, 1660. At which time they were entertained by that honourable Company. "The Reader may take notice that the other Speech is a forged cheat, and disowned by Walter Yeokney." LONDON: Printed for Henry Broome at the Gun in Ivy-lane, 1660. O Wood 398(5); LT 669.f.24(46).

   [John Denham?], A PANEGYRICK ON HIS EXCELLENCY The LORD GENERAL GEORGE MONCK: Commander in Chief of all the Forces IN ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND. LONDON, Printed for Richard Marriot in Fleetstreet, 1659. L1 Ashley 624; L2 Lutt.II.72; L3 c.20.f.2(34); O Wood 319(8), ms note: "March: said to be made by Jo. Denham: see whether it be in his works -- -". See also Woods, AO (1721 ed) 2: 423. Banks in Poems accepts and includes this; O Hehir in Harmony from Discords isn't so sure (pp. 152-53).

   "T. B.", The Muses congratulatory Address to his Excellency the Lord General MONCK. "Awake ye sacred Quire the night is past..." O Wood 416(72), ms dated "March 1660"; LT 669.f.24(54), ms dated "5 April".


   A Speech to the Lord General Monck at Skinners-hall April the fourth, 1660. Spoken by Mr. W. Bard. London, Printed for John Towers 1660. O Wood 398(6); LT 669.f.24(55), ms dated "5 April".

   Walter Yeokney, A Song to his Excellency the Ld. General Monck, at Skinners-Hall on Wednesday April 4. 1660...The Reader may take notice that this is the right Speech, sung by W. Yeokney. Printed for William Anderson, 1660. L c.20.f.2(29).

   Thomas Jordan, A Speech Made to his Excellency the Lord General Monck, and the Council of State, at Goldsmiths Hall in London, the tenth day of April, 1660. At which time they were entertained by that honourable Company. London, Printed for H. B. at the Gun in Ivy-Lane, 1660. O Wood 398(7); LT 669.f.24(59), ms dated "11 april"; L c.20.f.2(30).

   Walter Yeokney, The Speech spoken to the Lord General Monck at Goldsmiths-Hall April the tenth, 1660. By Walter Yolkney. London, printed for John Towers. LT 669.f.24(58), ms dated "11 April".

   Thomas Jordan, A Speech made to his Excellency George Monck General, &c. The Twelfth day of Aprill, M.DC.LX. At a Solemn Entertainment at Vinteners-Hal. Wherein his Illustrious Virtues are shaddowed forth under the Emblem of a Vine. O Wood 398(8); Manchester Chetham Halliwell-Phillips #2746 (copy torn and cropped at bottom); LT 669.f.24(61), ms dated "13 April"; L c.20.f.2(31); OW L.R.8.32.

   Cyprian Southaick, Fames Genius. OR, A PANEGYRICK Upon tHis Excellency the Lord General Monck. At Vintners-Hall, Thursday the 12th of April 1660. London, Printed for J. Jones and are to be sold at the Royal Exchange in Cornhil, 1660. LT 669.f.24(62), ms dated "13 April".

   Thomas Jordan, A Speech made to his Excellency the Lord General Monck and the Council of State, at Fishmongers-Hall in London. The Thirteenth of April, 1660. At which time they were entertained by that Honorable Company. "After a Song of Difference betwixt the Lawyer, the Soldier, the Citizen and the Countrey-man. The Chorus being ended. Enter the Ghost of Massianello Fisher-man of Naples. [text] Spoken by Walter Youkcny [sic]". London, Printed by W. Godbid over against the Anchor Inn in Little Brittain. 1660. O Wood 398(9); Manchester Chetham Halliwell-Phillips #2747 (torn); L c.20.f.2(32) (torn); OW L.R.8.32.

   Bacchus Festival, Or, a New medley Being A Musical Representation at the Entertainment of his Excellency the Lord General Monck. At Vintners-Hall, April 12. 1660. brs. LT 669.f.24(64), ms dated "13 April".

   Robert Wilde, Iter Boreale. Attempting something upon the Successful Matchless March of the Lord General George Monck, From Scotland to London, The Last Winter, &c. By a Rural Pen. London, Printed on St George's Day, for George Thomason at the Rose and Crown in St Pauls Churchyard, 1660. LT E.1021(13), ms dated "23 April"; OB 910.h.13(26), Nicholas Crouch bought this copy for 1d in the 1690s.


   Richard Farrar, A Panegyrick to his Excellency the Lord General Monck. London, Printed by John Macock. May 22. 1660. brs. LT 669.f.25(29), date in colophon.


   "J. H." Englands Joy, Expressed in an 'EPINI'KON, To the most Renowned Man of Honor, and Temporal Redeemer of the Prince, Peers, and People of this Land, His Excellencey The Lord General Monck. London, Printed for M. B. 1660. brs. LT 669.f.25(50), ms dated "25 June".

   This broadside was attributed to James Howell by Hazlitt, but William H. Vann, in Notes on the Writings of James Howell (Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press, 1924), argues against the attribution thus: Payne Fisher left it out of his edition of Howell's Poems and Howell did not write "political verses", though some of the idioms are suitable. Vann suggests "If he did write the lines to Monk, he was probably the same J. H. who, on April 30th of that year gave forth "England's Genius Pleading for King Charles," a one-sheet broadside, and "England's Joy For the coming of King Charles II," May 4th. All these give evidence of the same hand; but I am doubtful whether Howell was the author" (pp. 62-3). Curiously, neither of these works, which are included in this anthology, are signed "J. H." The latter is by Henry Brome; a shorter version appeared under the title "For General Monk his Entertainment at Cloath-workers Hall" in Brome's Poems (1661).


   W. Drummond, Anagram Of his Excellency the Lord Generall George Monck, King Come Ore. brs. LT 669.f.25(63), ms dated "25 July"; HH [not found]. To be included in this anthology.

Undatable Poems to Monk

   An Essay to A Continuation of Iter Boreale, Attempting soemthing upon the happy influence, which that seasonable and successful march of the Lord Generall Monck Out of the North, had upon the Arts and Sciences. The Second Part. By a Lover of Learning. London, Printed for R.S. 1660. O Firth e.157(4).

   Robert Howard, "A Panegyrick to Generall MONCK," in Poems, pp. 283-5.

   William Moorhead, Lachrimæ Sive Valediction Scotiæ ... The Teares and Valediction of Scotland Upon the Departing of her Governour, the Lord Generall George Monck. By H. Brugis for the Author, 1660. Wing M613. O, OW, CT; CH, MH.

   The Noble Monk: OR, An Acrostical Panegyrick to the memory of his Excellency The Lord General Monk. London, Printed by Tho. Milbourn for the Author. brs. LT 669.f.23(49).

   The Pedegree and Descent of His Excellency, General George Monck. Setting forth how He is descended from King EDWARD the Third, by a Branch and Skip of the WHITE ROSE, THE House of York. And likewise, His Extraction from RICHARD King of the ROMANS. WITH The State, Title and Descents of the Houses of YORK and LANCASTER in their several Branches. London, Printed for W. Godbid 1659. OC A.73.(34).

   Samuel Pordage, "A Panegyrick to his Excellency General Monck" in Poems, sigs B2-B4.

   "J. W.", Englands Heroick Champion. Or the ever renowned Generall George Monck, through whose Valor and prudence Englands antient Liberties are restored, and a Full and Free parliament now to be called, to the great joy of the Nation. London, Printed for John Andrews a at the White Lion near Pye Corner. Bl brs. L Rox.III.246.

    The British Library Catalogue attributes this to John Wade, following Ebsworth, RB.

   "W. Y.", The Entertainment of the Lady Monk, At Fishers-Folly. Together with an Addresse made to her by a Member of the College of Bedlam at her visiting those Phanatiques. Printed 1660. O Wood 398(10).

J. W.
"A Second Charles" 119
[undated: February ?]

   The title has been torn away from the only copy of this broadside that I have been able to find, so I have adopted the catch phrase from the chorus.

   The "J. W." who signed this ballad remains obscure. The publisher, John Andrews, issued numerous early works celebrating the Restoration, including another broadside also signed "J. W.," The King and Kingdomes Joyful Day of Triumph, as well as a second issue of Alexander Brome's ENGLAND'S JOY For the Coming in of our Gracious Soveraign, A Glimpse of Joy, and "J. P."'s The Loyal Subjects hearty Wishes, which was found among the "trunk" ballads. Although written to a different stanzaic pattern, The King and Kingdomes Joyful Day of Triumph picks up the story of Charles's return exactly where "A Second Charles" leaves off, suggesting they may have been commissioned by Andrews from the same balladeer.

   Ebsworth has proposed that the "J. W." who wrote this later ballad may have been John Wade, who sometimes published his work with Andrews, and who often signed with his initials (RB, 9:33-34). The British Library catalogue has accepted that Wade was the "J. W." who authored a ballad to Monck, Englands Heroick Champion, which was also published by Andrews.120 Further, Ebsworth also attributes The Royall Oak, printed by Charles Tyus, and signed "J. W." to Wade, but with no special evidence in either case.121 In the absence of further precise evidence, while there is no reason to suppose that the "J. W." in each case may not be the same, whether it is Wade or not seems inconclusive.

   In this work, the king is implored, "Do but return and save us now," and promised that were he to do so, "we will Crown thy lovely Brow." These, and the closing lines of the ballad, are the only internal evidence for dating this ballad, and suggest that "A Second Charles" may have appeared early in the year, before or shortly after Monk entered London. Certainly the general terms of desire described here suggest a moment before it was known whether Monk would support a return to monarchy.

[119] Wing: [not Wing]. Bl brs. Copies: EN Crawford Ballad 990, removed from MR.

[120] Englands Heroick Champion. Or the ever renowned Generall George Monck, through whose Valor and prudence Englands antient Liberties are restored, and a Full and Free parliament now to be called, to the great joy of the Nation, Printed for John Andrews; L Rox.III.246.

[121] See "J. W.", The Royall Oak, included in "The Escape From Worcester" section of this anthology.

"A Second Charles"

OUr Age strange things hath brought to light,
And time hath chased away the night;
Now doth our Sun his beames display
And shows to us a lightsome day.
     England cheer up, do not repine,
     A second Charles his Sun shall shine.

Black and dark was our morning Star,
As darksome night or far blacker,
A woful change did so increase
10: Within our little universe:
     England cheer up, do not repine
     A second Charles his Sun shall shine.

But now our bright morning doth arise
And golden hopes doth paint our skies,
15: Which in our hearts doth comfort breed
Because in heaven it is decreed
     All sorrows let us now refrain
     A second Charls once more shall Reign.

And let us now our selves commit,
20: To him that doth in Heaven sit:
Our case that he to mind will call
After our sad and great downfall,
     That we this comfort may obtain
     That a second Charles once more may Raign.

25: He will us govern you shall see,
In Love, and Peace, and Unity:
And from all harms will us defend
'Gainst all that with us do contend.
     Each others love then we shall gain
When that a second Charles doth Reign.

He shall our King and Shepherd be,
And lead us to felicity:
To us he will example give
Even all the dayes that he doth live.
And peacefully he will us guide
     Unto those streames that sweetly glide.

And he will us so with love inure,
And cause us for to be secure
From all our forreign enemies,
40: And all Assaults and Batteries.
     He will our Rightful Cause maintain,
     When that in England he doth Reign.

Light out of darkness is now display'd,
Which was before in darknes laid;
45: True Oracles shall never fail.
Nor miracles to make men quail:
     Charles shall his Fathers right attain
     Over these Nations for to Reign.

And shall be seated upon his Throne,
50: Where many years there hath been none
Which is upheld with pillers four,
Justice, and Truth, Mercy, and Power.
     Earthly perfection we then shall gain,
     When that a second Charles doth Reign.

The second part, to the same Tune.


55: THen shall we hear sweet harmony,
Without him there's no melody:
He is sweeter to fair Englands minde,
Then any meat that she can finde.
     She doth desire him to attaine
And have a second Charles again.

He's our Physician, he can ease
Our mindes, and cure our disease,
And heal our drooping heavy hearts;
And also cure our outward smarts.
And Englands peace he will maintain
     When that a second Charles doth Reign.

Although our foes at us let fly,
And us assault with battery,
He will discomfort them we know,
70: By earthly powers here below:
     Of forreign Nations we love shall gain
     When that a second Charles doth Reign.

Charles is Englands resplendant Sun,
For want of whom we are undone:
75: d have been by tyranny
And seduced long by subtlilty:
     Now all our longings are in vain,
     Except a second Charles do Reign.

Charles show to us thy Rosie face,
80: With gentle offers of thy grace;
With reverence which we all admire
Thy graces which we all desire;
     Let all men palms and laurels bring,
     For to Crown Charles our gracious King.

85: Our sorrows then thou shalt subdue,
And all our former joyes renew;
Now lift us up with all thy strength,
Let us enjoy sweet peace at length.
     Our hearts doth in thy brest remain,
And we desire that Charles may Reign.

The Tyrant's dead that sought to spill
The innocent and him to kill;
Do but return and save us now,
And we will Crown thy lovely Brow
With praise and prayers once again,
     When that in England thou doest Reign.

Great Charles for thee we all will pray,
And for George Monck, both night and day,
And for his Army great and small
100: God bless and eke preserve them all:
     And for the Parliament again,
     That Charles the second he may Reign.

J. W.
London, Printed for John Andrews,
at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.

A Psalme122
15 February

   Although this anti-Rump satire anticipates the Restoration only obliquely, and addresses the king not at all, I have included it here since the treatment offered of the events of Saturday 11 February -- the day of the "roasting of the Rump" -- seems sufficiently important to warrant inclusion. Pepys recorded a detailed description of the celebrations following Monk's presentation of his ultimatum to the Rump. Returning home from Cheapside that evening, "it being about 10 a-clock," he noticed

the common joy that was everywhere to be seen! The number of bonefires, there being fourteen between St. Dunstan's and Temple Bar. And at Strand bridge I could at one view tell 31 fires. In King-streete, seven or eight; and all along burining and roasting and drinking for rumps -- there being rumps tied upon sticks and carried up and down. The buchers at the maypole in the Strand rang a peal with their knifes when they were going to sacrifice their rump. On Ludgate-hill there was one turning of the spit, that had a rump tied upon it, and abother basting of it. Indeed, it was past imagination, both the greatness and the suddeness of it.

   But there is nothing in Pepys's account that indicates he thought the spontanious joy in any way anticipated the king's return.

   Thomason dated his copy of this ballad on 15 February.

[122] Wing: P4148. Brs. Copies: O Wood 416(40), ms dated "1659" COPYTEXT; LT 669.f.23(43), ms dated "15 Feb."; CH microfilm of LT copy.

By the PEOPLE, before the
Made in and about the City of
On the 11th. of February.
To the Tune of Up tayles all.

COme lets take the Rump
And wash it at the Pump,
For tis now in a shitten case:
Nay if it hang an Arse
5: Weel pluck it down the stares,
And toast it at Hell for its grease.

Let the Divell be the Cook
And the roast overlook,
And lick his own fingers apace;
10: For that may be borne,
(If he take it not in scorne
To lick such a privy place.)

Though we are bereft
Of our Armes, Spits are left,
15: Whereon the Rump we will roast;
Wee'l prick it in the Tayle
And bast it with a flayl
Till it stink like a Cole-burnt Toast.

It hath laine long in brine,
20: Made by the peoples eyne,
So tis salt though unsavory meat;
Wee'l draw it round about
With Welsh Parsley,123 and no doubt
It will choak Pluto's great Dog to eat.

25: We will not be mockt
This Rump hath been dock't,
And if our skill doth not fail;
To feare it is good,
Or else all the blood
30: In the body, lean out at the Tayl.

Then downe in your Ire
With this Rump to the fire,
Get Harrington's Rota to turne it;124
35: If paper be lack't The Assessment Act 125
You may stick upon't least ye burn it.

But see there my Masters
It rises in blisters
And lookes very big in the matter;
40: Like a roasting Pigs eare
It sings, doe ye heare
'Tis enough come quickly the Platter.

Lay Trenchers and Cloth
And away bring the broth,
45: Did the Divell o'th Fag end make none;
But hold by your leave
Napkins we must have
To wipe our mouthes when we have done.

Come Ladyes pray where?
50: Will you none of our cheare?
Are yee of such a squeamish nature?
Pray what is your reason,
Are Rumps out of season?
But tis an abuse to the Creature.

55: Come wee'l fall on
Pray cut me a bone
The Meat may be healthfull and sound;
Fogh! come let us bury't
To th'hole we must carry't
60: This Rump it stinks above ground.

This fire wee'l stile
The Funerall pile,
The Grave shall be under the Gallowes;
The Vane shall be th'scull,
65: Of some Trayterous Fool,
And the Epitaph shall be as followes.

Underneath these Stones
A Rump-Corporates bones
Are laid full low in a sink,
70: And we doe implore yee
Let them rest, for the more yee
     Doe stir them, the more they will stink.


[123] Welsh Parsley: OED cites Fletcher, The Elder Brother (1625) 1.2. "In tough Welsh Parsley, which in our vulgar tongue, is strong Hempen Halters."

[124] Attempting to provide an alternative to a return of monarchy, James Harrington proposed a Senate comprised of annually rotating members: see The Rota: Or, A Model of a Fress-State or equall Commonwealth (LT E.1013(7), ms. dated "9 Jan."), and The Wayes and Meanes whereby an equal & lasting Commonwealth may be suddenly introduced and perfectly founded with Free Consent of the People of England (LT E.1015(14), ms dated "8 Feb." In the second edition of The Ready and Easy way to Establish a Free Commonwealth, Milton swiftly attacked such proposals for their "inconveniencies [which] cannot but be troublsome and chargeable, both in thir motion and thir session, to the whole land," Complete Prose, ed. Robert W. Ayers and Austin Woolrych, revised edition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 7: 441.

[125] When first printed, the Assessment Act passed in January ran to over ninety pages: Thomason dated his copy of An act for an Assessment of one hundred thousand Pounds by the moneth upon England, Scotland and Ireland, for six months (Printed by John Streater and John Macock) on 26 January, the same day it was passed; LT E.1074(27). The Act is reprinted in Firth and Rait, Acts and Ordinances, 2: 1355-1403.

T[homas] R[obins] The Loyall Subjects Joy 1
[undated: late February?]

   The two copies of this ballad I have examined indicate stop-press activity and suggest that the stationers William Gilbertson and Charles Tyus employed the same print shop. The copy of this ballad in the British Library has been printed on the back of The beautiful Shepherdesse of Arcadia. A new pastarell Song of a courteous young Knight, and a supposed Shepheards Daughter. To a gallant tune, called the Shepheards Delight, which was printed in London for William Gilbertson. The copy in the Euing collection of Glasgow University is identical apart from the title, which is given as The Royall Subjects Joy. In both instances, the stationer is named as Charles Tyus.

   Why has this ballad been ascribed to Thomas Robins, and not The Royall Subjects Warning-piece to all Traytors, issued later in the year, which is also signed "T. R." but bears no stationer's colophon?2 It may be mere chance that the two broadsides happen to be bound next to each other in the Euing collection, but they would seem to have been printed by the same press. But if they are by the same printer and author, why would Charles Tyus sign a piece of work early in the year when things might still have gone the other way, and then not sign what is presumably a later work?

   Robins was a prolific writer of ballads who seems to have been specially active in the period 1650-1670 (see Wing STC).

   This ballad is optimistic of the future if Charles and Monk can come to some agreement, so has been placed in late February. The claim that there is money at hand to pay soldiers their back wages is as optimistic as the hope that Charles will "pull all Taxes down."

[1] Wing: R87A and R1650D, variant title. Copies: L Rox.III.160a COPYTEXT; GU Euing 309, gives title as "Royall Subjects Joy."

[2] Although an anti-Rump satire, this ballad will be issued later in this anthology.

The Loyall 3Subjects Joy, OR,

Joyfull news to all that faithfull be,
And doth desire a happy year to see,
To see the same let all good Christians pray
That Charles in peace, may Crown and Scepter sway,
Then should we see such love in fair England,
No forreign Nation durst against us stand.
The Tune is, Sound a charge.


YOU Loyall Subjects all
sing for joy, sing for joy;
Good news here's at White-Hall,
sing for joy.
5: A second Charles is come,
Though heavy news to some,
Let them say no more but mum.
sing for joy, sing for joy.

Long time we did him want,
10: sing for joy, sing for joy;
Which made all trading scant,
sing for joy;
But now I hope that we
Shall better trading see,
15: And live in unity.
sing for joy, &c.

Our Royal Parliament,
I hope will give content,
20: sing for joy.
That Charles of high renown,
In peace may wear the Crown,
And pull all Schisms down,

25: For George our Generall
sing for joy,&c.
Let us pray both great and small,
sing for joy.
That faithfull he may stand,
30: For the good of fair England,
Then we will fight with heart and hand

For if Charles do wear the Crown,
35: And pull all Taxes down,
sing for joy.
Then Quakers look about,
For you will have the rout
of that there is no doubt,
40: sing,&c.

The Gospell flourish shall,
Heavens bless them at White-hall
45: Lord grant they may agree,
That we all may see,
And joyful unity,

[3] Loyall] L; Royall GU

The Second Part, To the same Tune.

FOr Sects and Schisms they,
50: sing &c.
Shall in England bear no sway,
sing, &c.
Quaker nor any other
Which would the Gospell smother.
55: If that he were my Brother,
sing, &c.

Good Souldiers will not daunt,
sing, &c.
What, though they mony want,
60: sing, &c.
Their Arrears are all at hand,
That will true and faithfull stand,
And be at Charles4 and Georges command.
sing, &c.

65: England rejoice with me.
sing, &c.
We happy days shall see,
sing for, &c.
For I hope all Trades will mend,
70: And cruell wars will end,
Peace so much will stand our friend,
sing, &c.

Merchants of high renown
sing, &c.
75: If Charles enjoy the Crown,
sing &c.
Most happy dayes you'l see,
Trading so good will be,
If Charles and George agree.
80: sing &c.

If all this to pass do come,
sing &c.
Then let both all and some
sing for joy.
85: Then will all Englands foes
Lament their grievous woes,
For fear of English blows,
sing, &c.

So to conclude I cry
85: sing, &c.
For peace and liberty.
sing, &c.
Let all true Subjects stand
For the good of fair England,
90: Under Charles and George command.
sing, &c.

So as I first begun,
sing, &c.
My Subject still shall run,
95: sing, &c.
Let all good Christians pray
That Peace may hear the sway,
Amen, Amen I say.
sing for joy, sing for joy,

T. R.
London, Printed for Charles Tyus on London-Bridge.

[4] Charles] ed; Charles s L, GU

Upon the Kings Most Excellent Majestie1 February; rpt. 16 March

   Soon after first appearing in February, Upon the Kings Most Excellent Majestie was re-issued as News From the Royall Exchange; both Woods and Thomason agree that the reprint appeared during March. This later version is almost identical with the initial printing apart from a few minor variants and a more explicit and longer title, which appears in double columns and reads thus:

News from the Royall Exchange: OR, Gold turn'd into Mourning: FROM

Exit Tyrannus Regum Ultimus An-}   {  ECCE!
no Libertatis Angliæ Restitutæ}   {Exit non Tyrannus, sed Regnum Homi-
primo. Januarii 30. Anno Dom.} TO{numq; optimus Anno Angliæ Fo/elici-
1648.   }  {tatis Ultimo.


The last Tyrant of Kings dyed in the first Year of}
the Liberty of England Restored, January 30.}
     {Behold! It was not a Tyrant King that dyed, but the
     {best of Kings and Men, that suffered in the last Year
     {of Englands Felicity.

   News bears one of the most common of the polemical false imprints to be found on royalist publications of the early months of the year, "London, Printed for Charles King. 1660." A further undatable variant reprint was issued, but the only copy I have seen has the title cut away.

   At issue in these broadsides is the inscription that had been set up in the Royal Exchange where a statue of Charles I had once stood. After his execution in 1649, the statue was removed and the Latin motto put in its place. This inscription was removed, but not until 15 March, later than the copy of this broadside dated February by Wood. For details of 15 March, see the broadside An Exit to the Exit Tyrannus.

[1] Wing: U1113. Brs. Copies: O1 Wood 416(55), ms dated "feb" COPYTEXT; O2 13. é.79(69) [reported missing since 1979]. Variant reprint: News From The Royall Exchange: / OR, / Gold turn'd into Mourning: / [text] / London, printed for Charles King. 1660. Wing: N1014. Brs. Copies: LT 669.f.24(15), ms dated "16 March"; L C.40.m.11(27); O3 Wood 416(69), ms dated "March"; MH; Y. Another Reprint: "An Anagram and Acrostick on CHARLES STUART KING." Wing (3rd ed): A3046A. Brs. Copies: L [listed Wing, not found]; OW L.R.8.32, title cut away.

Upon the KINGS Most Excellent MAJESTIE An Anagam & Acrostick. CHARLES STUART


Arts Chast Rule.


C Crowns of Gold with Gemms beset are vain,
H Heavenly Crowns of Content are 3Gain:
A A shaddow is the Throne this World affords,
R Riches and Honours are but weights with Cords
5: L Loading the Princes shoulders, who them bare,
E Each Common trouble call's for them to share.
S Soul therefore let thy Meditation 4
S Soar higher for a Habitation:
T Treasure up Goods where neither Moth nor rust
10: U (Undervalue things that turn to dust)
A Are able to corrupt, that so thy Heart,
R Rising above the highth of mans desert,
T Triumphing 5 may released be of smart.

[2] Acrostick-] O1; An Acrostick upon King Charles. O3

[3] are] ä are only OW

[4] Meditation] ä Mediation OW

[5] Triumphing] ed; Tiumphing O1; Triumphing O3; Tryumphing OW

Arts Chast Rule,7


15: TIll Arts Chast Rule we do approve,
And all things seek to win by Love,
We must all miseries endure,
Not Goods, nor Lands, nor Lives secure
Can we expect, when each day brings
20: New Changes, and new Sufferings:
Wherefore Call in and him Enthrone,
Who only can lay Claim to th'Crown;
Let not the towring minds of men,
Insult for private Interests then;
25: But Tribute give to whom 'tis due,
That so GODS Blessing may ensue,
Lest he O'return, o'return, o'return,
And many Towns and Cities Burn:
And waste the Nation, to perform
30: His Word which shall not be forlorn:
Who hath it promised to give,
To whom 'tis due as he doth Live:
Therefore do not his Word withstand,
But to Its Right restore the Land;
35: By which a Pardon you may find,9
When to Repentance ye're enclin'd:
That so in Peace your dayes may end,
Which in this World God doth you lend.

[6] Anagram.] O1; CHARLES STUART. / ANAGRAM, News ; om OW

[7] Rule,] O1; Rule. News

[8] Epigram.] ä om OW

[9] you] ä ye OW

The Peoples Complaint through want of their Exil'd Sovereigne LORD the KING.10

WEE Englishmen are worse than Æsops Frogs,11
40: We call'd those Tyrant12 Kings which were but Logs,
For when both Peace and plenty fil'd our Nation,
We not content cry out for Reformation;
Jove sent us Storks, who in short time devour
One hundred thousand Natives by their Power:
45: This strikes us to the Heart, and we bethink
How to repair our Chains, broak Linck from Linck.
We try a Parliament which doth not please,
We make of them a Rump, and yet not cease,
We reform our General to a Protector,
50: Who turn'd out Rumps, and play'd the gallant Hector.
He Parliaments did call, and they did come,
He turn'd them out and left an empty Room,
Till Jove call'd them aside by a great wind,
Who left us all to grope like those are blind;
55: For when his Son did take the Royal Throne,
We cry'd a Log, a Log, and threw him down:
We call'd the Rumps again we had before,
Who by a Cipher were turn'd out of doore:
A Safe Committee then did rule the Roast,
60: Of which we have no reason for to boast:
Our Rump did worm them out, and sat againe,
Till twice they Roasted were, which work't their bane:13
At last the Parliament of forty-eight,
Began to sit inth'House in former State;
65: At their re-sitting all the Bells14 did Ring,
Much more they will when we have Charles our King.15

Printed for Theodorus Microcosmus 1660.

[10] part break and title] ä; om OW

[11] Frogs,] ä; Foggs, OW

[12] Tyrant] O1; Tryant News

[13] bane] ä; baine OW

[14] Bells] ä; Bell O3

[15] we have Charles our King.] ä; that we have a King. OW

[16] colophon] O1; London, Printed for Charles King. 1660. News; om OW

The Case is altered1
[undated: 16 March-25 April]

   Although strictly an anti-Rump satire, this piece directly calls for the king's return and has been included here in order to keep the collection of "trunk" ballads intact. The text is defective in many places but the ballad evidently belongs to the moment between the collapse of the Rump Parliament on 16 March, and the sitting of the Convention Parliament on 25 April. Where the text is currently unreadable, I have sometimes supplied, in brackets, readings from Ebsworth's edition as marked in the notes.

   John Andrews, the stationer who produced this broadside, issued a satiric 8to pamphlet in August with a similar title: The Case is Altered; or, Dreadful news from Hell. In a discourse between the Ghost of this grand Traytor and Tyrant Oliver Cromwel, and Sir reverence my Lady Joan his wife, at their late meeting neer the Scaffold on Tower Hill. With His Epitaph written in hell, on all the grand Traytors, now in the Tower.2

   Like many anti-Rump satires, this ballad names a selective catalogue of the MPs and military leaders defeated by recent events, thereby providing an oblique and cryptic history of the final days of the Rump. After the collapse of Richard Cromwell's protectorate in May 1659, the case begins to alter. In late December 1659, Colonel Charles Fleetwood, Commander in Chief of the army, authorized Bulstrode Whitelocke to begin negotiating the return of Charles Stuart, and immediately ran into opposition from two mutually hostile directions: Sir Henry Vane, who was holding out against monarchy at any cost, and from the Council of Officers, who voted to dissolve themselves and approved the return of the Rump. On the day after Christmas, when the remaining forty-nine members of the Rump entered the House behind Speaker William Lenthall and the mace, both Fleetwood and Vane were politically finished.

   This ballad links Fleetwood with the meetings of the Rump during January, when William Say, M.P., carried the mace during Lenthall's illness, but the association is obscure. Somewhat clearer are the comments on Vane, who (along with Desborough and Lambert) had been ordered out of London during those first weeks of January, but did not finally leave until General Monk -- "Presbiter George" as he appears in this ballad -- ordered him to be escorted to his house in Lincolnshire on 13 February. The ballad recalls Vane's early years in Massachusetts, recommending that he be exiled there, since he would be certain of being hanged.3

   The second part of the ballad imagines the Rump, under Arthur Haslerig's leadership, playing a losing game of cards with Monk, who "turnd up the King for Trump." Invective is then directed at William Lenthall, William Prynne, Hugh Peters, and Colonel John Hewson, familiar targets of royalist invective at this time.

[1] Wing: C 871a. Bl brs, one of the unique "trunk" ballads. Copies: L c.120.h.4(3). Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 9:xvii-xix.

[2] LT E.1869(2), ms dated "6 August." See discussion of this tract by Laura Knoppers in Constructing Cromwell: Ceremony, Portrait, and Print, 1645-1661 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 176-78.

[3] See Spalding, ed., Diary of Bulstrode Whitelocke, and J. H. Adamson and H. F. Follard, Sir Harry Vane: His Life and Times, 1613-1662 (London: Bodley Head, 1973), pp. 409-15.

The Case is altered
Sir Reverence, The Rumps last Farewel.
To the Tune of, Robin Hood.

[Bo]th Commons and Peers
Come prick up your ears
[I would sing of] Bellona and [Ma]rs.4
I hope [I] shall [fit] ye
5: With a pleasant new dittie,
of a Rampant Nose and an Arse.5

The Politick Snout,
That hath a clear rout,
stood it'h midst of old Olivers face,
10: And when that nose dropt,
Their presently hopt,6
a pittiful Rump in the place.

Lord Richard and Harry,
Did quickly misc[arry]
and could not be [staunch]7 to their Daddy,
And old Bedlam [Jo]an,
Was left to make mone,
that she was not as8 good as my Lady.

[I]f Fleetwood the fool,9
20: Had neer gone to School,
his headpeece could not have bin weaker
In Archies void place,10
Let him carry the Mace,
before the Logge-headed speaker.11

25: Cl[own] 12 Desburroughs high shun 13
Will not hold the long run,
except blind Hewson translate um 14
He may supple his toes,
With the matter in the15 nose,
or with the sick Rumps Buminatum.16

Squire Lambert and's pride,
Are both hangd aside,
like an old rotten case and an Ink horn
He's left ith lurch,
35: That lookt ore the Church,
as the Devil lookt over Linc[oln].17
Aspiring Sir Vane,18
Is now to the [wa]ne,
for Presbiter [Ge]orge hath trapand him
40: Though when [ague]19 was it'h head,
He strook it all dead,
if any could understand him.

If the State do him spue,
From Old England to New,
I think [I am]20 no mistaker
That Church that can see,
Somwhat further than we,
would hang him up for a Quaker.

[4] line 3]; so Ebsworth restored the line, which now reads: [...] Bellona [...]

[5] Oliver and the Rump.

[6] hopt] popt Ebsworth

[7] [staunch] so Ebsworth

[8] as] so Ebsworth

[9] Colonel Charles Fleetwood (1618-1692), Commander in Chief in England during 1659.

[10] Archie Armstrong was James I's jester, according to Ebsworth.

[11] Ebsworth notes that the "Logge-headed speaker" was William Say, one of the regicides. He was presumably following DNB, or common sources, which notes: "On 13 Jan, 1659-60 Speaker Lenthall was allowed ten days' absence during illness, and during the interim Say filled his place." Excluded from indemnity, Say escaped to the continent.

[12] Cl[own] so Ebsworth

[13] Major-General John Desborough (1608-1680) had been active bringing about the fall of Richard Cromwell's protectorate (Spalding, Contemporaries of Bulstrode Whitelocke, p. 73). Why he should be called a "clown" is as obscure as the reference to his footwear, "high shun," which does, however, serve to introduce the link to cobbler Hewson.

[14] Colonel John Hewson (d. 1622), a regicide, was a substantial shoemaker who had supplied the army and was consequently satirized by royalists as the "cobbler."

[15] the] his Ebsworth

[16] Buminatum] Bummatum Ebsworth

[17] OED sb.22.i.: "Popularly referred to a grotesque sculpture on the exterior of Lincoln Cathedral."

[18] Sir Henry Vane, the younger (1613-1662), had not been a regicide but was executed after the Restoration. As a young man, he has spent time in Massachusetts where he served a spell as Governor.

[19] [ague] so Ebsworth

[20] [I am] so Ebsworth

The second part, to the same tune. [cuts]

PRince Arthur the bold,21
50: Hath late taken cold,
in playing at Cards with the Rump,
Cause he would not save,
Monck dealt him the Knave,
and turnd up the King for Trump.22

55: Th[e Discip]es23 nine
Tha[t ...] [...]gant o shine,24
like Apostles of John [o']25
Have lost all their hopes
And are worthy of ropes,
for the case is alterd like Pleydons. 27

But take the whole Rump,
All the Members in lump,
the whole house was clothed so thin,
That a cloud like one fist,
65: Grew to a Scotch mist,
and wet them all to the skin.

The Rump made us quail
With a sting in the taile,
whiles it did its venome disgorge,
70: But that Dragons confounded,
Lies bleeding and wounded,
with the Sword of our Englands St. George.

The Council of State,
Is quite out of date,
the sun is gone off their Diall,
Oh horrible thing,
They Murdered the King
let them have as fair a Tryall.

If Lenthal be dumb,
80: In serving the bum,
and cannot speak worth a fart,
Let gallant bold Prin,28
By vote be brought in,
and he'l set a spoke in their Cart.

85: Hugh Peters the Antick29
That was so long fran[tic]
stands now by himself like a sypher,
Yet Ile give him a stripe,
Because he loves tripe,
since he plowd with the Butchers heifer.30

And yet ere he pass,
Let him take 'tother glass
and drink it up all at a draft,
Weel bequeath as most due,
95: The bones of St. Hugh,31
[To] Hewson the man of our craft

Let England now ring,
To cry up a King
as our Parliaments principal head,
100: Till then you nor we,
Can be full nor free,
but our carcasses gasping for dead.

And now let me venter,
This caveat to enter,
That neither for fear nor affection,
So much as a stump,
[Of th]at reprobate Rump,
[be] ever had more in Election.

London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White-lyon neer Pye-corner.

[21] Arthur Haselrig was appointed to head the new Council of State of the Rump when it first met on 26 December 1659.

[22] The earliest use of a card game to describe the politics of the Restoration settlement, if I am correct in dating Laurence Price's ballad, Win at first, lose at last, after 29 May.

[23] Th[e Discipl]es so Ebsworth

[24] line 55] That [litter] of a swine so Ebsworth

[25] [o'] so Ebsworth

[26] Ebsworth enigmatically notes: "Bocold of Münster."

[27] Sir Thomas Pleydon was involved in Miles Sindercomb's attempt against Oliver Cromwell on 8 December 1656; see T. Burton, Parliamentary Diary, 1:355.

[28] William Prynne (c.1602-1669), secluded at Pride's Purge in 1653, returned to Parliament after the Restoration as M.P. for Bath. The comments here recall that Prynne had risen to celebrity for boldly speaking out against stage plays in Historiomastix (1632), passages of which had been taken as aspersions on Charles I for which Prynne was sentenced to life in prison and the loss of his ears in 1634. While in the Tower, Prynne continued to write against Bishops and was branded on the face with the letters "S. L." for "seditious libeller" or, as he himself insisted, "Stigmata Laudis" in reference to Archbishop Laud. See DNB, Spalding, ed., Contemporaries of Bulstrode Whitelocke.

[29] Hugh Peters (1598-1660), chaplain to the New Model Army, was among those executed for treason after the Restoration. DNB.

[30] Accusations of sexual misconduct between Peters and Cromwell's wife are not uncommon in royalist satire.

[31] St Hugh is the patron saint of cobblers.

Thomas Joy A Loyal Subjects Admonition 1 [undated: 16 March-25 April?]

   Broadsides produced by Francis Grove were most often anonymous, but this one has been signed "T. J." and has been attributed to Thomas Joy by the Wing project.

   Internal evidence suggests it belongs to the period immediately following the collapse of the Rump and before the Convention Parliament sat. These distinctly unmetrical verses encourage readers to be loyal to the king who is about to return now that Monk has rescued everyone from the tyrany of recent years. Mostly a catalogue of anti-Rump sentiments aimed at inciting the desire for just revenge, the accusations of property-grabbing by "Rebells" are especially interesting. I have been unable to establish whether Colonel Thomas Rainsborough (also Rainborow) did indeed profit from Higham Park as accused, but since he had died in 1648, the accusation itself is testimony to Joy's long memory and suggestive of a personal grudge.

[1] Wing: J39b. Bl brs. Copies: GU Euing 160.

A Loyal Subjects Admonition, or, a true Song of
Brittains Civil Wars.

Some with blind zeal, Religion did professe,
Murder'd their lawful King, oh wickednesse
Scripture nor Chronicle they could not bring,
To shew what subjects ever judged their King.
King Charls beheaded was wee understand,
Proud Rebels they did live upon his Land,
But now these Rebels are disperst and gone,
Few honest men I think for them make moan.
If any man be angry at this Song,
What e're he thinks hee'd best to hold his tongue.
To the Tune of General Moncks right march, that was sounded
before him from Scotland to London, or the Highlanders march.

GReat controversie hath been in England,
but of ye just cause there is few men do know,
Rebellion for certain, as I understand,
hath been the fore-runner of sorrow and woe,
For every Presbyter,
Struck at the Myter,
Till they had gotten the world in a sling,
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
10: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King,

The Scots did adventure at first to Rebel
And Englishmen quickly this lesson did learn,
But Lucifer tumbled from Heaven to Hell,
because his ambition be would not discern,
And therefore be wary,
lest he ensnare ye,
That count Rebellion a plausible thing,
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
20: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.

The City of London was zealous and hot,
to mannage the cause of the Scots government
Forten thousand souldiers they raised I wot;
to go a King catching it was their intent;
rich they would make him,
if they could take him,
Such fair pretences through Britain did ring,
But Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
30: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.

Much like a Partridge the King they did chase,
from mountain to mountain they did him pursue
They quickly dispersed all the Royall race,
with their Loyal subjects, these Verses are true,
then any Lay-man,
Brewer or Dray-man,2
Could make a Throne or a Pulpitt to ring,
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
40: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.


WHen with their base power they'd conquered his friends
they quickly surprised the Kings Majesty,
These zealots Religion, was for their own ends,
their Oath of Allegiance they then did defy
a Scaffold erected,
Murder effected;
Heathens ne'r acted so horrid a thing,
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
50: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.

But while these Rebells did thus tyrannize,
a terrible Governour quickly arose,
Although Kingly government they did despise,
'Twas treason to meddle with Olivers Nose,
for he like a Hector,
was their Protector,
Rebells had Shelter under his wing:
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
60: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.

This Tyrants government lasted too long,
for Rebels in England did dayly increase,
Yet none but poor Cavaleers suffer'd wrong,
while every Ass was made Justice of Peace,
and Cavys must stand sir,3
with Cap in hand sir,
At their command sir, in every thing:
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head
70: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.

Worshipfull Walton got Sommersome Park,4
without any labor or taking of pains,
And Wagstaffe that Major was counted a Spark,5
although he did live upon other mens means,
and Rainsborough nimble
sleighted his Thimble,
When Higham Park such profit did bring,6
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
80: Now let's be Loyal and true to our King.

These pittiful fellows are all put to flight,
which thought that their pleasures would never ha'end
For they in ambition did take such delight,
there's many supposes they'l be hang'd ere they'l mend
for they in their bravery,
acted such knavery,
Curbing true subjects in every thing,
but Monck hath confounded,
each prick-eard round-head,
90: Now let us be loyal and true to our King.

I wish with my heart all the Kings enemys
both Rebels and Traitors on Tyborn may swing
That every moment do mischeef devise,
and can't be content with a Protestant King,
Esquire Dun3 take them,
never forsake them
Untill thou make them peep through a string,
now Monck hath confounded,
each prickeard roundhead,
100: Now let's be loyal and true to our King.

Composed by loyal T. J. FINIS. London, Printed for F. Grove on Snow-hill.

[2] On satires portraying Cromwell as a brewer, see Laura Knoppers, Constructing Cromwell.

[3] Presumably to "stand" or keep "cave" in the schoolboy sense, here suggesting that Justices were appointed merely to stand on guard over the tyrants in power and to give warning at the approach of legitimate authority.

[4] Presumably Colonel Valentine Walton (c. 1594-c.1661), a regicide who married Cromwell's sister Margaret. Dispossesed by Monk and Parliament of his army position on 21 February, he escaped abroad. See DNB, and Spalding, Contemporaries of Bulstrode Whitelocke. I have been unable to locate Sommersome Park; it may refer to either Somerton or Somersham in Suffolk.

[5] Presumably the same "Wagstaffe" whose imprisonment by the Committee of Safety, together with Colonel William Okey and "other faithfull Officers," was deplored by the radical dissenter, William Dell, in December 1659; see Spalding, Contemporaries, pp. 71-2. In the late summer of 1649, one Captain Richard Wagstaff assisted Lambert in putting down Leveller insurgency in Oxford. See H. N. Brailsford, The Levellers and the English Revolution, ed. Christopher Hill (1961; rpt. Notingham: Spokesman Press, 1983), p. 565, who cites the following newsbooks: A Modest Narrative of Intelligence (8-15 September, 1649), Mercurius Elencticus (17-24 September, 1649), and Mercurius Pragmaticus (18-25 September, 1649).

[6] This accusation is particularly intriguing since the Leveller Thomas Rainsborough (or Rainborow), one of Cromwell's junior officers in the early days of the New Model Army, had died in 1648; see Brailsford, The Levellers, DNB. The estate of Higham Park, near Canterbury, Kent, dates back to the 1320's, but I have yet to establish any links to Rainsborough (see

[7] Squire Dun, not OED: here, presuably the hangman, death, or the devil when he comes to demand his dues.

An Exit to the Exit Tyrannus1
17 March

   Largely a complaint against the devilish regicides who martyred Charles I, and members of the subsequent tyrannical governments who brought the nation to ignominy, the ballad recalls the plaque that was put up to mark the absence of the king's former statue in Whitehall. It turns to Monk in its closing lines and urges him to bring in the king.

   Thomason dated his copy on Saturday 17 March, the day after the Rump formally dissolved, though the major incident referred to in the verses had occured the previous Thursday (see The Case is Altered). Noting that the tune belongs to Richard Corbet's "Merry Journey into France" of 1618, Ebsworth cites Madame de Witt's edition of the French ambassador's eye-witness report:

It was on the eve of the day when the Parliament was at length to pronounce its own dissolution [15 March] . . . A working painter, accompanied by some soldiers, and carrying a ladder in his hand, approached a wall in the city near the Royal Exchange, where eleven years before an inscription in Latin had been placed, Exit Tyrannus, regum ultimus, anno libertatis Angliæ restitutiæ primo, annoque Domini 1648. The workman effaced the inscription, and threw his cap into the air, exclaiming, `God bless KING CHARLES II!' The crowd joined its acclamations, and bonfires were lighted on the spot.2

    Pepys records the incident, from report, in similar detail, on the 16th, noting that it started at "about 5 a-clock in the afternoon" . Pepys's editors comment: "The man who obliterated the words was later identified as Michael Darby, 'now painter to the Company of Mercers'."3

[1] Wing: E3870. Brs. Copies: O Wood 416(61), ms dated "March 1659", COPYTEXT; OW L.R.8.32, reclassified from G.5.10(58); L1 c.20.f.4(249); L2 82.l.8(44); L3 c.40.m.9(68); LT 669.f.24(18), ms dated "17 March"; MH. Reprint: Ebsworth, RB, 7:663-64.

[2] Ebsworth, RB 7:662; citing M. Guizot, The History of England From the Earliest Times to the Accession of Queen Victoria, edited by Madame de Witt, trans. Moy Thomas, 3 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1877-79), 2:553.

[3] See Diary, 16 March 1660, citing Mercurius Publicus (23 August 1660), p. 534.

Upon Erasing that Ignominious and Scandalous Motto, which
was set over the place where KINGS CHARLES
the First Statue stood, in the Royall Exchange,

To the Tune of I made a Voyage into France, &c.


AFter curs'd Traitors damned rage
At length is come that happy age
Wherein our hopes are crown'd,
Our griefs are turn'd to joyes, and all
Our miseries and sorrowes shall
Be in Canary drown'd.


Thrice happy night which black as thee
Hast caus'd that Hell black doom to be
Made by a Tyrant Crew,
When to fulfill the Divellish lust
They'd make it seem both good and just
That they their Soveraigne slew.


Twas not enough with them to draw
Their Sword against the KING and Law
To Rob and Steale and Plunder,
'Twas not enough to act all Treason
Pretending still religious reason
This was in them no wonder.


Twas not enough they had destroy'd
Our KING, to make our name abroad
A mock and scorn to be,
But to adde further to our shame
At home they blast his glorious name
With markes of Tyranny.


Curst Generation of Hams tribe
Their wickednesse to him ascribe
And seek his fame to taint,
Of whom it justly might be cride
He was a Martyr when he di'd
And whilst he lived a Saint.
To palliate their seditious acts
They charge him with those odious facts
Which they themselves commit,
And 'cause they had by their own fault
Both Church and State to ruine brought
He must be cause of it.


Exit Tyrannus up they set
As if the Kingdome then did get
By this their Liberty,
When as indeed from this their crime
The Nation well might date the time
Of reall Tiranny.


We since have found their zealous tones
Have caus'd our true and reall grones
We see their Good old Cause,
Was only made for a pretence
To banish all our freedome hence
And overthrow our Lawes.


Oh CHARLES that Exit which they put
Up ore thy Statues Head was but
An entrance to our Woe,
That fatall Axe which thee divorc'd
From us, our happinesse hath forc'd
Into the Grave to goe.


But bless'd be providence that we
This happy Night have liv'd to see
Wherein for all their spight,
We see some hope that at the length
The Kingdome may recover strength
And thou regaine thy right.


Thy fame no more shall be defac'd
But with these glorious titles grac'd
Which are due to they merit,
Nor shall the babling Rout now dare
To exclaime against thee in their prayer
Or curse thee by the spirit.


Nor is't our happinesse alone
Thy disgrace is wip't out o'th stone
But does proceed yet farther,
Brave Monk has given an exeunt too
To those these Nations did undoe
And did commit thy murder.


Goe on brave George, and as before
Our Nation to her right restore
Call in the lawfull heyre,
Speake but an entrance to our KING,
And none but will thy praises sing
And blesse thee in their prayer.


The King Advancing1

21 March

   Once the Rump had dissolved itself, royalist propagandists began recalling the living memory of the martyred king in order to inspire the call for bringing in his son (see An Exit). These verses from a quarto pamphlet, The King Advancing, Or Great Britains Royal Standard, With His Majesties Gracious Speech to His Loyal Subjects; And the Investing Him in His Royal Throne, Crown and Dignities, purport to be a speech made by the Ghost of Charles I commenting on events shortly after the Rump's dissolution. After demonizing Cromwell and his supporters, the voice of the Stuart martyr proclaims the imminent arrival of his son, a more than Herculean hero, who comes to put things right. The verses are given in both Latin and English, the printing arranged so that the two versions can be read side by side.

   Rather than adopting an entirely Anglo-centric position, these verses notice that because Charles I was king of Great Britain, his son inherits "three Crowns" (line 27). Thomason dated his copy on Wednesday, 21 March.

[1] Titlepage: THE / King Advancing, / OR GREAT BRITTAINS / Royal Standard, / WITH / His Majesties Gracious Speech to His Loyal Subjects; / And the Investing Him in His Royal Throne, / Crown and Dignities. / [cut: royal arms surmounted with C R] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Charles Prince, in the year, 1660./ [enclosed within ruled box]. Wing: K547. Qto. Copies: O G. Pamphlet 1119(4), [A]-[A4v], page numbers [1]-7 mispaginated "2, 3, 4, 4, 6, 7" COPYTEXT; LT E.1017(28), ms dated "21 March"; OW Fairfax 417, the Huth copy; MH; Australia Victoria Public Library. Commentaries: Carew Hazlitt, p. 93.

[ornamental header] The Ghost of Charles the Great King and Martyr.

THe Sun was set, and Prosperpine had hurld
Lethean Poppy o're the silent World:
But night (whose calmness rocks the Earth asleep
Nurst up my cares, and did them waking keep,
5: When with a deep-fetcht grone I thought upon
The Churches fate, and Kings destruction,
The Moon straight through my window shining clear,
The Ghost of CHARLES did to my sight appear,
Not with that look and Majestie Divine
10: HE once on Earth, and now in Heaven doth shine;
But with an Aspect horrider then theirs
Who were his bloody Executioners:
So lookt (that Fiend of Hell) damn'd Noll, and all
Those Rebells that were guilty of his fall,
15: Whom Heaven now justly plagues. His face was thin,
His visage gast and pale, his eyes sanck in,
His wounded neck made his weak head hang down,
Unable to support the tottering Crown;
His un-comb'd hair, like one's affrighted stood,
20: His beard was covered o're with clotted blood,
He spoke to me in such a hollow sound,
One would have thought the voice was under ground:
Pitty (he said) my sorrowes, here you see
What fruit, patience and vertue brought to me.
25: My Senate, thus, made me a glorious Prince,
This was their promis'd Honour's Recompence.
That blessed rest three Crowns could never get
(Thicker with Thornes, then pearls or diamonds set.)
The dry Ax yeelded me; So from the slain
30: Carcase of Samsons Lyon hony came;
So Bryers roses, deadly poyson so
Produce good Medicines. From my death did flow
Peace to my Soul; I wish my enemies
May alike happie be, and my Blood's cryes
35: For ever silent; though I'm slain, Heavens bless
My Kingdoms! May they ne'r be Fatherless.
But! wishes fail! my blood from Earth doth rise
In reeking vapours, and ascends the skies,
Filling the whole Heav'n with its hollow cryes,
40: Straight (as a raging sea) the Devil reignes
I'th'giddie-headed-peoples pregnant braines,
Who with dissention some, like breaking waves
That force the sands out of their waterie graves
O're the high rocks, then rowl them back again
45: Into the deep; at length th'unruly maine
Throws down those banks that gave it lawes, and runs
O're the wide fields, till all one Sea becomes,
Till towns and forts are levell'd with the ground
And Princely Courts long built, the flood hath drown'd.
50: See how this antient Kingdom breathless lyes,
As if my soul with theirs did sympathize;
The Church too (sharing in my sufferings;)
Lyes by me, and her blood's mixed with her Kings!
But stay! Brittain take courage, from my rest!
55: All are not slain with me; vertue thrives best
When 'tis by cruell Tyrants most opprest.
As ætna in her stony brest doth cherish
A secret fire, which veines of Sulphur nourish
Till all inflam'd and weary of delay,
60: It forces through th'imprisoning Rock a way,
Shewing it's fierie face above the Ayre
The Tyrrhene seas with Brimstone boyl, the fair
Fields, are with burning coales scorch'd up, the shore
Trembles to hear the shaking mountaines roare;
65: In heards (like beasts) the fearfull neighbouring Clownes
Flee from their burning cottages and Townes;
A pitchy torrent following their swift feet;
My People so enraged by deceit
And heavie burdens under which they sweat,
70: On their oppressors spend their furious heat;
Then shall my Son (finding his foes despise
Their duties, and his Clemency) arise
With God-like strength; and to regain his right,
Herculean Spirits (all on fire to fight)
75: Will aid their injur'd Prince; whose bloody hand
Armed with lightening, shall disperse each band
Of brutish Gyants, and their mountains throw
(Together with their Carcases) below
Under their own ambitious dung-hill, thus
Fell Titan's son's and bold Enceladus2 80
In the Tinacrean Earth their bones are thrown
Whose hundred Anvils made all ætna groan.
O may my Chldrens Princely hearts nee'r fail
Amidst a thousand chances that assail
85: The fate of Warres! So unto God thereby
Glory may rise, next to my progeny.
And Kingdom, Peace, since strange effects Heavens King
Doth from contrary causes oft-times bring;
From Death came Life; light out of darkness shin'd,
90: Mans skill cannot his wayes and counsell find.
This having said, straight a Majestick face
And divine form, his humane shape did grace;
Paleness and horrour from his grim look flies,
His cheeks Roses adorn'd; his serene eyes
95: Darted out pleasing rayes. Then, like the bright
Sun, having put on a glorious light,
Hee fled to Heaven, and vanisht out of sight.


[2] Born to Titan out of Terra, Enceladus was the most powerul of the Titans to revolt against Jupiter, for which he was struck with thunder and imprisoned under Mount Aetna: compare William Fairebrother's verses addressed to the Houses of Parliament in his An Essay of a Loyal Brest, lines 1-12.

"Upon the Kings Prerogative and Person"
The Case Stated
Touching the Soveraign's Prerogative1

24 March

   Thomason dated his copy of this polemical tract on 24 March. But who wrote it and who was hiding behind the colophon "Printed for Charles King," I have been unable to discover. The following verses appear on p. 8.

   Although blaming "haughty Rebels" rather than particular regicides or Rumpers, the verses also attribute responsibilty for events following the execution of Charles I to the nation at large.

[1] Titlepage: The Case stated   Touching the   SOVERAIGN'S   PREROGATIVE   AND THE   Peoples Liberty,   According to Scripture, Reason, and the   Consent of our Ancestors.   Humbly offered to the Right Honorable   GENERAL MONCK,   And the   OFFICERS in the ARMY.   [rule]   Regi qui perfidus, nulli fidus.   [rule]   London, Printed for Charles King. 1660.   [text] Wing: C1205. Verses p. 8. Copies: LT E.1017(40), ms dated "24 March" COPYTEXT; OFX Fairfax collection (dispersed); MH; NU; Y; WF 189631.

Upon the Kings PREROGATIVE

PRerogative and Person, both were free
From Subjects Malice and Malignity;
Till haughty Rebels, illegitimate
From true Obedience, chang'd our setled State
5: From Sacred Kingship, leaving no Spark
Of Light in Government: All clouded, dark,
Like the first Chaos; full of dire Confusion,
No Spirit mov'd, but that of strong Delusion:
Whose Hellish Breath drave us to Wars, and Murther,
10: Ev'n of our Sacred Master; Nay, went further,
We Banish'd into Exile, HIM, whom now
Upon our second thoughts, we fain would bow
Unto, and Worship, if he would permit
Himself (as Idol) on His Throne to sit.
15: Which thing he hates: For the Decree of God
Ordains, that Rebels ought to kiss the Rod.
Therefore embrace your Sov'raign, and Proclaim
Him Lawful King; and so blot out your Shame.

John Ogilby
"The Second Charles"
28 March

   Calling on Charles to ascend the throne, John Ogilby's verses accompanyed several of the earliest engraved portraits of the future king. Combining typological implications with epigrammatic poise, Ogilby's lines urge the "Second Charles," son of a Christ-like martyr, to fulfil the divinely ordained mission of revenge implicit in his regal inheritance. Given their contextual appearance as glosses on engraved images of the king, the verses must surely have attracted attention from readers who like to look at pictures.

   Such engravings were evidently available from as early as late March, corresponding to the post-Rump period when we have seen broadside verses calling on Charles II by re-calling the memory of his martyred father. In a notebook entry dated "March 28th. Wednesday" -- confirming that the year was 1660 -- Thomas Hearne transcribed the lines and noted: "Out of Mr. Tho. Rawlinsons Notebook CC. K. Charles the 2d. a Cutt. Guil. Faithorne sculp. motto Dieu et mon Droit." This note leaves it unclear whether he copied the verses and motto from Rawlinson, or from the Faithorne engraving, and I have been unable to find the lines in Rawlinson's notebooks. In giving the verses from the printed version accompanying Faithorne's portrait below, I have, for the curious, noted all variants in Hearne's transcription.

   The Faithorne engraving, showing Charles in wig and armour, was reprinted as a frontispiece by George de Forrest Lord for the first volume of his Poems on Affairs of State. Louis Alexander Fagan writes: "This plate, intended for a book, was afterwards cut down and used for deeds and public instruments. There is a copy measuring 14 1/2 in. by 10 1/2 in.; no background, and inscription below; but with Faithorne's name, and with the motto in ribbon above."1

   John Ogilby's name was signed in full to a reissue of the verses accompanying a three-quarter length portait of Charles by Chantry after an original by Nason. This six-line version is given below as Variant (1).

   Later in the year, William Gilbertson may have pirated Ogilby's verses for an augmented version appearing in a broadside, dated by Thomason "Sept: 6," misleadingly entitled The manner of the Solemnity of the Coronation of His most Sacred Majesty King Charles. Below the title words "King Charles" is a rather crudely executed portrait of Charles II on the throne in his robes of state, crowned, and holding the sceptre. The engraving and twelve-lines of verse based on Ogilby's which appear either side, occupy the top half of the sheet. The lower half is a double-columed prose summary of the coronation, not of Charles II, but of his father. Since the work is unsigned, Ogilby himself may have written the extra lines, given here as Variant (2). The extra lines find previous kings and emperors named Charles who complicate and enrich the possibilities of Charles Stuart's inheritance.

   The final version of Ogilby's verses included here, Variant (3), returns to the original six lines. They appear in a broadside printed for John Williams in 1661, mostly taken up by a large scale portrait of Charles within an oval frame that recalls Faithorne's original, but reverses the direction of the king's gaze and replaces his armour with robes and a garter star. The six lines of verse given here at the bottom of the page are signed.

[1] Fagan, A Descriptive Catalogue of the Works of William Faithorne (London: Quaritch, 1888), p. 8.

"The Second Charles"
The Faithorne version:2

The Second Charles, Heire3 of ye Royall4 Martyr,
who,5 for Religion and6 his Subiects Charter,7
spent8 the best Blood,9 yt uniust10 Sword ere dy'de,11
since12 the rude Souldier pierc'd our Sauiours side:13
who14 such a Father15 had'st;16 art17 such a Son; 5
redeeme18 thy people and19 assume thy Owne.20

J. O.

[2] Variant brs engraving. The 6-line verses signed "J. O." appear under a head-and-shoulder portrait of Charles in wig and armour, within an oval frame with "Dieu et Mon Droit" in motto ribbon above, signed by William Faithorne. 11 x 9 inches. Copies: British Museum Print Room, Faithorne's Works, 1:32; the 1st state of the print; the verses are absent from the 2nd state at ibid 1:33. See L. Freeman O'Donoghue, et al, Catalogue of Engraved British Portraits Preserved in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum, 6 vols (London: British Museum, 1908-25), 1:401, #113. Reprint: Lord, POAS, 1:frontispiece. Ms copy: O Bodley MS Hearne Diary 57, p. 80; Crum T1291a.

[3] Charles, Heire] Charles, Heires ms.

[4] Royall] Royl ms

[5] who,] Who ms

[6] and] & ms

[7] Subiects Charter,] Subjects Charter ms

[8] spent] Spent ms

[9] Blood] Bloud ms

[10] uniust] unjust ms

[11] ere dy'de,] e're dy'de ms

[12] since] Since ms

[13] side:] side. ms

[14] who] Who ms

[15] Father] father ms

[16] had'st;] had'st ms

[17] art] and ms

[18] redeeme] Redeeme ms

[19] and] & ms

[20] 6. Owne] crowne ms

Variant (1), the Chantry/Nason version:21

The Second Charles, Heire of ye Royall Martyr,
Who, for Religion, and his Subjects Charter,
Spent ye best blood that unjust Sword ere dy'de,
Since the rude Souldier pierc'd our Saviors side:
5: Who such a Father had'st, art such a Son;
Redeeme thy people and assume thy owne.

J Ogil[by]

[21] Variant (1): signed verses on an engraved portrait of Charles by J. Chantry after P. Nason. A six-line version of the verses appear at the bottom of a 3/4-length engraved portrait of Charles facing right, standing in armour, resting a truncheon on a table, under a ribbon-motto "CAROL': SECUN' D:G: MAG: BRI: FRA: ET: HIB: REX." 13 x 10 inches. Underneath, centre, the garter arms; either side of which the following signatures: P. Nason pinxit: J: Chantry sculp: Tho: Crosse excud: Copies: British Museum Print Room, Portraits of Charles II, vol. 1: acquisition # 1848.9.11.329. See O'Donoghue, 1:399 item #83.

Variant (2), The Manner of the Solemnity:22

The Second Charles, Heire of the Royall Martyr,
Who, for Religion, and his Subjects Charter,
Spent the best Blood, that unjust Sword ere dy'de.
Since the rude Souldier pierc'd our Saviours side:
5: Who such a Father had'st, art such a Son;
Redeem thy people and assume thy owne.
Ascend thy Ancestors Imperial seat,
Of Charles the Good, thou second Charles the Great,
That adds the worth; this lustre to the Crown,
10: Whose solid Glories weighd Usurpers down.
Such Majesty as never was profan'd,
While Tyrants rul'd twas only Charles that Reign'd.

[22] Variant (2), Wing M479: The manner of the Solemnity of the CORONATION of His most Sacred MAJESTY KING CHARLES / London: Printed by T. C. and are to be sold by W. Gilbertson. 1660. Copies: O Ash. 677(7*); LT 669 f.26(2), ms dated "6 September." Here. the verses occur on either side of a fairly crude portrait of Charles II, enthroned, at the top half; below is a prose description of the coronation of Charles I.

Variant (3), Carolus II:23

The Second CHARLES, Heir of the Royal Martyr
Who, for Religion, and His Subjects Charter,
Spent the best Blood, that unjust Sword e're dy'd,
Since the rude Souldier pierc'd Our Saviour's Side
Who such a Father had'st, art such a Son,
Redeem Thy People, and assume Thy Own.


[23] Variant (3): Carolus II. D. G. Angliae, Scotiae / Franciae & Hiberniae Rex, etc.etc. / London Printed for John Williams, at the Crowne in St Pauls churchyard, 1661.
When the "Pourtrait" was reprinted in 1673, the text was twelve lines shorter than in 1660, and contains several variant readings not recorded here, though I have indicated which lines were omitted from the reprint.
The final verses addressed "To His Majesty" appear only in the 1673 reprint (sig. B) but are given here.

[ornamental border]
Charles the II.
Faithfully taken to the Life.6

KIngs like the Sun, in their full Majesties,
Are too resplendent bright for Subjects eyes;
Nor without dazling can their weaker sight,
Sustain the force of so much glorious light.7
5: But when Ecclipst, then every one can see
(Without that splendor) what their persons be;
In which Conjecture 8 who so
e're has seen
This Sun of ours, may well affirm of him,
His Person's such, as he for that alone
10: (His Birth away) 9 deserves the Royal Throne;
Such Majesty there's in it, and such Grace
(Both awing and delighting) in his Face;
Without those Kingly Robes adorn the Throne,
He shews more King, then those who have them on.
15: His Stature's tall, and of the comliest make,
His Vizage oval, his Hair thick and black,
In ample Curles, on's shoulders falling down,
Adorning more his Head, then any Crown.
His Eyes are lively, full of flame and sprite,
20: And of that colour most delights the sight:10
Royal, and largely featur'd all the rest,
Declaring the largeness of his Royal Breast;
And of so healthful Constitution,
As he had Articled with sickness, none
25: Should e're invade his health, and he should ne're
By excess provoke them, to which much confer, 11
His wonted Exercises, who in all
The Noblest, Gallant, 12 and most Martial,
Even the Most Excellent, so far excels,
30: He's King in them, as he's in all things else:
(And who'd be absolute in every thing
As well as Birth, and Power, should be a King)
Nor shall you e'er in any person finde
A greater strength of body and of minde;
35: Which with long Travel h'as improved so,
He knows what e're befits a Prince to know;
Not learnt from th'dead, but from the world, & men,
Those living Authors, and h'as studied them,
So as each Nations wisdom he does know,
40: And each on's Language to express it too. 13
Whence he compar'd to other Princes, sit
Dully at home, and nothing know but it, 14
Seems just like some huge Gallyon does come
From farthest Indies, richly laden home,
45: Compar'd to some poor Hoy, or Bylander,
Then their own shores & coasts, ne'r further were; 15
And never none to Fortune more did owe,
Than to misfortune he, for being so.
For moral vertues then, h'as every one
50: In their full splendors and perfection,
Justice, not Clouded with severity,
Nor Temperance, with sower austerity;
And ne're in none more Courage was, nor more
Wisdom and Prudence, with less vanity, nor
55: With lesser Artifice; then ore's passion he
Commands so absolutely, and sovereignly:
It shews him King over himself, as well
As over others, nor does he less excell
In civil vertues, which adorn no less,
60: The Royal Throne, as mildness, Gentleness,
Ravishing sweetness, debonarity,
Obligingness, and affability,
That more does conquer with a gentle word,
Then ever any Conquer'd by the Sword,
65: Acquiring absolute Dominion,
And Soverign sway o're hearts of every one. 16
Mean time he is so chearful and so gay,
None from His presence e'er went sad away;
Nor yet could all his troubles nor his cares
70: Render him less gay and chearful, which declares
His minde' above them all, and h'as within
Him somewhat higher then the being KING;
Just like the highest Region of the Air
'Bove Storms & Tempests, nor could Fortune e're
75: Eclipse his minde. For Courtly vertues then,
In which Kings too should excel other men,
As far as Courts do other houses, he
Appears in every one to Excellency;
Dances so admirably, as your Eye17
80: As well as Ear's all charm'd with Harmony,
Knows Musick, Poetry, Gallantry, and Wit,
And none knows better how to judge of it: 18
In fine, in everything that curious is,
No'ns taste was e're more delicate then his; 19
85: And as he is a King 'mongst Courtiers, so
'Mongst Ladies he's both King and Courtier too.
How happy are his Subjects then, t'have one
For King, Heaven seems t'have chosen King, alone
To make them happy? one, they need but pray,
90: That as h'as born Adversity, he may
But bear Prosperity as well, and then,
As still h'as been, he'l be the best of Men.
One, finally in whom ye united finde
(Besides his Birth, his Person, and his Minde)
95: All that, which found in others one by one,
Raise them to height of Admiration,
The Wise, the Valiant, the Majestical,
The Mild, the Gallant, and the King in all:
But of all Titles, that amongst the rest,
100: Of Gratious and Clement fits him best.20
More Glorious are his Sufferings then, and more
Injurious Fortune persecutes him for
His Royal Birth alone, who had he been
Born private man, deserv'd to be a King.
105: Such is her ignorant blindness, does not know
His eminent worth whom she disfavours so,
Would finde, were she unveild, and could but see,
None e're deserv'd her favours more then he.

[6] title] THE / POUTRAIT / OF / HIS MAJESTY, / Made a little before HIS Happy / Restauration. 1673

[7] lines 3-4] om 1673

[8] Conjecture] Conjuncture ms correction L, O, WF

[9] i.e. "even if he had been born abroad." Charles was born in St. James's Palace; the point here is that Charles's personal qualities would make him worthy of kingship even if he had not been born to the throne.

[10] lines 15-20; on Charles's appearance, compare A Character: "He is somewhat Taller than the middle stature of Englishmen; so exacty form'd, that the most curious Eye cannot finde one Error in his shape. His Face is rather Grave than Severe... His Complexion is somwhat dark, but uch enlightened by his Eyes, which are Quick and Sparkling" (p. 4).

[11] lines 23-26] om 1673Apart from a bout of smallpox in the autumn of 1648 and a fever that recurred in 1679, 1680 and 1682, Charles has traditionally been represented as enjoying vigorous good health throughout his life (Hutton 1989: 30, 443). Nevertheless, it may not be insignificant that these lines were omitted in 1673, by which time Charles had gained something of a reputation for sexual excess.

[12] Gallant] Gallants copytext, WF

[13] The author of A Character also comments on the king's skills in languages: "He understands Spanish, and Italian; speaks and writes French correctly; He is well vers'd in ancient and modern History, hath read divers of the choicest pieces of the Politicks, hath studyed some useful parts of the Mathematicks, as Fortification, and the knowledge of the Globe; but his chief delight is in Navigation, to which his Genius doth so incline him, that by his frequent conversation with Mariners, and his own observation, whilest he rid six weeks in the Downes, and in his passage into Scotland, he hath arrived to so much knowledge in this Science, that I have heard many expert Seamen (whose discourses are not steer'd by the compass of the Court) speka of it with delight and wonder; in genral, He is a true friend to Literature, and to Learned Men" (p. 4). We might compare this with Hutton's assessment: "Newcastle's determination that his pupil should not be too bookish left the King with little appetite for reading of any sort. In the course of his youth and early manhood Charles tried to learn French, Italian, and Spanish. Yet he never seems to have attained any proficiency in the last two tongues" (Hutton 1989: 450). Thomas Pecke also repeats the claim that Charles had command over three languages.

[14] Compare Dryden, Astræa Redux, lines 105-14.

[15] This early snub to the Dutch, who had recently been hosting the Stuart exiles, is characteristic of Flecknoe; see his call for a trade war against them in his imperial masque, The Marriage of Oceanus and Britannia (1659).

[16] lines 65-66] om 1673

[17] Hutton notes that Charles has a "genuine enthusiasm for dancing" (1989: 75).

[18] Charles certainly had strong opinions regarding music; on 20 November Pepys reports on the previous evening's entertainment which Monck had put on for the royal family: "after supper, a play -- where the king did put a great affront upon Singleton's Musique, he bidding them stop and bade the French Musique play -- which my Lord says doth much out-do all ours." For more on this evening's entertainment, see Denham, headnote, forthcoming.

[19] lines 83-84] om 1673

[20] lines 99-100] om 1673 Charles' generosity was predicted by the nurses at his birth because he appeared with open hands (Hutton 1989: 2).

To His Majesty (1673 only, sig B.)

VOuchsafe Great Sire, on these to cast your sight,
Made cheifly for Your Majesties delight,
By him has cast off all Ambition
Long since, but of delighting you alone;
5: Courting it highest honor can befall,
To delight Him, who's the delight of all.

IV. The King Declared, early May

Anthony Sadler: Majestie Irradiant1

   (1 May)
Thomason dated his copy of this broadside on Mayday.

I. The Author

   According to Anthony Wood, Anthony Sadler (1610-c.1683) left "behind him the character of a man of a rambling head and turbulent spirit," a view confirmed by published reports of the controversies which Sadler seems to have attracted.2 Born in Chitterne St. Mary, Wiltshire, Sadler entered St. Edmund Hall, Oxford in 1628, and was ordained by the Bishop of Oxford, Dr. Richard Corbet in 1631 at the age of twenty one. His precosity seems to have accompanied a restless enthusiasm that marks his career as well as his poetic and controversial writings. After a temporary curacy at Bishopsgate in Hampshire, he served as chaplain to a relative, the Squire Sadler of Hertfordshire, before moving to Westminster as chaplain to Lady Lettice Paget, who presented him to a living at Compton-Hayway in Dorset on 25 May 1654.

   Having survived the years of civil war, Sadler was now middle-aged and finding his Anglican views were out of tune with the times. Within weeks of his presentation to Compton-Hayway, he was summoned for examination before a group of recently appointed "triers" -- the parliamentary commissioners charged with judging and approving new church appointments -- headed by the fiercely independent Philip Nye, whom William Lilly called a "Jesuitical Presbyterian."3 Woods notes that "no small trouble passed between him and them." Sadler presented his certificate of ordination on 10 June but it was rejected four days later. After further delays, he was called for examination by the triers on 3 July. In October, Sadler addressed Inquisitio Anglicana, his own account of the events of his trial, to Cromwell and the High Court of Parliament.4 Nye's response -- Mr Sadler Re-examined -- appeared in early December,5 and repeated charges that Sadler preached more for ostentation than edification. That month a further order was given for Sadler to be re-examined.6 Since there is no further record of Sadler until the year of the Restoration, when he shows up unemployed, we can only presume that he was ejected from his Dorest living sometime after 1 once his patroness had died.7

   Like other unemployed Anglican divines in 1660, Sadler must have held great hopes that Charles's return would mean more and better jobs for loyal clergymen, especially those who drew attention to their plight by publishing declarations of their past sufferings and eager support for the king. In anticipation of recognition or reward, the fifty-year old rushed into print by May, as we have seen. We learn from Mr. Sadler, Sadled, In the Vindication of Mr. R. Cranmer of London Merchant (1665), that Sadler was without a living in 1660, but was "well stockt with Wife and Children" (p. 4). This anonymous attack on Sadler reports that in 1660 he was quick to make it known how much he wanted a church living in recompense for his loyal sufferings. With the initial support of Robert Cranmer, and after preaching a sermon there in June, Sadler was duly appointed to a vacant appointment at Mitcham in Surrey. Within a few years, however, Sadler had fallen foul of Cranmer and other local parish dignitaries, entering into a series of legal suits that landed him in prison. The living at Mitcham was poorly paid, it had been vacant for many years and the house was in very bad condition when Sadler moved his family in. In Strange News Indeed: From Mitcham in Surry [sic] (1664), signed from "the Burrough Prison, Novem. 25. 1664," Sadler attacks Cranmer for not fuliflling his promises with regard to the living. But according to Mr. Sadler, Sadled, Sadler and his family were frequently shown hospitality, provided with food, medicine and coal; a subscription to repair the house was established. Once £40 had been raised, however, Sadler followed bad advice and sued his patron for dilapidation, thereby estranging himself from the local community. The author or authors even dispute Sadler's claim to be the author of the Inquistio Anglicana, insisting it was made up by "a Club of Divines" (p. 8). Other charges against him include frequent drinking and swearing, and refusing to pay for a horse that he bought on credit.

   Sadler again disappears from the record until 1681 when, at the age of 71, he was accused of debauchery by Seth Ward, the Bishop of Salisbury. The last record of Sadler appears when he is an old man of 73, petitioning against his suspension in 1683 (DNB).

   From the record of his publications praising the return of monarchy, it is clear that Sadler was skilled at promoting himself and that he seems to have enjoyed some success at finding himself employment within the restored Anglican church. Wood tells us that after the controversy with Cranmer, Sadler was made "Doctor of Div. and Chapl. extraord. to his Majesty" (AO, 2:505). Unfortunately, the DNB does not repeat this claim, and I have been unable to verify it.

   For more on Sadler's other Restoration publications, see The Subject's Joy.


[1] Wing: S273. Brs. Copies: LT 669.f.25(4) copy text; CLC Pamph Coll, folio drawer; CH {microfilm of LT}; MH1 *pEB65.A100.B675b v. A144=Marquis of Bute broadsides (microfilm); MH *pEB65.Sal52.660m.

[2] Anthony Woods, Athenae Oxoniensis, vols. (London: for Thomas Bennet, 1691, 1692), 2:505.

[3] Mr. William Lilly's History of his Life and Times, from the year 1602 to 1681 (1715), p. 83. See "An Ordinance for appointing Commissioners for approbation of Publique Preachers," 20 March 1654, in C. H. Firth and R. S. Rait, eds., Acts and Ordinances of the Interregnum, 1642-1660, 3 vols. (London: HMSO, 1911), 2:855-88.

[4] Sadler, Inquisitio Anglicana: Or The Disguise discovered. Shewing The Proceedings of the Commisioners at White hall, for the Approbation of Ministers, In The Examinations of Anthony Sadler Cler: (Chaplain to the Right Honourable the Lady Pagett, Dowager) Whose Delay, Triall, Suspence and Wrong, presents it self for Remedy, to the Ld Protector, and the High Court of Parliament: And For Information to the Clergy, and all the people of the Nation (London: Printed by J. Grismond, for Richard Royston at the Angel in Ivie-lane, 1654).

[5] [John Nye], Mr Sadler Re-examined, Or, His Disguise discovered, shewing The grosse mistakes and most notorious Falshoods in his dealing with the Commissioners for Approbation of Publike Preachers in his Inquisitio Anglicana (London: Printed for Nathanael Webb and William Grantham, at the Signe of the Bear in Pauls Churchyard. 1654).

[6] CSPD, p. 410.

[7] Sadler's funerary sermon to Lady Pagett, Benedictio, Valedictio, appeared in October 1655; see Wood, AO, 2:505.

Majestie Irradiant

II. Majestie Irradiant: The Text

   Majestie Irradiant is printed in three vertical columns as marked, with lines between so that the headings of each column invite us to read across, giving: "CHARLES, the Second: / This Conqueror, -- / A Prince, -- " with vertical ornamental borders down side margins emphasizing the frame.

   The question of whether a broadside such as Majestie Irradiant is poetry can, in part, be deferred to contemporary authority since the text reappeared later the same year, anonyously, set in the form of prose, as the final part of The Strange and Wonderfull Prophesie of David Cardinal of France.1 Thomason dated his copy of this later work 14 December. If the anaphoric cadence here owes more to the sermon than the ear of the poet, Sadler's skills as a versifier are fully exemplified in his masque, The Subject's Joy.

   Works such as Majesties Irradiant that purported to inform readers what sort of king Charles would be based on his character, obviously belong that realm of journalism where a few facts are transformed into certainty, and owe as much to the desire to reassert traditional ideals of what a king should be like as they do to what was known of Charles himself. But a good deal of fairly accurate assesment of Charles's personal life was quickly being made avaialable. Thomason collected a prose tract, A Character of Charles the Second Written by an Impartial Hand, and exposed to Publick View for Information of the Peopleon April.2 Discussions of the new king's character and arguments that his exile was really an education suited to a modern king, quickly became commonplaces of Restoration ideology.3

   Despite their clear flattery of the royal person, however, surely such predictions of what sort of king Charles will be also serves a prescriptive function by establishing expectations.


[1] See the verses from this work entitled "In the eight Kings reign."

[2] The colophon reads "Printed for Gabriel Bedell, 1660" LT E 765.(10).

[3] See David Evans, "Charles II's 'Grand Tour': Restoration Panegyric and the Rhetoric of Travel Literature," Philological Quarterly 72:1 (1993): 53-71.

MAIESTIE Irradiant,
[cut:lion] The Splendor Display'd, [cut:unicorn]
Our Soveraigne

1: CHARLES, the Second:

2: The Name, is Renowned;
3: The Title, Royal:
4: So Renowned, is the Name;
5: So Royal, is the Title:
6:       It makes, even -- --
7: Rhetorick, to be Silent:
8: Impudence, to be Asham'd:
9: and Treason, to be Amaz'd:4

1: He was Born,
2:      A Prince:
3: In the merry Month, of May:
4: In the happy Time, of Peace.
5: But
6: Not so Bred, as Born;
7: Nor so Train'd up, as Worthy.
8:       Being
9: from his Tender Age,
10: Sadly enforced,
11: unto the worst School,
12: of an Intestine War.

13: His Tutor, a man in Arms:
14: his book, Military:
15: his Lesson, Stratagemical:
16: and
17: The Application of his Learning;
18: The Defence of Majesty.5
19:      He was
20: An Early Soldier:
21:      and
22: a rare Proficient,
23: in so severe a Discipline.

24: Dolus an virtus? is a Question:
25:       but
26: His Virtue, and his Valour,
27:       parallel.
28:      He is
29: Undoubtedly Victorious:
30: (fortius est, qui Se:)
31: having Conquered Himself.
32:       In
33: His Enjoyments, by being Temperate:
34: His Passion, by being Moderate:
35: His Greatnesse, by being Humble.

This Conquerour, -- -
Carries his Trophies with him:
Yea and many times,
(like One of the Sages)
40: Omnia Secum: his Goods too.

His Life
from the 10th year, to the now 30th
hath been,
a weary Pilgrimage;
45:       and
(like our best Progenitors)
A Sojourners Condition
from one Kingdom, to another people.

He is
50: Such a Son, of such a Father;
CHARLES the Patient,
CHARLES the Pious:
55: Next the most pious Martyr,
CHARLES the First;
The most Patient Sufferer, is,
CHARLES the Second.

He is
60:       Successively the King,
of Great Brittain, and Ireland:
Proclaim'd and Crown'd,
in Scotland.
65: (Being most undutifully Treated)
He was
(Being in England)
most notoriously Betray'd.

The Battail at Worcester,
70: (Famously Memorable,
as much,
For his Deliverance, as his Valour)
the fatal Signal,
75:            of the Rebells Ruine.

They had,
The Day, but not the Victory:
The Place, but not the Person:
God's Mercy, and the King's Escape;
80:      are a Twin of Wonders.

A Prince, -- --
So much Accomplisht,
as most Incomparable:
of such rare Deportment,
85:      He is Belov'd, and Fear'd.
of such Excellent Discourse,
He is observ'd, and follow'd.
of such prudential Designs,
He is Admir'd, and Blest.

90:      A Prince -- --
Not more Royal, then Religious:
Nor lesse Holy, as to God:
then Just, as to Men:
and Sober, to Himself.

95:      He is one
That wears Christ's Banner,
Upon his Forehead:
The Cross, upon his Crown.
A Sufferer for the Truth:
100:       and
A Defender, of the Faith.

Such a Prince -- --
Whose Constancy to the Church,
of England;
105:       and whose Arguments,
for that Constancy;
have rendred him,
(By his most acute Opponents)
not only,
110: CHARLES the Zealous;
CHARLES, The Wise:
A Prince,
Not Wilful, but Unanswerable.

115:       Happy are the People,
(Bona, si sua norint)
that be in such a Case;
to have such a Prince,
to be their King.
120:       and such a King,
to be their Nursing Father.6

The Lord make us,
as thankful for him,
as Happy, in him;
125:       the Best of Men.
Crowned with,
the Best of Blessings.

So prayeth -- -and so resteth -- -for GOD, and King CHARLES;
Anthony Sadler.

[4] On the question of writing a "character" of the new King, see John Collop's Itur Satyricum: "All Characters are libels, who'de set forth / Charls, is a Traytor to impeach his worth: / Since praises must fall short, expressions be / But the faint shaddows of Divinitie" (lines 73-6).

[5] On the education Charles received in his childhood from the Duke of Newcastle with its emphasis on "subjects of obvious importance to a monarch," see Hutton, Charles the Second, pp. 2-3.

[6] "Nursing Father:" a key trope in the defense of the sacramental authority of kings that was often invoked in Restoration panegyrics to describe Charles. Faced with his countrymen's infidelity, Moses complains to the Lord of his burden to "carry them" in "his bosom, as a nursing father" (Num. 11: 12), and see Isaiah 49: 23: "And kings shall be thy nursing fathers." Compare J. P., The Loyal Subjects hearty Wishes To King Charles the Second, line 43; and contrast Thomas Pecke, To The Most High and Mighty Monarch Charles the II: "CHARLES with maternal Care, kept LONDON plump," line 331. See also "The first Speech" in Sadler's The Subject's Joy.

Anthony Sadler: The Subject's Joy1

   Among the poetic tributes which poured from the English press in 1660 to welcome the newly appointed monarch, Anthony Sadler's "sacred masque" presents something of an anomaly, so it is not surprising that this work should have gone unnoticed until very recently.2 Although court masques enjoyed something of a revival in the early years of the Restoration, their season was a brief one.3 In both form and narrative concerns, however, The Subject's Joy immediately precedes the Restoration itself, and in crucial ways links the highly politicized print culture of the late 1650s with a tradition of Stuart poetics reaching back to the 1630s and 1640s. Poised between Renaissance and Restoration, Sadler's masque is a closet drama clearly intended to be experienced in printed form rather than staged performance.4


[1] Wing: S267. Qto. O Mal.194940, copy text; CH 147664; L1 163.h.52; L2 644.f.43, described as "removed from the Thomason collection," this copy was reported missing in January 1996; WF 154181; Y; WLC [the "Huth" copy] PR 3671.S114 S8. I would like to thank specially Suzanne Gossett, Robert Hume, Laura Knoppers, Lois Potter, Dale B. J. Randall, and Nigel Smith for valuable advice and suggestions with Sadler's masque.

[2] Suzanne Gossett's "Recent Studies in the English Masque," ELR 26: (1996): 586-627, surveys "scholarship on all aspects of the English masque from 1509 to 1660" (p. 586) and finds nothing to report on Sadler's piece. Nancy Klein Maguire, in Regicide and Restoration: English Tragicomedy, 1660-1671 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), calls The Subject's Joy an "intriguing and totally neglected masque" (p. 86), and briefly compares it with Cosmo Manuche's Banished Shepherdess. Sadler's masque is also noticed by Dale B. J. Randall in Winter Fruit: English Drama 1642-1660 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995), p. 369. Laura Lunger Knoppers discusses the frontispiece in her recent study of portraits of Cromwell in ELR.

[3] See Joanne Altieri, The Theatre of Praise: The Panegyric Tradition in Seventeenth-Century Drama (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1986), and Andrew Walkling, "Politics and the Restoration Masque: The Case of Dido and Aeneas," in MacLean, ed., Culture and Society in the Stuart Restoration, pp. 52-69.

[4] On the distinction between the "literary" and the "theatrical" masque, see Jerzy Limon, The Masque of Stuart Culture (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990) which does not, however, take the story up to the Restoration. For a recent examination of print culture after the Restoration, see Harold M. Weber, Paper Bullets: Print and Kingship under Charles II (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1996).

I. The Subject's Joy: Text and Date

   The Subject's Joy is a small quarto that collates: frontispiece + A-F4 = leaves. Running headers between sigs. A2v-A3v read "The Epistle Dedicatory;" between sigs. B1v-F4v read "A Divine Masque." The frontispiece, {to be} reproduced from the copy in the Bodleian Library, is also present in the Huntington Library copy, but has become detached from the copies in the British Library, Folger Library, Yale University Library, and Library of Congress. Texts of all these copies are identical.

   The titlepage tells us that this work was printed for James Davis "to be sold at the Greyhound" in 1660. It seems most likely that Sadler had the text on hand and ready for the printers before Charles actually arrived, and in print during the early part of May. Internal claims that it was published during May are congruent with Sadler's hasty handling of contemporary details and are supported by the handwritten "May 17" on the copy associated with George Thomason's collection.5

   From Thomason's dates we also know that Sadler had rushed his broadside Majestie Irradiant through the press in time for the first of May -- a full week before the king's return was formally proclaimed, and weeks before Charles actually landed on the 25th. Clearly Sadler was keen to appear among those who welcomed Charles back before he had actually returned, and had successfully established working relations with printers.6Other internal evidence complicates the question of when The Subject's Joy might actually have appeared, but proves inconclusive. In the "private Speech of the Author" immediately preceding the speeches, songs, and shews making up the text of the masque proper, Sadler calls this work the "younger" of two printed pieces dedicated to the restored house of Stuart. "The Elder," he writes, "is a Sybillian; and (to acheer the King) doth (by a Prophetick Pen) write a Prædiction, in a Lamentation." Here, Sadler is clearly referring not to his own Mayday broadside, Majestie Irradiant, but to yet another loyal tribute he published that year, a two-gathering quarto entitled The Loyall Mourner, Shewing the Murdering of King Charles the First. Fore-shewing the Restoring of King Charles the Second, "Printed by T. C. for L. Sadler. 1660." While it is very likely that Sadler is thinking of the chronological order in which he wrote the works -- one on the death of Charles I, the other on the return of Charles II -- his insistence that they are both "dres'd in Print" deserves attention since it is not clear when The Loyall Mourner first appeared.

   Thomason, who was normally swift to buy and date his collection of printed works, did not date his copy of the "Elder" work, The Loyall Mourner, until December.7 But this fact alone does not necessarily point to a date later than May for the appearance of the "younger" masque since the copy of the elegy currently in the Thomason collection, like that in Lambeth Palace Library,8 is evidently a re-issue of an earlier printing. In both these copies, the two gatherings of The Loyall Mourner have been broken up and interleaved with the titlepage and text of Mercy in a Miracle, a sermon preached by Sadler on 28 June that also shows up as a separate publication. Since not all copies of The Loyall Mourner contain the June sermon, unsold copies of an original printing were probably reissued with Sadler's sermon sometime in early December. The undated copy of The Loyall Mourner currently in the Huntington collection,9 for example, contains an identical printing bound in with two engraved portraits of Charles but lacking any of the material from Mercy in a Miracle, strongly suggesting an original issue of the elegy that might well have appeared earlier, perhaps at the same time as The Subject's Joy in line with Sadler's claim.

   If, as seems likely, Sadler's masque was indeed published in May, then it was presumably being written before there was any certainty that Charles would be recalled. And this is the historical moment into which the text insinuates itself, opening with an epistle to General Monk in which Sadler declares himself ready "to chant an Hosanna for the Kings Reception," and encourages Monk to "enthrone" the king. Following this epistle, verses addressed "TO THE Candid Reader" -- the oversized and bolded "C" and "R" signal "Carolus Rex" -- announce "this is The Month of May" when "the Prince . . . is Deliver'd."

   Nothing in The Subject's Joy indicates detailed knowledge of specific events or public issues after Charles had actually stepped on English soil, while the culminating action of the masque -- the casting down of Cromwell's iconic portrait -- anticipates the start of the new king's reign.

[5] Dale Randall reports this date in Winter Fruit, p. 369. The copy in question, reclassified from the Thomason Collection to British Library shelfmark 644.f.43, was reported missing in January 1996. My own records indicate that I examined this copy in 1984 at which time I too noted the "May 17" annotation.

[6] Persuading a printer to take on a lengthy set of verses like the text of The Subject's Joy after May could prove difficult in the extreme since printers had quickly become booked up with poetic tributes as spring turned into summer. Henry Oxenden finished his long heroic poem, Charls Triumphant in June, but was still checking proofs in March 1661. See Dorothy Gardiner, ed., The Oxinden and Peyton Letters 1642-1670 (London: Sheldon Press, 1937), pp. 235, 241, 242, 246.

[7] LT E.1053(6).

[8] Lambeth Palace, shelfmark H5133.

[9] CH 51701.

II. "Theatrical, New, and Strange:" The Sacred Masque

   Sadler himself claims of his masque:

This Peece (I confess) is Theatrical, New, and Strange; Strange, but yet Pertinent; New, but yet Serious; and Theatrical, but yet Sacred.
Although Sadler later includes a speech that claims to precede an actual performance, there is little reason to think The Subject's Joy was ever performed.10

   The singular literary achievements of Sadler's "sacred masque" can best be approached in terms of print culture and the history of the book on the eve of the Restortation. By 1660, the very activity of printing had itself become firmly politicized as a result of two decades during which the press came into its own as a central agent of political change.11 Lois Potter has shown with what energy royalists managed to continue printing despite the largely successful censorship campaigns of the late 1640s and 1650s, using the press to comment on contemporary events while keeping alive arguments for belief in monarchy.12 In many respects a jeremiad directed at those who rebel against divinely ordained monarchs, The Subject's Joy may be linked with other mixed genres employed in the cause of royalist propaganda during the early months of 1660 -- such as Scutum Regale, The Royal Buckler; or, Vox Legis, A Lecture to Traytors by the young lawyer Giles Duncombe -- that seek to attack and undermine the authority of the "traitors" currently losing control over the nation. Back in May, Sadler's epistle to Monk also links the appearance of his masque with the royalist revival of theatrical entertainments held for the General by the various London Guilds during March and April. Although it seems most likely that the masque was never performed, Sadler can nevertheless rightfully claim that the appearance of the text puts its author "upon the joyfull stage" of national history.

   So in its claim to be theatrical, new, and strange, The Subject's Joy is very much a product of its precise historical moment, political allegiances, and the agency of print. By recasting traditional features of the masque into an account of an imaginary performance, Sadler looks backward to the court culture of the 1630s and 1640s, but instead of the neoclassicism at the heart of Stuart court culture back then, this Anglican divine opts for a biblical theme. Simply by reason of appearing in print, his text shifts the scene from the exclusive world of court entertainment to the public sphere of print culture that was opening up in 1660. Besides delighting in the use of striking print fonts and bolded anagrams, Sadler's text fully embraces the possibilities of print, integrating both its own frontispiece and textual status into the action of the masque, which ends when "Psyche (with an observant haste) goes, to present the King, with the Masque, in writing." In the frontispiece Cromwell appears in the type of Jeroboam, he of the golden calves. And it is Jeroboam's portrait -- presumably the engraved frontispiece itself -- that the Levites smash at the feet of the returning King Abijah or Charles. In these respects, it is only as a printed document, complete with frontispiece, that Sadler's celebration of returning monarchy fully engages the resources of print in order to turn the iconoclastic impulses of the revolutionary decades against themselves in a reconfiguring of old testament history.

   Nevertheless, The Subject's Joy not only calls itself a masque, but displays a strong commitment to many of the structural and generic features of the form, framing the text of the masque within an imaginary account of a performance. Following the prose epistle to Monk and verses addressed to the reader, Sadler announces "In this MASQUE are 6. Shewes. Speeches. 3. Songs," as indeed there are. First, however, Sadler treats us to the "Private Speech" before "Friends," that purports to have been spoken before a performance. Here he details how his initial plans to write a masque on the Gunpowder Plot led him to ponder Old Testament rebels who had plotted against the divine authority of sacred kings. Zedekiah, Corah, Zimri, Shallum: Sadler ponders them all before he finally settles on the most wicked of them all, Jeroboam. The action begins when a Levite steps forward to speak "The Argument."

   Here, Sadler quarries accounts of Jeroboam from 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles, inviting the reader to apply this exemplary figure, who not only sinned but also caused Israel to sin, to Oliver Cromwell. Jeroboam's wicked reign eventually fails when King Abijah accedes to the throne of David and destroys Jeroboam's army. A young prince then steps forward to speak a verse "Prologue" by way of introducing Psyche, the titulary spirit of the masque. From here, the shews, speeches and songs follow a general pattern of lamenting rebellion but finding hope in Old Testament examples, a pattern that leads to an "antique" dance during which Psyche enthrones King Abijah.

   Each of the descriptive shows introduces the next speaker or set of characters in emblematic context. The exception is the last in which Jeroboam finally appears, only to be torn apart and cast into hell by the Devil. During the Levite's song which follows, the iconic portrait is smashed and Psyche presents the king with the written copy of the masque. Each of the speeches invariably details loyalist attitudes toward rebellion against sacred monarchy. King David appears and asks why God allows the wicked to prosper. King Abijah/Charles laments "was ever grief like mine?" echoing George Herbert's "The Sacrifice." Other members of the Stuart family and court recall sacred examples of how God punishes wicked rebels. Finally an "Old Man" appears, who turns directly to Jeroboam and precipitates the final show. Much like the speeches, the songs provide catalogues of loyalist sentiments -- grief at the tyranny of rebels, delight at their eventual overthrow. No tunes are indicated for any of the songs.

   Sadler clearly has the general framework of English politics very much in mind in casting and ordering biblical materials for his masque. Jeroboam frequently figures in the Old Testament as the type of leader who compounded his own sins by encouraging others into sin through rebelling with him.13

   It is said of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, That he not onely sinned himself, but that he made Israel to sin; and there were those of his Confederates that then sinned with him and after he was dead and gone, of whom it is recorded, That they walked in the ways, and departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat who made Israel to sin.

   The parallel hereof we have on England in this our day: Oliver the late Protector (so called) who (Jeroboam-like) so greatly appeared with the people for Justice and Freedom against Oppression, highly professing and declaring for the same, hath sinned in the breach of those Protestations and Declarations, in building again those things he had been so greatly instrumental to destroy; therein surpassing not onely the deeds of the wicked who were cut off upon the like account, but also of Jeroboam, who never made such professions and declarations as he had done.14 Where Wharton argues that Cromwell exceeds the parallel with Jeroboam, Sadler vicariously invents a gory end for him at the hands of the Devil.

   Sadler's Subject's Joy claims to be the first English masque to use sacred history.

   However we might assess his adherence to masque form, Sadler wants to draw attention to the novelty of his design, but he quickly solicits the authority of two fathers of the early church for his practice here. "Nor am I in This," he writes in the epistle to Monk, "either singular, or affected; while Apollinarius and Nazianzen (two antient Fathers of the Primitive Church) are known to be exemplary in this very way." Apollinarius is an appropriate precedent for turning sacred history into profane form, but as Milton knew, there were two examples of that name.15 Sadler probably has Apollinaris the younger, bishop of Laodicea, (361-77, died 392) in mind, rather than his father, though both translated scripture: "The father prepared a Christian grammar, turned the Penteteuch into an epic and the `Former Prophets' into tragedies,"16 while his son of the same name composed, "to replace Homer, a biblical history in twenty-four hymns and reproduced the content of the gospels in Pindaric meters."17

   Sadler's other authority, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, whose church in the Cappadocian village of Güzelyurt is now a mosque, is perhaps even more revealing of the loyal minister's design since Gregory's Carmen de vita sua, is "a self-pitying autobiography in iambic verse"18 written in retirement during 381 after he resigned in anger from the Council of Constantinople which had challenged his nomination as bishop of Constantinople.19 Though hardly self-pitying when he published the masque in 1660, Sadler no doubt began composition during a period of defeat for royalists. Perhaps this explains why The Subject's Joy, as the final chorus reminds us, is "Psyche's play," not simply a public declaration of royalist sentiments, but also a very personal if not psychological document, a testament of beleaguered loyalty and faith to a seemingly lost cause that has finally and miraculously proved victorious.

   In celebrating the Restoration, Sadler's literary imagination is often typical of his generation of royalists. On one hand he desperately wants to produce a novel sort of literary celebration, to invent a new kind; on the other, he feels compelled to show how he is taking his literary forms from the traditions and authority of the past. As an Anglican poet, Sadler often recalls and echoes Herbert, especially when focussing on the sufferings of fallen monarchy. But the biblical narrative is seldom from his thoughts. Sadler calls the new king a "Nursing Father," a key trope in the defense of the sacramental authority of kings that poets used to legitimate Charles II.20 In recasting episodes from biblical history, he makes no attempt to draw out a sustained parallel narrative in the Restoration manner soon to become familiar from Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel. He does not recast the order of biblical narrative in order to predict or offer advice on pressing political issues. When he recalls specific moments from Jeroboam's reign, he does so as part of a general pattern of using Old Testament examples of rebels who are eventually overthrown. Sadler's model is the sermon, not the parallel history. Indeed the very lack of direct engagement with contemporary political issues links Sadler's masque with the emblematic mode of the 1630s and 1640s rather than the more didactic 1660s.

   Although the sacred masque proved to be a generic dead end, Sadler's Subject's Joy embraces the possibilities of print in order to celebrate the king's return by imagining the downfall of English traitors in terms of sacred history. One of the more compelling tropes of the poetry written on the Restoration, the downfall of traitors motif returned from July through October with specific vigour, violence, and indignant blood-lust during the trials leading up to the execution of the regicides. One of the longest verse works to celebrate Charles's return, The Subject's Joy is a remarkable instance of nostalgic anticipation generated by the cultural and literary excitement of the early months of the year of Restoration.

[10] Maguire writes that it "may not have been performed," Regicide and Restoration, p. 86.

[11] For recent work on the political agency of the press during the 1640s and 1650s, see Nigel Smith, Literature and Revolution in England, 1640-1660 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), and Joad Raymond, The Invention of the Newspaper: English Newsbooks, 1641-1660 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996); more generally see Steven N. Zwicker, Lines of Authority: Politics and English Literary Culture, 1649-1689 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993); and MacLean, "Literature, Culture, and Society in Restoration England," in Culture and Society, pp. 3-27.

[12] Potter, Secret Rites and Secret Writing: Royalist Literature, 1641-1660 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

[13] See, for example, 2 Kings 15: 9, 18, 28. The comparison between Jeroboam and Cromwell was not original with Sadler; we find it in the political journalism of the royalist George Wharton in 1658: 10.

[14] Wharton, A Second Narrative of the Late Parliament (Printed in the Fifth year of Englands Slavery under its New Monarchy, 1658), pp. 34-35.

[15] See Areopagitica, in Merritt Y. Hughes, ed., John Milton: Complete Poems and Major Prose (New York: Macmillan, 1957), p. 726.

[16] B. J. Kidd, A History of the Church to A. D. 461. Volume II: 313-408 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922), p. 198.

[17] Karl Baus, et al, The Imperial Church From Constantine to the Early Middle Ages, trans. Anselm Biggs (New York: Seabury, 1980), p. 56. It was Apollinaris the younger who gave his name to the view that Christ differed from man by reason of having the divine logos instead of a natural mind.

[18] Henry Chadwick, The Early Church (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969), p. 150.

[19] See Kidd, History of the Church, pp. 283-84.

[20] Faced with his countrymen's infidelity, Moses complained to the Lord of his burden to "carry them" in "his bosom, as a nursing father" (Num. 11: 12). On the figure of the nursing father, see also Isaiah 49: 23: "And kings shall be thy nursing fathers." Compare J. P., The Loyal Subjects hearty Wishes To King Charles the Second, line 43; Sadler's Majestie Irradiant, lines 120-26; and contrast Thomas Pecke, To The Most High and Mighty Monarch Charles the II: "CHARLES with maternal Care, kept LONDON plump," line 331.

Anthony Sadler:
The Subject's Joy21

   I have reproduced the original text except for dropping running headers, and correcting printer's errors as reported in the notes. Since the text is arranged into discrete parts, I have not added line numbers. Prose passages preserve original line-breaks, including hypenated word-breaks. I have recorded inked corrections to the copy in the Bodleian which are mostly adjustments to scansion since they might well be authorial: who else would have bothered?


[21] Wing S273. Copies: O Mal. 194(4); L1 644.f. [removed from LT], ms dated "17 May," reported missing January 1996; L2 163.h.52, frontispiece missing; WF 154181 frontispiece missing; CH 147664; LC; MB; MH; Y.

The Kings Restoration,
Cheerfully made known
A Sacred MASQUE:
Gratefully made publique
His SaCRed Majesty.

   By the Author of

2 King. XI. 12.
And he brought forth the Kings Son, and put the Crown upon
him; and gave him the Testimony, and they made him
King; and Anointed him, and clapt22
their hands, and said -- -God save the KING.

Printed, in the year of Grace, for James Davis, and are to be sold at the Greyhound in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1660.


[22] and clapt] and they clapped Authorized Version.

The Lord General

Heroick Sir,

    THE present affairs of this Kingdom, are, so providentially managed, by God; so prudentially, by You; and so happily -- - opportunely, for the building up, the Ruins; and re- pairing of the Breaches, both in Church, and State: that, the Factionist, malignes; the Temporist, ad- mires; and Royallist, congratulates; so hopeful a beginning.

   Let it not then displease (my Lord) if now, one of those poor grateful Royallists; hath (in this spring of hope) so cheerful a boldness, as to beg the favour of your Excellency, to Patronize this Peece.

   This Peece (I confess) is Theatrical, New, and Strange; Strange, but yet Pertinent; New, but yet Serious; and Theatrical, but yet Sacred. Nor am I in This, either singular, or affected; while Apollinarius and Nazianzen (two antient Fathers of the Primitive Church) are known to be exemplary in this very way.23 The truth is, I am now upon the well-tun'd Pin (with my Palm, and my Psalm) to chant an Hosan- na for the Kings Reception.

   I am now upon the joyful Stage, to play the devout Comædian; and by a new Triumphal, to court the affections, of the most Disloyall.

   Upon the Stage I am, that (as by a true reflection, to shew the radiancy of my divine zeal) so, I might (by congruous Divinity) render Corah (notwith- standing his holy Plea) Rebellious:24 and Treason (notwithstanding Garnet's Straw, and Becket's Canonization) in the Abstract, hateful, both to God, and man.25

   Religion and Allegience, are the wings of the soul, to mount her unto Heaven: and the present Masque, is, but to preserve the Beauty, of so fair an Allegati- on; and to attest before the world, my utter abhor- rency of the least Confederation, against the Higher Powers.

   Oh Sir! may the Higher Powers be, as safe, as sacred: and may That saCRed Person, into whose hands, God, by his Grace; Nature, by Descent; and the Law, by Right; have successively given the Globe and the Scepter: may, He, -- -- -ah may He be, as happy, as He is Good; and as Good, as He is Great: the Best of Men, crowned with the Best of Blessings.

   Sir -- -- your Excellency is now, the Renowned Instrument, of wonderful Transactions: In the name of God, go on, and prosper.

   Certainly (my Lord) if your auspicious self, shall (with this hopefully-happy Parliament) go on, to Act for God; and the good of his distressed People:

By Enthroning
The most Illustrious Prince,
Our Lawful King,
Charles the Second:

For the Setling, of the State:
For the Reforming, of the Church:
For the Establishing, of the Lawes:
And the Maintaining, our Religion;26 That most true, Protestant Religion, Of the Church of England:
I am confident, -- -- -You shall as surely Prosper, in having, The Holy Spirit of God, to be Your Guid:
The holy Angels of God, to be Your Guard:
Here, to be Famous; and Hereafter, to be Glorious; as there is a God, in Heaven.

So Believeth, and Affirmeth; -- -- -
Ever Devoted -- -- -
To God: -- -- --
His Prince: -- -- --
And Countrey,

Anthony Sadler.


[23] On these church fathers, see the headnote

[24] Corah led a celebrated revolt against Moses' authority, claiming "all the congregation are holy, every one of them," but at Moses' request, the Lord caused the earth to open up and swallow the rebels (Numbers 16: 3, 31-5). Sadler returns to Corah as a type of republican in the "First" speech, and again in more detail in the "Ninth" speech.

[25] Sadler's examples of treason are both Catholic martyrs. When Henry Garnet was executed in May 1606 for his part in the gunpowder plot of the previousyear, "all Catholic Europe was listening with eager credulity to the story of Garnet's straw. It was said that one of the straws used upon the scaffold had a minute likeness of the martyr's head on one of the husks" (Samuel R. Gardiner, The History of England ... 1603-1642, 10 vols. [London: Longman, Green 1883], 1:282). An engraved image of the miraculous straw appears on the titlepage of the poem The Jesuits Miracles, or new Popish Wonders. Containing the Straw, the Crowne, and the Wondrous Child, with the confutation of them and their follies (1607).

[26] Religion] Reiigion

TO THE Candid Reader.27

1: THis is the Month, this is That Month of Mirth,28
2: Which Tunes our Noats to sing our Princes Birth.
3: This is that Month, this is The Month of May,
4: Which Loyall London cals her Holy-day.

5: The Prince (as now new Born) from the wombe,
6: Of Hardest Travail, is Deliver'd. -- -- -Come -- -- -
7: The Midwifery of Heaven, doth Present
8: A saCRed Monarch, to the Parliament:
9: And That, to Us; and We, to Heaven again,
10: Present our Thanks, and Bless our Soveraign.

11: Rejoyce (my soul) to see the Prince of Worth,
12: (The Worlds wonder) brought so Timely forth.
13: Rejoyce Blest Prince, thy Throne is blest with Peace:
14: Thy welcome Income, makes our Wars to cease.
15: Rejoyce my Fellow Subjects, All, as One,
16: Congratulate the Rising of This Sonne;
17: Whose Royall Lustre hath dispell'd our Fears,
18: And Clouds of Grief, to drop with Joyful Tears.

   Anthony Sadler


[27] The caps C and R are larger typeface and bolded -- for Charles Rex.

[28] Perhaps echoing the opening line of Milton's "Nativity Ode": "This is the month, and this the happy morn." My thanks to Lois Potter for this suggestion.

   In this MASQUE are
6 Shewes.
10 Speeches.
3 Songs.

The Persons in the Several Shews,
Speaking the several Speeches,


King David.
King Abijah.
His Queen-Mother.
Two Dukes, his Brothers.
The High Priest.
The Lord General.
The Prophet Shemaiah.

The Scene,

   For the Land is Canaan.
For the Place is Bethel.
For the Person is Jeroboam.

A Divine Masque.

   The private Speech
In Society with Friends, to entertain the
Time before the Masque begun.

   YOu know (Dear Friends) That, Video, Vindico;30 is God's Motto upon Traitors: but it is our duty to wait Gods time; for, he that shall come, will: and he that will come, is; to the help of his Anointed.

   God (hath in mercy) made his people to return, return to their duty, of Praying for the King.

   His very Name now, is pretious; his Presence, long'd for; and a General joy, attends the hope, to see him, in his Throne.

1:      So that now (seeing) the Royal Son, begin to rise;
2: and my Loyal fancy, to be as lucky, as divine:
3:      My heart reviv'd, my Muse rejoyc'd, to bring,
4:       Her Off-spring out, to welcome in, the King.
5:      Two Virgins (dress'd in Print) with blest accord,
6:      To give a Salve, unto our Soveraign Lord.
7:           The Elder, is a Sybillian: and (to acheer the King)31
8: doth (by a Prophetick Pen) write a Prædiction, in a
9: Lamentation.
10:      The Younger, is a Masquer; and she also (to
11: acheer the King) doth (by pretty Scenes) præsaging-
12: ly-præact, his (just) Inauguration.
13:      They are Both, the Issue, of one Parent; Legiti-
14: mate, and Loyal: but -- -upon the very Concepti-
15: on of the Masquer; much troubled I was; on whom,
16: and where, and how, to lay the Scene.
17:      I once thought to have made England, the Na-
18: tion; Westminster, the Place; and then -- -

19: My purpose was, the Powder-traitors Plot;
20: For to have made my Subject; and their Lot,
21: (To Ruine cast) have shewn. I had thought,
22: To've made their way, a Warning; and had brought,
23: Examples, pertinent; prophane, but true;
24: To make their shame, as fearful, as its due.
25:      But, this not fully reaching, to the aim,
26: Of what I would; I then, begun again;
27: Consulted God, and took my Object higher;
28: I made my Subject, sacred; and came nigher,
29: To shew a Traitors Doom from Scripture: then --
30: I pitch'd on Zedekiah. -- -- 32
31:                 Knowing well,
32: That, Zedekiah when he did Rebell,
33: Against th' Covenant, made; and Oath, he took;
34: To be the King of Babels Vice-Roy -- -- look.
35: Oh how the faithful God, did take to heart;
36: The wrong, thus offer'd, unto Either Part:
37: His (1) Name; the Heathens (2) Right, and Israels (3) Law:
38: Made (1) Vain; as (2) Void; and (3) Vile: by Zedekiah.
39: Treasons abhord: and God would make him know it;
40: And (maugre Egypt, and all's Force) did show it.
41: The Caldee Army came at length, to prove,
42: A Traitors tongue, calls Vengance from Above;
43: And God, and Man, to right such wrongs doth move.
44: Jerusalem -- -that strong and stately City,
45: Is close besieg'd; without regard, or pity,
46: Of either Place, or Persons; want, within;
47: And Fear, without; makes every face look thin.
48:      Within, they faint; without the walls, they fall;
49: The City's broken up; the King, and All,
50: Fly for their Lives: -- -- but, whither shall they fly,
51: Whom God pursues, with's Anger's Hue and Cry?
52:      King Zedekiah (now the woful scorn,
53: Of the Chaldean Army) is forlorn:
54: (Pursude, and taken) he is Vilifi'd;
55: To Riblah hurried: and there justly tri'd:
56: Tri'd by the Prince abus'd; and the same King;33
57: Who gave him leave to Rule, as Underling;
58: He is his Judge; and rightfully condemns,
59: His Treason, and his Traitrous stratagems.
60:      He slayes his Sons before him; makes him see,
61: His Sin hath ruind his Posterity.
62: Then puts he out his Eyes, as having been,
63: The Visible Contrivers of that Scene.
64: At last he (bound in Chains) in Prison lies;
65: And (living Poor, and Blinde) there (wretched) dies.

66:      And here, I stopt; -- -
67:           Two Subjects more (more fit)
68: Courting my Fancy; thus my Fancy writ.

69:      Zimri would be King of Israel:
70: And so would Shallum too:34
71: Two Subjects: but, Both, Traitors:
72: Both, Murderers: and Murdered:
73: A wicked Pair well met; and truly matcht;
74: For Fate, and Fortune, equal: strangely hatcht
75:      Each, was a King:
76: In Name; but, not by Right:
77: Not by Succession; but, by Trechery:
78: Not by Choyce; but, Usurpation:
79: Not by Conquest; but, Rebellion:
80: They matter'd not which way;
81: So the End were gotten.
82:      But, -- -- ah how soon,
83: Is the Head of Ambition, turn'd round?
84: With what prodigious speed,
85: Doth the short time, of their Tryumphing fly?
86: A certain shame,
87: Waits on, their fickle glory;
88: And their deceitful Glass,
89: Of false-reflecting-Beauty
90: While 'tis but lookt upon, 'tis broken.
91:      Though Presumption leads the Van;
92: Despair, brings up the Rear;
93: Of all their Squadrons.
94:      Zimri, is scarce seated in the Throne;
95: But, Vengeance follow him:
96: And seven dayes Reign, is dearly bought;
97: And his End, is as dreadful, as his Treason.
98: He saves the Executioner, a labour;
99: And by a Strange Device,
100: To put his Ashes in a Royal Urn,
101: He Fires the Pallace, and Himself doth burn.

102:      And was not Shallum haunted,
103: With as ill Success, in as high a Fortune?
104:      Past Grace, past Shame.
105: He dares Heaven to defend the King:
106: While he conspires to Murder him.
107:      Not because, Zachariah was Bad, as Any;
108: But because, He was Above All:35
109: He had the Supremacy;
110: And Shallum longs for't.
111: And now, his Pride;
112: Admits no Obstacle, -- -- as legal:
113: The Thirst of his Ambition,
114: Must be quench'd with Blood;
115: Not Popular; but Royal;
116: Not of Any Prince; but his Own;
117: Not a in Private; but a Publique way;
118: Not by Others; but his Own hands:
119:            Thus, he contrives to Kill;
120:                And Kills, to Reign;
121:                And Reign, he doth; -- --
122:            A Rebel, -- -- but no Soveraign.
123: Yet now, -- (as arrogant as the Devil)
124: The Glory of the world's His:
125: He won it, by the Sword:
126: And by the Sword, he'le keep it.
127:                A Traitors Plea right:
128:                He that set him, to this School;
129:                Taught him his Lesson well.
130: But, -- -- the Feet of wool, have Hands of Iron:
131: God, is Slow, but Sure:
132: Shallum (with a vengance) findes it;
133: He findes it: but -- --
134: Not so much Slow -- -- and -- -- Sure,
135: As Sure -- -- and -- -- Sudden.
136:      Shallum kill'd his Lord;
137: And the Servant, kill'd Shallum.
138: Zimri was destroyed by Himself:
139: Shallum, by Another:
140: Zimri, at a Weeks End:
141: And Shallum, at a Months.
142: Thus, he that Kills his Prince, to wear his Crown;
143: To warm his Fingers, burns a Pallace down:
144: Deludes, destroyes himself; and while he venters,
145: To round, a seeming Heaven; Hell, concenters.
146:      Villain forbear: do'nt suck thy Princes Blood:
147: Forbidden meat, is no fit meat for Food,
148:      And here (notwithstanding the time I had spent;
149: and model, I had made; and had (as in a manner)
150: laid the Scene, upon these Persons, and this Peece, of
151: thus revenged Treason: yet,) my minde was farther
152: prest, to take another, and to begin anew.
153:      At last, the Needle left her trembling Round:
154:      And my Magnetick Fancy, fixt I found.
155:      I found my Subject: and when All is done,
156:      My Subject's Jeroboam, Nebat's Sonne.
157:                Jeroboam
158: Whose Hope, though (at the last) it was deceived;
159: and his Policy, defeated; and his Pride, debased; and
160: his Person destroyed; (for
161:            The Lord strook him, and he died.)
162: Yet, this Catastrophe, -- -- -- -- -
163:                 Of That
164:            Ominous Politician:
165: Was (for many years) as really Improbable; as was,
166: the Settlement of Abijah, seemingly Impossible. -- --
167:      But stay, This ruder Peece, is dedicated to the pub-
168: lick view; and the contingency of censure: I will
169: (therefore) no longer detain you, from your Places;
170: nor anticipate your fancy.
171:      My good wishes, wait upon your favour; and the
172: better Omen of the Masque, upon your Persons, and
173: your Fortunes.
174:      So we All arose, and went into the Theater;
175: where (we being Sate) four Trumpeters did enter;
176: and having sounded a Victoria, a Levite presents him-
177: self, and speaks -- -- -

The Argument.

I King.11.26: In the dayes of Rehoboam (the Son of Solomon)
did Jeroboam (the Son of Nebat) rebel against his King.
I King. 12.19: In which Rebellion, when he had continued
2 Chron. 13.1: eighteen years: then began Abijah (the Son of Reho-
boam) to reign over Juda.
Ver. 2.: In the third year of whose Reign, he waged war;
and set the Battel in Aray, against Jeroboam: who,
I King. 14.20.: when he had plaid Rex, so long a time, as two and
2 Chron. 13.3.: twenty years: and had an Army, so Great, as of Eight hundred Thousand, chosen men, being mighty
men of Valour: yet then, even then; was the Lord
pleased, to make his Arm, bare; his Justice,
known; the Truth, prevalent; and his Name, glor-
For, this so successful Treason, this numerous
Chron. 13.: Army, and unhapppily-happy-Traitor; were, in their
13.: best Condition; and their greatest Confidence, to-
15.: tally subdued, and fearfully overthrown; five hun-
16.: dred thousand of them slain: their General enforc't
17.: to fly; and (as a Warning to all Rebels) exem-
19.: plarily struck dead by the Hand of the Lord.
20.: In a grateful Commemoration, of which Signal
Victory; and in an holy Preomination of the years
succeeding, Fortunate, to the Truth and Loyalty;
was, this new-mysterious Masque first made; -- -- -
wherein -- -- -

Abijah, and King's Cause;
Jeroboam, and the Rebels;
(With the justice, and success, of Both) are timously36 made obvious; to
The Comfort, and Encouragement,
All Loyal Subjects.

Psal.37.36,37.: I my self (saith the Royal Prophet) have seen
the Ungodly in great power, and flourishing like a green
Bay Tree:

And I went by, and lo, he was gone; I sought him,
but his Place could no where be found.

Psal.92.6,7.: An Unwise man (saith the same Author) doth not
well consider This; and a fool doth not understand it.
When the Ungodly are green, as the Grass; and when
all the workers of wickedness, do flourish;
then shall they be Destroyed for ever.

Epis. 3.: For (saith Ignatius Martyr) Nemo qui se contra
Præstantiorem extulit; impunitus unquam

    [With that (he going off the Stage) a young Prince Enters; wearing a Purple Robe, and his head, Crown'd: in the one hand, holding an Olive branch; in the other, a Palm; and speaks -- -- -]

The Prologue.

178:      What means this Dress,
179: And to what purpose, thus
[He walks
stately; and
looks upon

180: Am I Attir'd?
181: The manners ominous;
182: A true Præsage, of strange Events; to come,
183: On After Ages; by a Present Doome.
184:      What means this Place,
185: What Persons do I see?
186: I see, great Persons; and their Places, be,
187: Upon Sesostris wheele:
188: My Soveraign's Crown,
189: In's Grand-child's time's usurpt; and Rebels own.
190:      I see again,
191: By Scripture, and by Reason;
192: An End, both Sad, and sure; attends on Treason:
193: His Sin is Fatal, who his Fall laments not;
194: His Fall, is Final; who his Sin repents not.
195: Traitors, as Witches are;
196: And Witches never,
197: Become Converted, but Condemned ever.
198:      When Loyal Subjects,
199: (Howsoere they Fare)
200: As Blessed Angels (Angels blessed) are.
201: Their hope -- -and -- -love espouse,
202: And faith doth ty,
203: Their true Allegiance, fast, to Soveraignty.
204: 'Tis not the Tempest of the roughest Crosses,
205: Can shipwrack their Obedience, with their Losses.
206: It's so observ'd:
207: And Psyche (by the way)
208: Is Staid, and Pray'd, their Banner to display;
209: And here it's done, in a Triumphant Story;
210: Which flouts, and routs, all traitors shameful-glory.
211:      This is the Subject, of the Sequel Masque;
212: Which Psyche now, makes Mine: and I, your Task:
213: I, to resume; and You, for to revolve;
214: And Each, by Application, to resolve;
215: That this Sad-Sacred-pleasing-Scene, is laid;
216: To make the Good, rejoyce; the Bad, afraid.
217: But hark -- -- -- -
218: The Musick sounds;
219: To my preventing:
220: May all, have Mirth: and Psyche -- --
221:                True contenting.
222:      Exit.

[The loud Musique sounds
The First Shew's Presented
A Landskip in form of a Square; having in the one Angle, a Promontory; whereon the rural Nymphs were sporting, and under it, the Sea; wherein, was a gallant Navy sayling.
In another Angle, was a Garden; giving all the de- light that dainty flowers; pleasant walks; and Musical water-works could yeild.
In the Third Angle, was a Castle, strongly, and bravely fortified; in the face whereof, was an Army compleatly Armed, marching in Aray.
In the fourth Angle, was a Park; well-wooded, and stor'd with Deer: Gallants a hunting, and the Hounds upon a full Cry.
In the middle of this Quadrangle, was a Grove of Cedars; out of which came a Shepherdess, in a green Gown, and a Garland on her Head; attended by a Swain, in a Shepherds Coat, and a Pipe in his Hand: Each then, saluting other; the One Playes; and Both, Dance: which done -- they pull off their Disguises, and discover themselves, to be, an Angel, and Psyche: Psyche then (instructed by the Angel) making an hum- ble Address, and due Observance to R. A. the King. Kneels down, and Speaks.

The first Speech.

223:      Dread Sir -- -- I crave your Pardon;
224: Which, if You,
225: Shall please to grant;
226: I crave your Patience too,
227: Which, if you promise;
228: Then I crave your Ear;
229: Which, if you deign;
230: Then, let your Highness hear.
231:       What was that Heathen, that he should out-brave38,Goliath
232: God's Cause, and Army, and a Challenge crave?
233: Or, what's this Traitor, that the Gauntlet throwes,
234: In scorn of God, and doth the King oppose? Jeroboam
235: At length, -- Abijah
236: A Youth, but with a Stone and Sling; David.
237: Answer'd, and Conquer'd, that fell Phylistine.
238: And so, ere long,
239: As mean a Meanes, may Be,
240: The Scenes to Act this Villaines Tragedie.
241: Believe it' King Abijah,
242: You shall find;
243: The fall of Jeroboam is design'd.
244: Not from that Giant; but, this Rebell;
245: I -- -- -- -
246: Foresee the Sequel, by Imparitie:
247: For, True that Monster was;
248: And his Strange Pride,
249: Did Vaunt but's Valour, to advance his Side.
250:      But This,
251: -- -- -- Was monstrous False:
252: And's frantick Zeal,
253: To turn a Kingdom, to a Common-weal;
254: Prayes, and Betrayes;
255: Swears, and Forswears; to further,
256: -- -- -The King in's Throne:
257: -- -- -The King at's Gate, to Murder.
258: Corah's was nothing, if compar'd to This;
259: -- -- -This perjur'd Changling's Metamorphosis:
260: The Way, was worse;
261: And may a worser Fate,
262: Then Corah's, or Goliath's;39
263: Antedate -- -- -the Transformation:
264: Prodigious Stars, portend his Fall;
265: By Famine, Plague, or Wars.
266:      May Loyalty, be blest:
267: Your Highness, Crownd:
268: And God, Convert; or else your Foes Confound.
269: May you obtrude Intruders, from the Keyes;
270: And keep them Sacred to Divine Decrees.
271: May Aarons Rod still flourish:40 and You be,
272: A Nursing Father, both to It, and Me.41
273: Still may the Lord, your Majesty defend;
274: And Peace, or Patience, to your Subjects send.
275: Long may you live, -- -- -- -
276: And live so long, to Reign;
277: Till Treason be Reveng'd, and Traitors slain.
278:      This, This I ask, -- --
279: Which granted, I'le give ore:
280: And Bless my God, and You; -- -- -
281:                And ask no more.

[The King then drew off his Glove, and (holding out his hand) Psyche rose up; and (kneeling down again) she kiss'd it.
The Queen then (observing Psyche, to have a cu- rious Voyce) desired her to Sing: and (without denial, or reply) her good Angel standing by her, playing on a Lute, she sung -- --

The first Song.


282:      No more, no more, to ask,
283: Of God, and King,
284:           Too sad's a Task,
285:           In this glad Masque;
286: To undertake, and sing.


287: But, since my Loyal tongue;
288: Hath Royal greeting;
289:           'Twere double wrong,
290:           A single Song,
291: For to deny this Meeting.


292: Angels, and Men, shall know;
293: And All, hold forth;
294:           The Zeal I ow,
295:           And love I show,
296: Unto my Princes worth.


297: And now, in grateful-wise,
298: I'le kneel agen;
299:           To Sympathize,
300:           The Peoples Cryes,
301: God save the King. Amen.

[She kneels.

With that (an Acclamation being made) the Scene, upon a suddain, chang'd; and then (the loud Musique sounding a second time.)

The Second Shew's presented

A pleasant Plain, encompassed with Hills: in the middle of which Plain, was a fair City; and in the City a glorious Temple; and in the Temple, a goodly Jerusalem Person: Which Person (having on, a Robe of fine lin- King David nen; and a curious Ephod upon the Robe; and a golden Girdle upon the Ephod) walketh into the Sanctum San- ctorum, with the Book of the Law, in his hand, and thus speaks -- -- -

The Second Speech.

302:      In this Asylum -- --
303: Doth (for certain) dwell,
304: God, and my Devotions Oracle.
305: Hence am I Taught:
306: And Here I am; to know;
307: The Reason why, the wicked Prosper so?42
308:      I know, the Lord is Just:
309: But yet, -- -- -his wayes,
310: Seem very strange, and many doubtings raise.
311: For, -- -- he fulfils the wicked man's request;
312: And more then's Vote, doth correspond his Brest.
313: He fears not Death:
314: Nor doth his Body feel,
315: The darts of Sickness, or the Sword of Steel.
316: His Arm is brawny;
317: And his Army's stout;
318: And bravely Valiant, when he Marches out.
319: They -- -- deck themselves with Pride, as with a chain,
320: And as a Garment, so they wear Disdain.
321: They Drink: they Drab:
322: And live licentious Lives:
323: They mock at God:
324: And yet -- -- -- -their Doing thrives.
325:      They kill -- -- -their King:
326: Their Brethen, they Enslave:
327: They Rob, and Spoil: and no Religion have.
328:      As Beasts of Prey, they have devouring Paws:
329: As bloody Tyrants, they have broke all Laws:
330: The Laws of God:
331: Of Nature:
332: And the Land:
333: And Crown'd their Treason, with Supreme Command.
334: Yet -- -- -God's not move'd:
335: Except, it be to Bless;
336: Such Ill Proceedings, with a good Success.
337: At night,
338: He guards them, in their safe Reposes;
339: And when 'tis Day,
340: He trims their Heads with Roses.
341:      This, -- -- -- -makes them bragg;
342: Their Cause, is most Divine:
343: And Stately Fortune, makes their Cause to Shine.
344:      This, -- -- -makes Me grieve;
345: For This, I come, to know;
346: The Reason why, the wicked Prosper so?

347: With that,
348:       A soft-small-voyce, deep silence brake;
349: And thus,
350:       This Answer, to the Question spake.

The Oracle.

351: Let God be true, and every man a Lyar:
352: The Bramble-bush, is but (at best) a Bryar;
353: It cannot be a Cedar.43
354:      The wicked may,
355: Walk in the broader; but, not safer way.
356: To stand upon a Pinacle in pride;
357: Is very vain, and perilous beside.
358: The more the wicked have; the more's their score;
359: Upon the Audit-Book to reckon for.
360: They are the less excus'd, in having thus,
361: All as they would, exceeding prosperous.
362: Their prosperous State, is as a Chance that's cast;
363: And lucky Chances, do not alwayes last.
364: Their only Portion, on the Earth is given;
365: Excluded ever, from a part in Heaven.
366: They are the Rods of God; and when his turn
367: Is serv'd upon his Children, he will burn.
368: Their seeming Chrystall is but reall Ice;
369: They slide, and fall, and perish in a trice.
370: Their former Honour shall be quite forgot;
371: And Jeroboam, with his fame, shall rot.
372: He and all Rebells do ride post to Hell;
373: And this for Truth the Oracle doth tell.
374: Then -- -- let thy Faith, and Hope, and Love, be firm;
375: (Whoere's aboard,)44 it's God that sits at th'Stern.
376: He will thee guide with Councell;
377: If thou lov'st him:
378: And never fail thee,
379: Whensoere thou prov'st him.
380: Continue constant in thy fervent praying;
381: Hee'l Crown thy Expectation -- -- -
382:       And my saying.

   Then was a noyse of chearfull Musique heard, And sights of Joy (and Angels seen) appear'd; And therewithall -- --

[The Third Shew's presented
A stately Pallace, wherein, was a Room of Ala- blaster (hang'd with Cloth of Gold, richly and curiously Embroydered, with the lively, and Emboss'd Imagery of David and Solomon; with the Histo- ry of both: in the Hangings, were severall Rowes of Jewels; whose Lustre was irradiant; and as so many Starres enlightened all the Room) where- into (attended by Fifty Persons, all cloth'd alike, in Coats of Crimson Velvet, with green Sattin sleeves; their Stockings green Silk; with Garters and Roses; of Gold and Crimson) came -- --
The King of Judah,
The Queen his Mother,
Two Dukes, his Brothers,
The High-Priest,
The Generall of the Army,
And the Captain of the Guard.

The King, Queen, and Princes, sate in their Chairs of State: All the rest at a distance sate bare-headed.
Then the King (lifting up his Eyes and Hands to Heaven) smote upon his Breast; and thus his minde express'd -- -- -in -- -- -

The Third Speech.

383: It makes up sport, to play with Easie Cares;
384: When, Heavier, make us Dumb.
385: The Greater Fears,
386: Put Speech it self to silence; and the Ears,
387: To hear no Language but the Voyce of Tears.
388: Yet I -- -- -
389: Th'unhappy Grand-Sonne of that King;45
390: Whose Wealth, and Wisdome;
391: Power, and Peace; do ring;
392: With Everlasting Fame:
393: I -- -- I am Hee -- -- -- -
394: Must hear such Fame blasphem'd by Obloquie:
395:           Must Hear't, and doe:
396:           And Speak on't too.
397:                Was ever Grief like mine?46
398: I am the Object, wrongfully displac'd:
399: Of Honour sham'd: and Majesty debas'd:
400: Of Favour, much despis'd: of Power, made weak:
401: Of SaCRed Peace, made Civil Peace to break.
402:                Was ever Case like mine?
403: My Kingdome's Ravisht:
404: And47 my Virgin Throne,
405: Basely's Deflowr'd by Rebellion:
406: My Royall Robe is rent:
407: My Scepter, broke:
408: My Crown, is fallen:
409: And the Loyall Yoak,
410: Of Legall Tribute (to my greater crosse)
411: With scorn, is torn, to my greatest losse.
412:                Was ever wrong like mine?
413: The Traytors fury is without respect,
414: Of Persons, and of Duty:
415: Their neglect -- -- -
416: Doth know no Bounds:
417: They will doe, as they say;
418: Their Will's their Law; and with their Swords they sway.
419:                 Were ever Foes like mine?
420: These -- -- -
421: With their Old Projector (to our woe)
422: Have caus'd our grief, and grievous overthrow:
423: These -- -- -
424: Fought to kill -- -- my Father:
425: And can I -- -- -
426: Expect good Quarter, from such Soldiery?
427: Alas! they are inhuman;
428: And no means,
429: Of Princely Favour;
430: Shining from the Beams,
431: Of Majesty it self;
432: Can make them know,
433: Or once acknowledge,
434: They subjection owe,
435: To any, but the stronger:
436: These be they -- -- -
437: Whom self-advantage turns any way:
438:                Were ever Foes like mine?
439: And such as, these; -- -- -
440: Or rather just the same;
441: Were some that fled, and to our Party came;
442: Came, -- -- but, as Spies;
443: And so it prov'd at length;
444: We lost their duty when we lost our strength:
445:                Were ever Friends like mine?
446: This, -- -- -
447: In my Fathers Reign was sadly -- true;
448: And what can I against so false a Crue?
449: They have disclaim'd my Right:
450: And few, or none;
451: But only God's my Consolation.
452:      I am by SaCRed and by Civill claim;
453: To all the Tribes, the Lawfull Soveraign:
454: Yet I -- -- -their KING -- -- -
455: Must see my Right, made Voyd;
456: And all Allegiance to my Crown destory'd:
457:                Was ever Realm like mine?
458: What shall I say?
459: I am an Exile driven,
460: To Forrein parts, -- -- -
461: And of my Home bereaven.
462:      What shall I doe?
463:       -- -Alas, wherere I goe;
464:      My Life's in danger by a cruel Foe:
465: I know not whom to trust:
466: And all my care,
467: Is, -- -how my Subjects in my Fate will fare.
468:           Ah me -- -forsaken -- -and -- -forlorn!
469:           Nor Realm, nor Wrongs,
470:           Nor Case, nor Grief,
471:           Nor Foes, nor Friends:
472:                 Were ever like to mine.

With that he sigh'd; and ceas'd.
And then begun,
The Mother Queen;
And thus bespoke her Son,
The Fourth Speech.

473: My dearest Son, and Soveraign;
474: Hear I pray -- -- -
475: A Mothers Counsell, and her words obey.
476:      It's true -- -- -
477: Your Case, so sad; and Grief, so deep;
478: O'reflowes the tears of Mourners (hir'd to weep)
479: Your Verball Friends, but Reall Foes in Deeds;
480: The deepest Grief, and saddest Case exceeds.
481:      Your Realm's in Common -- -- -
482: And in Chief, your wrong;
483: Outvyes the Cryes of Hadadrimmons tongue.48
484:      Yet -- -- -
485: May'nt base Fear, your Noble heart surprize;
486: For, we do'nt know, nor may, the mysteries,
487: Of God's permissive Providence: -- -- -Oh no;
488: His winding Feet, upon the Waters goe:
489: There is no Tract, nor Line, nor Rule, whereby,
490: His Paths to finde; or Footsteps to descry.
491:      Yet -- -- -
492: In an hopefull wonder, see 'tis Day,
493: Although the Sun's Eclips'd,
494: His Lightsome Ray,
495: Will pierce, ere long, the darkest Clouds.
496:      Your Crown -- -- -
497: And Throne, and Scepter, may be hurled down:
498: Your Forces, beaten:
499: And your Self, made flie,
500: With dreadfull speed for your security:
501: In outward shew, past Help:
502: Admit -- -- -yet then,
503: The Lord of Hosts, can Rally up agen.
504: By Him, Kings Reign:
505: And upon whom, he please;
506: He Crowns the Issues of his close Decrees.
507:      His Prescience, is a Secret;
508: And we must,
509: Submit (in Duty) to His Will;
510: And trust his Word Reveal'd:
511:      For why? we cannot tell,
512: How soon the Traitor shall be dragg'd to Hell.
513:      God hath his Time:
514: Then use what means you can;
515: To Repossesse your Rights;
516: 'Tis God not Man;
517: By many, or by few, the Conquest gives;
518: Before the Traitor his Reproach outlives.
519:      Serve God, in truth:
520: And when his Time is come,
521: He can advance you to a Peacefull Throne.
522:      He is the same, he was:
523: In Mercy still, most infinite;
524: If't be his Holy Will,
525: He can, and may Enthrone you; -- -- -howsoere,
526: Let not your Hope, be overcome by Fear.

No (saith the Duke) and (with a pretty smile) Thus Courts the King, his Brother: -- -- -in
The fifth Speech.

527: Wee -- -- -
528:      (For consolation met)
529:      Are, in Consultation set,
530:      That comfort, and assistance might,
531:      Be given for your Native Right:
532:      And (lo) an Angel doth appear,
533:      Which puts us in a Hopefull -- -fear.

[A bright Cloud is seen, and an Angel in the Cloud: his face shining like the Sun: and armed like a man of war, and having in the one hand a Golden Crown; in the other, a Flaming Sword; he brandishes the sword, then sets the Crown upon the Kings head, and so vanishes, being

The Fourth Shew.

Whereupon the Prince proceeds; and sayes,

534: See, See, -- -- -
535:      A Vision doth foretell,
536:      The Rebels woe, my Soveraigns weal.
537:      Not he, that girds his Harnesse on;
538:      But, puts it off; the Field hath won.
539:      The men of Ai prevail'd at first,49
540:      And forc'd Gods Forces to the worst:
541:      Whle Achan plunder'd, there could be;
542:      No hope, of any Victory:
543:      But found, and punisht; God returns:
544:      Defeats the Foe: the City Burns:
545: God's Cause, and Captain, did (at last) prevail;
546: And so shall ever, though a while they fail.
547:      Ah Sir! I know, we have Offended:
548:      And what's Amiss, must be Amended:
549:      Some Person, or some Thing, there is;
550:      God Plagues, with such Calamities.
551:      Let's search, and try our wayes; and then,
552:      God will lead In, and Out, your Men:
553:      Your Cause, is Good; and in the End,
554:      The Vision doth your Good portend:
555: Cheer up (dear Sir) and trust the King of Kings,
556: You shall prevail, and do the highest things.
557:      Yea, said the other Duke, in -- -- -

The Sixt Speech.

558: -- -- -- -- -- And so You shall,
559: Rise most Tryumphant, from your lowest Fall.
560: You shall -- -- -
561: For, God Rewards; and wil, ere long;
562: The bloody Actors, of a Princes wrong.
563:      We finde the end, of Shimei; who Revil'd
564: His Soveraign Lord; And Traiterously Stil'd,
565: The King; a man of Belial:50 though the same,
566: He did Confess; and for his Pardon came,
567: With all Submission; yet -- -- -he guilty stood,
568: And's hoary Head, went to the Grave, in Blood.
569:      God owns Kings so, that, who so wrongs their right,
570: Out-faces God, and doth his Power despite.
571: For -- solo Deo minor,51 is the King;
572: And He is Gods Immediate Underling.
573: There's no Coercive Power under heaven,
574: Against the King; but what's Directive given.
575: All Kings, are Sacred: and their Unction, is;
576: Oyl-Holy -- -- -Gods: and All, mysterious Ties,
577: From Evil, in the Heart; and Tongue; and Hand;
578: Against their Persons, and their just Command.
579: Hence (sure) it was, that Absolon, was so;52
580: With fatal Arrows, smitten three times through:
581: For's Heart, and Hand, and Tongue, did all, go on;
582: To Act a threefold Treason; All, in One.
583: Or else because, that Rebels are the Foes;
584: Which do the blessed Trinity oppose.
585: Or else because, they do resist the Way;
586: Of God's: of States: and of the Churches Sway.
587: A wretched End he had: twixt Heaven and Earth,
588: Hang'd by his Hair, as in a Snare for death:
589: In's height of Sin, and in his strength of Treason;
590: He's slain, untimely; in a timely Season.
591:           Most Timely, as for David;
592:           Though untimely, as for Absolon.
593:           Then said Shemaiah,53

594: Speaking

The Seventh Speech.

595: We must not think, unequal are God's wayes;
596: Or, He denies us, when he us Delayes:
597: We must not think, because he doth forbear;
598: That he forgets, what Sins, and Sinners are.
599: God cannot be, but what he is: most True:
600: Most Mighty: Wise: and what's most Just, will do.
601: The Soul that Sins; shall Dye. God's only Son,
602: (As one that Sin'd) before the Judge must come:
603: Not for to Plead, yet can; nor strive, yet able;
604: Both to confute, and to confound, the Rabble:
605:      But, as made Sin for Us; that Sin'd; that so -- -
606: We that so Sinn'd, may be (as Just) let go:
607: Him, as for Us; Us, as in Him; God tries:
608: He bears our blame; and for our Sins he dies.
609:      Because Christ took our Nature; to become,
610:      Our Pledge; our Price; and our Redemption:
611: God is so Just, he will not spare his Son,
612: But Sinful made -- -- by Imputation:
613: The Soul that Sins shall dye. And will God then,
614: Excuse the sinfull'st of the Sons of Men?
615: The Father's Sin, sha'nt ly upon the Son;
616: And shall the Subjects, on the King: and's Throne?
617: Shall Rebels be unpunisht, or shall they -- -- -
618: That have condemn'd, -- -- and made their King away,
619: By an unheard-of-murder? shall they be
620: Exempt from Justice, as by Law made Free?
621: Shall They, that have despis'd the Son of God;
622: And's Word, and's Will, (as under foot) have trod?
623: Shall They be ever Green? and shall the Bayes,
624: Of such Offences, flourish to their Praise?
625: Then, is our Faith in vain; and all our Hope,
626: Of Retribution, as a Sandy Rope.54
627: We cleanse our heart, & wash our hands, for nought,
628: But Inward Peace; which now as nothing's thought.
629: We suffer much, and All, to Little end;
630: If All to Loss, and to Misfortune tend.
631: Why then did Moses, leave the Princely Sport,
632: Of Such a Pallace, as was Pharaohs Court?
633: Or, why did Joseph shun the Courting Stream,
634: Of Stollen waters, from his Princely Dame?55
635: Why were the Scriptures writ? and what ado -- --
636: Is there of Judgement, and Damnation too?
637: What do we talk of God, of Heaven, or Hell,
638: If they be best, that in the Worst excel.
639:       'Twere vain indeed, the General sayes,

The Eighth Speech.56

640: 'Twere boot; -- --
641: To Rant, and Rore; and have a Requiem to't.
642: But it as True, as Old; and each one knows;
643: That, Traitors Tryumphs, have their overthrows.
644: Though Haggith's Son, with Royal wings doth fly;
645: And Joab, and Abiather stand by:57
646: Though He (by Them) have All, and Each, as Vile,
647: Besides Himself; Himself admires awhile.
648: Though's Colours fly: and Drums in triumph beat:
649: And Sounding Trumpets serve, to serve in's meat:
650: Though All seem well; and nought as Ill, to see;
651: What ere He does, and where so ere He be:
652: Though Horse, and Chariots, and his fifty Boyes,
653: Do run before his Kingship: -- -- All, are Toyes.
654:      For fall He shall: and fall He did: that Day,
655: He made's Request, He made his Life away.
656:      Thus, -- -- -its as true, as old; and Each one Knows;
657: A Traitors weal, is Usher to his Woes.
658:      Unlawful Acts, by means unlawful done;
659: Are thin, and weak; and by the Spider spun.
660:           You Sacred Sir, can tell.
661: I can: and Here;
662: By Sacred Story, it shall plain appear,
663:           Saith the High Priest -- -- -in -- -- -

The Ninth Speech.

664: When Corah's craft, had blear'd the Peoples Eyes,58
665: And made so many of the Princes Rise:
666: The chiefest men; the men of most renown:
667: Famous, for Birth; and for their Worth, made known:
668:      He as the Best; and only man for Zeal;
669: Becomes the Speaker, for the publique Weal:
670: And (by a kind of hellish witchcraft led)
671: They all submit to this Rebellious Head:
672: Who, having thus, such Members to assist him;
673: He goes to Moses; and doth thus resist him.59
674: You -- -- -you, Sir Moses and your Brother too: Corah.
675: Must All of Us, be trampled, on by You?
676: What is the Reason, of Advancing thus,
677: Your selves above your Brethren? God's with Us,
678: As well as You: and All of Us (as One)
679: Are Holy, in the Congregation.
680:      Wee'l not be Fool'd into a Regal way;
681: And You, Command; and we (forsooth) Obey.
682: What have you done (quoth Dathan) thus to be, Dathan.
683: The only Two, for your Supremacy?60
684: Is't not enough, that from a wealthy Land
685: (With Milk and Hony flowing) thy Command, -- --
686: Hath led Us higher, to this barren Place;
687: To be the Food, for Famine, and Disgrace:
688: Except Thou be our Prince: and make Us bow,
689: And yield our Necks, to thy Subjuging too?
690:      Yes (quoth Abiram)61 -- -- Abiram.
691: -- -- Where are those Fruitful fields;
692: That Milk and Honey, and such plenty yeilds?
693: What wilt thou do? Dost think, we do not see;
694: Thy proud Intention, what thou meanst to be?
695: No, no, wee'l not come up: call -- -- call agen;
696: Let Them come up, that know no Stratagem.62
697: We'l make you know your Princedom's not so great,
698: But we are able to defeat your Feat.
699: There's Corah come, and tell Him truly now,
700: (Or we will make you) why ye make Us bow.
701:      Thus what with words, and mixing Threats withall,
702: Moses and Aaron on their Faces Fall:63
703: As strangely sham'd: or zealously affear'd:
704: To see the Lightning, from such Thunder hear'd.
705:      They could not speak, as yet: but ere awhile;
706: Moses doth tell them, in a fair-foul Stile;
707: What they should do; and should from thence infer;
708: What Stars, were fixt; and what, Erratique were.
709:      They soon should know who were the good, or bad;
710: That God Secluded, or Selected had,
711: To Minister before him: They should see
712: Who Holy were, and who Unholy be.
713:      The Rebels then, they took (as Moses said)
714: Censers, and Fire; and thereon Incense laid:
715: And then (with Moses and with Aaron) stood,
716: Before the Place, where God his Glory shew'd.
717: Before (their Prince and Priest, and now) the Lord,
718: They stand (presuming upon Corah's word)
719: And dare Appeal (as free from All Offence)
720: To God's strict Justice, and Omniscience.64
721:      Thus, -- -- damned Pride, leads Traitors to the worst,
722: Of wilful Sins, to make them most Accurst:
723: From One Sin, to Another; still they go;
724: And fear no Evil, till they feel the Blow:
725: Which, shall so Sudden, and so Dismal be;
726: As, by the Vengence; you, their Sin shall see.
727:      This -- -- God, to Moses: He, the People shews;
728: Who, Corahs tents, and Congreation views.
729: They touch not, ought, is Theirs: but agen,
730: Review, for Separation: Moses then,
731: Bespeaks them thus.65
732:      Now, shall you hereby know;
733: Both who I am, and whence; and what I do,
734: Is all from God: and what a Horrid Sin,
735: ReBellion is, the way that Corah's in.
736:      If you shall see, the Earth in sunder cleave;
737: And all these men, and whatsoe'er they have;
738: Be swallowed, quick; and go alive, to Hell;
739: Then by the Vegeance; you, their Sin may tell.
740:      And as he spake, it was: a dismal Grave,
741: Did them, their Tents and all their Goods receave:66
742: And (nothing left) the Earth did close agen,
743: To be a warning for Rebellious Men,
744: Who, but for speaking, though they did not Do;
745: The murderous Act, of bloudy Treason too:
746: Yet, -- -- see how strictly, God in fury smites,
747: The mouthy Tauntings, of the SaCRed Rites:
748: The Earth, destroyes: the Fire, doth devour:
749: The bold Blasphemers, of the Higher Power.

With that all the Levites stood up, and having each
of them an Instrument of Musique in his hand:
They make Obeysance to the King,
And then they Play, and thus they sing.

The Second Song.

750: Sir, wait awhile; while God your Patience tries,
751: By suffering Traitors, in their Villanies:
752:           For, there are woes
753:                For your Foes,
754:                Prepared:

755: Not a Common Visitation, shall,
756: Bold-Bloody-Rebels, at the last befall,
757:           Then let not Those,
758:                That Oppose,
759:                Be fear'd.


760:           Though Pharaoh Boast,
761:                He'l Israel confound:
762:           Yet Pharoh's crost,
763:                And he and's Host are Drownd.
764: Sir be content; as Moses was, by you:
765: Moses foretold: and may your Highness too:
766:           That, there are woes,
767:                For your Foes,
768:                Prepar'd:
769: As Moses did: So shall your Highness see,
770: In Corah's, Jeroboam's Destinie:
771:           Then, let not Those,
772:                That Oppose,
773:                Be fear'd,

774:           Though Pharaoh boast,
775:                He'l Israel confound;
776:           Yet Pharoh's crost,
777:                And He, and's Host are Drownd.

[Then, as they made a Warbling Close, both of their Song, and Musique; Behold,]

[The Fifth Shew's presented;
A spacious Field, and two Armies, in Aray; the Kings, and the Rebels: and joyning Battel, the Kings side prevails.
Whereupon (all crying Victoria, Victoria) an Old man (wearing a Mantle of Camels Hair, girt about with a Lethern Girdle)67 presents Himself before the King; to whom (being demanded who he was, and what he would) he said -- -- -

The Tenth Speech.68

778: What needed Endors Witch, by Magick Spell,
779: To make the Devil, a Prophet; and to tell -- --
780: The fatal State of Saul?69
781:      For, (first) his cursed sparing Agag's Self: I.
782: Then (secondly) his Lying for the Pelf:702.
783: Thirdly, his killing the Lord's Priests:713.
784: And (fourthly) Hunting for -- -- - 4.
785: The pretious Life of David:
786: (Whose worth, the Virgins, in a Dance did Sing:
787: And next to Saul, was the Anointed King.)72
788: Fiftly, (despairing) his presuming Folly, 5.
789: In Samuel's place, to be (unholy) Holy:
790: Lastly, from God, unto a Witch, he going;
791: Resolves the Question (to his just Undoing.)73
792:      That Vengeance waits on Sinners: such, as still;
793: Resist the Good, and do persist in Ill:
794: Sin, with delight; and in their Spite, Oppose,
795: God's way, and Will: God will (at last) Depose.
796: What needed Endors Witch,
797: By Magick Spell, -- -- -
798: To make the Devil, a Prophet?
799:      This Truth, this Day, is with a Sun-beam writ;
800: And these, and After-times shall witness it.
801:      For th' bloud, of many hundred thousands shed;74
802: The hideous Cries, of thousands, almost dead:
803: The total-strange Defeat: and direful Fate,
804: Of Jeroboam; -- -- In his tenfold State:
805: His two and twenty years Possession:
806: His mighty Host: Eight hundred thousand strong;75
807: His cunning Ambush: and his Forces, double:
808: (Flouted, and routed; to his treble trouble.)76
809: Then, -- -- his sad Exit, from the Stage of warre;
810: Shew, -- -- what the Issues of Rebellion are.
811: See, how the Field is staind with Blood: and then -- --
812: Observe the number: rally up agen,
813: Thy thankful thoughts; don't wonder; in such wayes,
814: (Although so long permitted; -- -- ) that, their days;
815: (At longest) are but short; and bad (at Best)
816: Not all their Pomp, can give one hour of Rest.
817: Their Guards are vain: their strongest Bars, are weak:
818: Their Sentinels, by night, and day, do speak,
819: Their Guilt, and Fear. Where's Jeroboam now?
820: (The Old Commander) unto whom, did bow;
821: So many, and they All;
822: (The Sons of Belial.)
823: Where's his Calf -- -- Gods,
824: And Idol (self-made) Priests,
825: Where's all his double-odds?77
826: Oh how is Israel, bewitcht, with Treason!
827: Though God himslef, be Captain for his King;
828: And lead the van: and Angels, either Wing:
829: Yet, -- -- joyn they Battel; and their shooting to't:
830: Till God draws out, & breaks through Horse & Foot,
831: Disranks, Disorders, and Destroyes the Foe,
832: And gives at once, an utter Overthrow.78
833: I see it now, -- -- and now, upon the Day;
834: I come, the Tribute of my thanks to pay;
835: To pay, devoutly tender'd unto God;
836: Who with his Holy Arm, and Iron Rod;
837: Hath made the Truth, most timously to bring,
838: Praise, to his Name; and Safety, to his King.

[Upon this, was an Allarm from within; and lamen-
table out-cryes made
; and thereupon,

The Sixt, and last Shew's presented,
Two Cities, Dan, and Bethel: and in Bethel, the Juncto-Council; wherein, sate Jeroboam, in a Chair of State: Hell, under him; the Devil, behind him: and King Abijah in a Throne, above him: whom when the Rebel saw; he cries out -- -- O Treason, Treason: what have I done, and how was I bewitch't. O Treason, Treason: ceasing, to be Loyal; I left to be Religious; I first, forsook my King: and then my God:
Thus, by degrees I fell; and now, I fall;
To be more wretched, then Accursed Saul.
With that, the Devil tares him in pieces, and throwes him into Hell. Whereupon, the Party for Abijah, clap their hands: and (praising God, and Praying for the King) the Levites take again their several Instruments of Musick; and (one holding up the Picture of Jerobo- am, in a frame of Gold.) they sung

The Third and last song.

As they began, there came in six Masquers; each in green silk; wrought over with gold spangles: their Temples wreath'd with Bayes; their Vizards all diffe- rent, but beautiful and smiling.
These six (at the close of every Eight verses) dance the Antique; and Dancing, sing the Chorus.)]


839:           The Person, and his Power's gone:
840:           What's worth your Contemplation?
841:           This Picture? or this fairer Frame?
842:           (Deserving better then it's Name)
843:           No, no, th'memory, the Sight;
844:           Each Part, and Faculty, that's right;
845:      Abhors the Shadow of the fairest, Paint,
846:      Which makes the foulest Devil seem a Saint.

[He throws the
Picture down,
and breaks it


847:           Come, dance we may,
848:           'Tis Psyche's Play;
849:           And Holy-day,
850:                At Court,
851:                At Court,
852:           And Holy-day,
853:                At Court:
854:           Traitors (though Crown'd,
855:           And most Renown'd)
856:           God will confound,
857:                With sport,
858:                With sport;
859:           God will confound,
860:                With sport.


861:           God did, and doth, and ere will Bless,
862:           The Better Cause, with Best Success.
863:           Traitors may speed awhile; and bring;
864:           And shameful EXIT, on their King:79
865:           Rebels may Rule, untill their Sins,
866:           Be ripe for Judgment: then begins,
867: The just Observer of the Prince's wrongs;
868: To plead their Rights, in spite of Rebels tongues.


869:           With Musique choyce,
870:           Of Hand and Voyce;
871:           Sing and rejoyce;
872:                 We may,
873:                 We may;
874:           Sing, and rejoyce,
875:                 We may:
876:           The Traitors Crown,
877:           And all's Renown,
878:           Is fallen down,
879:                To day,
880:                To day,
881:           Is fallen down
882:                To day.


883:           The Lord of Hosts, the King is for;
884:           The Regicide doth most abhorre:
885:           He'le fright, and smite the proudest He,
886:           That's guilty of Disloyaltie.
887:           The Scepter, from Usurpers hands,
888:           Shall fall by horrid Countermands.
889: And all the Guiltless Blood, that hath bin spilt;
890: Shall (to their torment) be their Endless Guilt.


891:           Come, dance, we may,
892:           'Tis Psyche's Play,
893:           And Holy-day,
894:                At Court,
895:                At Court;
896:           And Holy-day,
897:                At Court:
898:           Traitors (though Crown'd,
899:           And most Renown'd)
900:           God will confound,
901:                With sport,
902:                With sport:
903:           God will counfound,
904:                With sport.


905:           Here's Jeroboam, who of late,
906:           Did Check the King; hath now Check mate,
907:           And all his Chosen men of Warre,
908:           Eight hundred thousand strong; yet are,
909:           Defeated, and destroyed so,
910:           With such a fearfull fatall blow:
911: The Highest Traitor may his Downfall see;
912: And in's Rebellion finde a Prodigie.


913:           With Musique choyce,
914:           Of Hand, and Voyce;
915:           Sing, and rejoyce,
916:                We may,
917:                We may,
918:           Sing, and rejoyce,
919:                We may.
920:           The Traitors Crown,
921:           And all's Renown.
922:           Is fallen down,
923:                To day,
924:                To day,
925:           Is fallen down,
926:                To day.

[With that, there was a Sound of Drums and Trum pets: and Psyche (with an observant haste) goes, to present the King, with the Masque, in writing. Which done, Psyche's good Angel bespeaks her thus;]

927: Come prethee Psyche haste away,
928:           Upon the Earth,
929:           Is no long mirth:
930: And I am gone, nor may You stay.

931: She hears, she answers; and she cryes,
932:           Let none think much,
933:           Our mirth is such;
934: And by an Eccho, He replies.
935:                as followeth, in



936: Ah woe is me (unhappy One)
937: And is my Guide, and Guard, thus gone?

938: ECCHO.
939:                Gone.

940: But hark, ye'nt81 That, the Musique choyce,
941: Of his fair Hand, and warbling Voyce?

942:                O-yes.

943: The Eccho's His: ah could I know,
944: But whether I am mockt, or no?

945:                Noe.

946: Oh (my dearest) were I there,
947: Or (my dearest) were you here.

948:           ECCHO.
949:                U -- here.

950: Descend I prethee, and fulfill,
951: Or mine, or Thine; what's your's my will.

952:                I -- will.

953: Oh haste, I faint; what shall I say?
954: What shall I doe? Oh speak, I pray.

955:                Pray.

956: The Duty's just; and I'le persever,
957: (If thou wil Teach me) in It ever.

958:                Ever.

[With that, she Bowes, & Kneels; and (Kneeling) prayes:
The Angel comes, and each (Ascending) sayes:

959:           Farewell,82
960:           Fare-well:
-- -- Yea, Wellfare may our Farewell83 be,
To his most saCRed Majesty.
The (1) Oak, the (2) Olive, and the (3) Vine,
Their Boughs, as well as Roots, entwine.
965:      The (1) stately, (2) cheerfull, (3) fruitfull Trees. 84
966:      Emblematize Prosperitie:
967:      That; (1) Power, (2) Peace, (3) & Plenty, may -- -
968:      Be still our Pillars, for our Stay.

969:      Enough, -- -- now, our Divining Masque is done:
970:      We must attend upon the Rising Sunne.
971:      Leaving Good Times, to prove our Better Newes,
972:      As True, as Told, in Speeches, Songs, and Shewes.


[30] "I saw, I avenged."

[31] Opening parenthesis missing.

[32] Sadler's version of the story of Zedekiah, which follows, sticks close to the account in 2 Kings 24: 17-20 and 25: 1-7.

[33] i.e. Nebuchadnezzar; see 2 Kings 25: 6.

[34] Both Zimri and Shallum conspired against and slew kings of Israel. On Zimri, see 1 Kings 16: 8-20. Zimri sinned "in walking in the way of Jeroboam, and in his sin which he did, to make Israel to sin" (1 Kings 16: 19). Dryden later used the name for George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham in Absalom and Achitophel. On Shallum, see 2 Kings 15: 10-11.

[35] Zachariah "departed not from the sins of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin" (2 Kings 15:9).

[36] At an early or appropriate time; OED.

[37] "No-one who exalts himself in the face of Superiors has ever gone unpunished." Ignatius, third bishop of Antioch, was sent to Rome to be killed by the beasts in the amphitheatre. Among the most famous documents of early Christianity, his letters to Christian communities frequently exhort obedience to their bishop, and appear in a number of Greek recensions. I have been unable to find an exact source for Sadler's Latin in any version of the "third" epistle, to the Thrallians. But Archbishop James Ussher published an edition of Ignatius that incorporates materail from Robert Grosteste's Latin version of a lost Greek original. In this version of the second epistle, to the Magnesians, Ussher supplies: "Nemo enim inultus remansit, qui se contra potiores extulit," Ignatii, Polycarpii, et Barnabae, Epistolae (Oxford: Leonard Lichfield, 1643), p. 51. Since all but one copy of this work were destroyed by a fire at the printing house, Ussher's edition was reissued as Polycarpi et Ignatii Epistolae (Oxford: Henry Hall, 1644). See Kirsopp Lake, trans., The Apostolic Fathers, 2 vols. (London: Heinemann, 1925), vol. 1.

[38] Goliath] Goliah

[39] Goliath's] Goliah's

[40] Here a symbol of divine authority against rebellion. When asked by Pharoah for proof that he was on the Lord's mission, Aaron turned his rod into a "serpent." When the Egyptian court wizards imitated the trick, his rod swallowed up theirs (Ex. 7: 10-12). The Lord later commanded Moses to take up Aaron's rod "for a token against the rebels" (Num. 17: 10; and see Heb. 9: 4).

[41] "Nursing Father:" a key trope in the defense of the sacramental authority of kings that is not uncommonly invoked in estoration panegyrics to Charles. Faced with his countrymen's infidelity, Moses complains to the Lord of his burden to "carry them" in "his bosom, as a nursing father" (Num. 11: 12), and see Isaiah 49: 23: "And kings shall be thy nursing fathers." Compare J. P., The Loyal Subjects hearty Wishes To King Charles the Second, line 43; Sadler's Majestie Irradiant, lines 120-26; and contrast Thomas Pecke, To The Most High and Mighty Monarch Charles the II: "CHARLES with maternal Care, kept LONDON plump," line 331.

[42] An obvious problem for royalists, especially following the execution of Charles I. Although the phrase is not specifically Davidic, the question of God punishing the wicked saturates Psalms and Proverbs. See especially Psalm 94, which Sadler probaby had in mind here, and see Job 21: 7, Eccl. 11: 16, Jer. 12: 1.

[43] Sadler's Oracle echoes Jotham's parable foretelling the ruin of Abimelech's conspiracy; see Judges 9: 8-20, esp. 15.

[44] Closing parenthesis missing.

[45] Clearly refering to both Solomon and James, thereby one of the points where Sadler's use of biblical parallels are not simply localized in the moment of 1660.

[46] See Herbert, "The Sacrifice," adapted in 1647 as a monologue for (supposedly) Charles I.

[47] And] Aud

[48] See Zech. 12: 11.

[49] Joshua's progress westward required the reduction of the city of Ai, but his troops were initially unsuccessful. See Joshua 7, which conflates the story with that of Achan's transgression.

[50] See 2 Sam. 16: 5-7.

[51] "Only less than God."

[52] See 2 Sam. 18 for the defeat and death of Absalom.

[53] Shemaiah is the Levite priest through whom the Lord speaks to Rehoboam during the rebellion of Jeroboam; see I Kings 12: 22-24, and 2 Chron 11: 2.

[54] Compare George Herbert's "The Collar," line 22.

[55] Both Moses and Joseph kept their faith even while rising to positions of eminence in the Egyptian court. Joseph resisted the sexual advances of his master's wife (Gen. 39: 7-20), but Sadler's conceit -- "shun the Courting Stream, / Of Stollen waters" -- remains obscure.

[56] Eighth] Eight

[57] Adonijah, David's son by Haggith, proclaimed himself king during his father's old age with the support of Joab and Abiather. When news that David had annointed Solomon king was announced at Adonijah's feast, his guests fled. Solomon pardoned Adonijah on the promise of good behavior, but subsequently had him put to death for requesting a wife. Abiather is deprived of the priesthood, and Joab slain. See I Kings 1-2.

[58] Sadler's version of the rebellion of Corah, Dathan, and Abiram against Moses follows Numbers 16.

[59] Echoing Numbers 16: 3.

[60] Echoing Numbers 16: 13.

[61] Closing parenthesis missing.

[62] Echoing Numbers 16: 14.

[63] Numbers 16: 22.

[64] Numbers 16: 19.

[65] Echoing Numbers 16: 28-30.

[66] Echoing Numbers 16: 32.

[67] Sadler's speaker combines features of the woman of Endor's vision of Samuel -- "an old man . . . covered with a mantle" (1 Sam. 18: 14) -- and Matthew's description of John the Baptist, who "had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins" (Mat. 3: 4).

[68] The speech of the Old Man marks the final stage in Sadler's recounting of sacred history, bringing the catalogue of Old Testament rebels who eventually fell up to Jeroboam.

[69] As the speech shows by listing several of his previous sins, Saul didn't need to consult the woman of Endor to find out that he deserved punishment.

[70] By sparing Agag's life and by not destroying the wealth of the Amelikites, Saul disobeyed Samuel's command from the Lord and then lied about it: see 1 Samuel 15: 9-23.

[71] 1 Sam. 22: 17.

[72] Saul plots against David in 1 Sam 19:8-11.

[73] 1 Samuel 28: 7-20.

[74] For Jeroboam's overthrow by King Abijah, see Chron. 13.

[75] 2 Chron. 13: 3.

[76] 2 Chron. 13: 13.

[77] Echoing Abijah's speech summoning the tribes shortly before overthrowing Jeroboam; 2 Chron. 13: 7-8.

[78] 2 Chron. 15-18.

[79] On 15 March 1660, "the eve of the day when the Parliament was at length to pronounce its own dissolution . . . A working painter, accompanied by some soldiers, and carrying a ladder in his hand, approached a wall in the city near the Royal Exchange, where eleven years before an inscription in Latin had been placed, Exit Tyrannus, regum ultimus, anno libertatis Angliæ restitutiæ primo, annoque Domini 1648. The workman effaced the inscription, and threw his cap into the air, exclaiming, `God bless KING CHARLES II!' The crowd joined its acclamations, and bonfires were lighted on the spot" (M. Guizot, The History of England From the Earliest Times to the Accession of Queen Victoria, edited by Madame de Witt, trans. Moy Thomas, 3 vols. [London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1877-79], 2: 553). See also An Exit To The Exit Tyrannus: Or, Upon Erasing that Ignominious and Scandalous Motto, which was set over the place where King Charles the First Statue stood, in the Royall Exchange, which appeared on 17 March. My thanks to Lois Potter for suggesting this.

[80] Sadler's epilogue recalls Herbert's religious echo-poem, "Heaven." (Lois Potter).

[81] ye'nt] copy text

[82] Farewell] Farwell e struckout by hand in Bodleian copy.

[83] Farewell] Farwell e struckout by hand in Bodleian copy.

[84] Trees] Tree s struckout by hand in Bodleian copy.

T. W.
Dolor, ac Voluptas.
8 May

   Title: Dolor, ac Voluptas, invicem cedunt. / OR / ENGLANDS / Glorious Change, by Calling Home of / KING CHARLES / THE SECOND. / Together with the Royalists Exaltation, / And the Phanatiques Diminution. / [text] / LONDON, Printed in the year 1660.

    Wing: W116; brs.


    LT 669.f.25(10), ms dated "8 May"; chk 1/96

    L L.23.C.1(88): COPYTEXT ent 1/96; chk 4/96

Dolor, ac Voluptas, invicem cedunt.
Glorious Change, by Calling Home of
Together with the Royalists Exaltation,
And the Phanatiques Diminution.

1: COme Muse; did'st ever joy in recreating,
2: And solace of thy self in nominating
3: Dangers expel'd; When in a calm of Peace,
4: Thou resting ly'st, as in a Bed at ease.
5: Didst ever hear that War was sought of any
6: Unless by those which (as their Trade) kept many
7: Sluggards, and such, who nothing had to leese,
8: Except it were their Cloaths, their Lice, and Fleas.
9: Peace ea'nt for such, then soon absent your selves,
10: It is a Rock that must destroy these Elves;
11: They hang their heads, yet dare not seem to cry,
12: At this their unexpected misery.
13: They know that if they vissibly do frown,
14: There is a rod will whip their Stomacks down,
15: Our worthy General, whose eccho'd fame,
16: Shall sing aloud great Trophies of his name --
17: 'Twas he that came here as a Favourite,
18: Who seemingly did own the Rumpers right,
19: Not through his fear, 'twas through his policy,
20: To period the Kingdomes misery,
21: Not by a bloody fight, there need no more,
22: Such massacring as we have had before.
23: Such waste of blood in stopping of that flame,
24: Which through the fire of Swords had rais'd the same.
25: Go Lobsters hide your selves within the deep,
26: That is the fittest place for you to creep,
27: Shew not your heads Phanatiques, our intent,
28: Is for to serve the King and Parliament.
29: You as the wicked weeds amongst good Corn,
30: Shall by your deepest Roots from thence be torn;
31: You Coblers, Plough-men, which thought it no crime,
32: With others means, to make your selves sublime.
33: Know wee've a King a comming (long Exil'd)
34: To punish you, but oh he's farr to milde:
35: He dont delight his name abroad to spread,
36: Or make his Foes by Rigour his name dread:
37: He's mercifull, firm in his undertaking,
38: His old, and trusty Friends, in not forsaking,
39: Pittifull unto such who have deserv'd
40: His angry Brow, and from his Cause have swerv'd;
41: But woe to you, new Lords, your first degree,
42: Had been a Thousand times more fit for yee.
43:      And you Poor Royalists, which were a prey,
44: Unto those Wolves, and long time obscure lay,
45: Advance your selves, lift up your heads on high,
46: Your Shepheards looks, will make the Wolves to fly;
47: Your long expected CHARLES is comming home,
48: Never such joy ere came to Christendome.
49: Our Nation like a Ship e'ne over blown,
50: Our Laws, Lives, Liberties, e'ne overthrown,
51: Our Churches jeer'd, our Ministers dispis'd,
52: Nothing for Christianity is priz'd;
53: But what's allowed, by the Quaking Dogs,
54: Who were in swarms, resembling Egypts Frogs.
55: Till God beholding us, did pitty take,
56: Destroying them, even for his Gospels sake;
57: And for a MOSES, he a MONK did send,
58: Who with his rod, did us from them defend.
59: Then let us not ascribe this unto Fate,
60: Or unto Chance, as being fortunate;
61: But unto th'Almighty God, who did portend
62: These blessings for us, give praise to -- --


T. W.

LONDON, Printed in the year 1660.

London and England Triumphant
8 May

   Describes events of 8 May, but in such general terms as to suggest it may have been written and published in advance of the occasion.


1: ENgland cast off thy mourning,
redemption now draws neer
The Sun begins to shine again
and every thing looks clear,
5: Thou now hast hit the mark at which
thou hast so often aim'd,
For Royal Charls the Second
is happily proclaim'd.

This is the greatest generall Joy
10:       I think, that ever was,
And as miraculous a day
as ere was brought to pass,
In less than six months time it was
dangerous to have him nam'd,
15: Yet now King Charls the Second, &c.

A valiant and more virtuous Prince
England could never boast
Circled about with providence
sent from the Lord of Host
20: Witness the scape at Worster,
so worthy to be nam'd
But good King Charls the Second, &c.

Our wise Astrologers fore-told
the King should nere come home
25: Lilly and Booker were too bold
to write a Prince his doom
'Twas not for want of ingnorance,
but now their Art is maim'd,
For good King Charls the Second, &c.

30: shop-keepers might have shut up shops
cause Trading did decay
But since they are in better hopes
they shut up shops for joy
For now they shall have all things
35:       for which their wishes aim'd
Since Royal Charls the Second, &c.

Our Schismaticks look sourely
to see our cause of Joy
If it did in their power lye
they would the Cause destroy
Their pride, their grand hypocrisies
and treacheries are tam'd,
Since Royal Charls the Second
is Englands King proclaim'd.

The second part to the same Tune

45: BUt our Loyal Nobility
and Gentry too, may say,
This is a great deliverance,
just at the latter day,
When as the King in sorrow sate
50:       and Kingdome was inflam'd,
God rais'd him to a Throne of State
For now the King's proclaim'd.

The Royal Clergy have been starv'd
beheaded and undone,
55: Whilst Weavers, and whilst Coblers did
into their Pulpits run,
Where Blasphemy was daily taught,
and things not to be nam'd
Till good King Charls the Second
60:       was royall proclaim'd.

The Law and sacred Gospel too
were both Malignants grown
They use our Lands, as if wee had
no title to our own,
65: Rebellion was a Babe of Grace
and Loyalty was blam'd
Till good King Charls the Second
was lawfully proclaim'd.

The Church of England was abus'd
70:       grosly by such as those
Our Apron Priests made mouths at us
our Saints sung through the Nose,
Beloved take up arms, they cry'd
and do as wee have fram'd,
75: But now even in their height of pride,
King Charls is new proclaim'd.

If Oliver and Bradshaw had
but liv'd to see this day
Without all doubt they would run mad
and hang themselves for joy
It was a dreadful danting
but for to hear him nam'd.
Oh! how they'd fall a canting
to hear him King proclaim'd.

85: The Sun shone very brightly, yet
the rain and hail did fly
Which shews when lawful Sons do reign
all hail the Heavens cry,
The joyes of all the City
90:       were highly to be fam'd
When Royal Charls the Second
was lawfully proclaim'd.

With drum and trumpet, horse and foot
and every Trained band
95: As if they meant for to go to't
gainst all that dare withstand
God save the King, all people cry'd
as soon as hee was nam'd
And thus King Charls the Second
100:      was royally proclaim'd.

God save the King, cry I too
And Parliament also
That Prince and people may unite
and prosperously grow,
105: God bless my good Lord General Monk
may hee be ever fam'd.
Who was the cause that good King Charls
the Second is proclaim'd.

London, Printed for F. Grove on Snow hill. Entered according to Order. FINIS.

England's Day of Joy and Reioicing
8 May

   See "The Cavaliers Comfort" (also printed for Gilbertson) for this refrain. A selfdated description of the events of 8 May: "CHeer up your hearts kind Country-men"

   Englands day of Joy and Reioycing, Or, Long lookt for is come at last. / Or the true manner of proclaiming CHARLS the Second King of Eng- / land, &c. Ths Eighth day of this present May; to the ever honored praise / of Generall Monck, being for the good of his Country and the Parliament.

To the Tune of, Jockey. [cuts]

CHear up your hearts kind Country-men,
once again, for we have them,
Now done the deed
Be no longer now so sad
but be all glad, though you have had
Both sorrow and need
For [seeing fat] Foxes once were chief,
And often with you plaid the Thief
And now the Huntsman he is come,
And hath put them all to the run,
Though they so long a time have sat,
About this and that, and I know not what,
Now General Monck hath done the thing,
And proclaimd Charls our royal King.

Then let us for his welfare pray,
both night and day, as on the way,
We passe along,
That his Enemies may be trapand,
that holds up hand, or gives command
To do him wrong,
For there is two many now adays,
That if they might but have their ways,
Both King and Kingdome would destroy,
So they themselves might it inioy,
But let all those now have a care,
Let they fall into the hang-mans snare,
For it is General Monck that has done the thing
And proclaimed, &c.

Now I will in brief declare,
therefore be ware, and you shall hear,
Before you go,
Though he so longtime hath been crost,
and often tost, like to a post,
Both too and frow,
Yet now to England he must come,
For to redeem all those from doom,
That hath been kept under command,
And give them freedom in the land,
And be sure he will know all those,
Who are his friends, and who were his foes,
Then let his friends all merrily sing,
that Charles is proclaim'd, &c.

Though the Foxes father did destroy,
with much anoy, that he might not inioy,
His own,
Now let king Charls now have his right,
both day and night, in the despite
Of any one,
For it would have angered any one
For to have been kept from their own,
So long as young Charles he hath been,
This seaven long years durst not be seen,
So was the Duke of York likewise,
But now the country people cries,
It is General Monck has done the thing,
and proclaimed Charls, &c.

The second part, To the same Tune
[cuts of crowns over each column]

ANd now Fred Parliament doth sit,
with honour great, all men compleat,
To settle peace now in the land,
I pray to God they may prevail,
with fervent zeal; and not to fail,
What they have in hand,
And for to settle right the lawe,
And to maintain the good old cause,
As heretofore time hath been,
In Elizabeths days our maiden Queen,
For we no good laws have had,
This twenty years to make us glad,
But now General Monck has done the thing
And proclaimed Charls our royal King.

Now all the Ranters and the Quakers,
and the Shakers, and their Partakers,
must go down,
So must the Anabaptist too,
unto their wo, no more must go
Aspeaking up and down,
Though they did into houses surch,
Yet now they must repair to the Church,
No more private meetings they must have,
Nor yet no speaker them to save,
For they too long their wicked courses have run
And many poor people have left undon,
But now General Monck will have no such thing
For he has proclaimd, &c.

The Quakers had the land over-run,
and it undone, if Monck had not come
their fury to swage,
For when that Lambert he went forth,
unto the North, then they were in wrath,
and in great rage.
The Ministers they would destroy,
If that they would not them obey,
And the Protestants they would have foold,
But Monck their courage hath quickly cool'd,
They raised Armies in the West,
For to destroy both man and beast,
But Monck and alteration did bring,
And hath proclaimed, &c.

Then let us all pray to God,
and one accord, that his true word
may with us remain,
And it is a thing to be considered on,
and thought upon, what Monck hath done,
without destroying honest men:
To carry all thing, so uprightly as he hath done,
For the good of the Country since first he begun,
Without any shedding or spilling of blood,
Though he had many enemies that him withstood,
Yet God was on his side, you may very well know
That helpt him to beat down the Protestants foes
It is General Monck that has done this thing,
And has proclaimed, &c.

And now you Countrymen all,
both great and small, unto you all
I send this song,
Hoping your taxes shall be freed,
which you have much need, and indeed
Have paid it for so long,
For if Lambert and Fleetwood, in their ways had gone,
The poore protestants had been quite undone,
Lambert was for the Baptist as I did hear,
&Fleetwood for the Quakers as it doth appear
So they two would have agreed with high renown,
That ye poor Protestants should all have gone down,
But Monck an alteration did with him bring,
and has proclaimd, &c.

And now I wish that all those,
who are at his foes, or about goes,
him to destroy,
That they may be striken blind or lame,
unto their shame, which speaks his fame,
for to annoy.
For if General Monck had not stood our friend,
For of sorrow and woes, we should never had an end
But, deceit and delusions more and more,
True loving friends they turnd out of door,
And now you kind Countrymen be not in hast.
For though you have long lookt for it, it is come at last,
For General Monck has done the thing,
and so God save Charls our royal King.

The true manner of proclaiming Charles the second King of England, &c. by the too Houses of Parliament, Lords and Commons from Westminster, through all the streets of London, and accompanied by the Lord Mayor, and Aldermen, and Common-Councel of the City of London, with all the City Trained-bands for their Gard, and many thousands of Citizens on Horse-back.
London, Printed for W. Gilbertson, at the sign of the Bible in Giltspur-street.

I. W.
Englands Honour, and Londons Glory
8 May

   On Tuesday, May 8, Charles was officially proclaimed king. This ballad agrees with standard accounts of the day's proceedings: Gilbertson also produced England's Day of Joy for this day. A ceremonial procession of both Lords and Commons started out at noon, "Which being finished the Pallace Yard did eccho with the acclamations of the people crying long live King chrles the Second" (Public Intelligencer 7 (7-14 May), p. 106). The procession moved through London via Whitehall to Temple Bar, where they were joined by the Lord Mayor and members of the City Council, then on to Cheapside and the Old Exchange, "the streets being so thronged with the multitudes of people, all manifesting how pleasing the actions of this day was to them" (ibid). See also the account in Rugg, pp. 79-80, and Mercurius Publicus (3-10 May).

    The same day, Richard Cromwell resigned the Chancellorship of Oxford University.

Englands honour, and Londons glory.
With the manner of proclaiming Charles the second King of England, this eight of
May, 1660. by the honourable the two houses of Parliament, Lord Generall Monk,
the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Counsell of the City.
The tune is, Vive la Roy.

1: COme hither friends and listen unto me,
2:      and hear what shall now related be,
3: For joy and comfort is now come to yea,
4:      and happy dayes in England you'l see:
5: The King and Parliament now are agreed,
6:           to ease our sadnesse,
7:           with joy and gladnesse,
8: And for to free us from all our annoy
9:      as by the Parliament now is decreed.
10:           then let us sing boyes,
11:           God save the King boyes,
12: Drink a good health and sing Vi vel a Roy.

13: The first of May to our great comfort,
14:       by our good King a Message was sent,
15: the which ye Parliament receiv'd with concord
16:      and sent abroad the Land to consent.
17: For so Lords and Commons together agreed
18:           with their free consent,
19:           and being well bent,
20: For they will suffer none us to destroy,
21:      the which doth both our joy &comfort breed.
22:           then let, &c:

23: The right of May as my muse doth here sing,
24:       Royall King Charles with a full consent
25: Was then proclaimed Englands fair King,
26:       by Lords and Commons of Parliament.
27: And by the heavenly powers divine,
28:           and in Londons Citty
29:           The cause of this Ditty
30: Unto all this Nation now tel of this joy
31:       the which unto the same did incline.
32:           then let, &c.

33: The two houses in the Pallace Yard
34:       General Monk himselfe being by,
35: Proclaimed the King with great regard,
36:      their acclamation reached the skye,
37: From thence they marched along the Strand,
38:           Unto Temple-barr,
39:           whereas they met there
40: The Citizens all with exceeding joy,
41:      they generally without command
42:           Cry'd God save the King boyes,
43:           the Earth did ring boyes,
44: they cast up their hats and cry'd Vive la Roy

45: The Lord Mayor and Aldermen in velvet gowns,
46:      and over their heads their hats they did wave,
47: Not caring at all the spending their Crowns
48:      rejoycing that Charls his birth-right should have
49: The City Horse and their trained Bands
50:           this triumph did grace,
51:           each man in his place,
52: Did shout for the good wee now shall enjoy,
53:      the people shouted and clapt their hands,
54:           Crying God save the King, &c.

55: Through fair London City we wil understand
56:      ye loud sounding trumpets ye sam did proclaim
57: The like Eccho never hath bin in th's Land
58:      then let these three Nations rejoyce for ye same,
59: And all good people that in them remain
60:           All men did rejoyce
61:           With heart and with voyce
62: Which all our sorrows at once did destroy
63:      for joy that Charles his right he shall gain.
64:           then let us sing boyes
65:           God save the King boyes
66: Drink a good health and cry Vive la Roy.

67: The Bells in the City did answer them then,
68:      such gallant musick hath seldome bin heard,
69: The Trumpets returned their Ecco again,
70:      no heart from rejoycing at that time was bar'd,
71: For the greatest number were all of one mind,
72:           at every stand,
73:           the Mayor did command
74: The sounding trumpets to proclaim the joy,
75:      the City in this great comfort did find,
76:           then let, &c.

77: The City so high'y did prize the same,
78:      and for to shew their ardent desire,
79: The City seemed all in a flame,
80:      the which thousands then did admire,
81: Such vast charges men did then bestow,
82:           the truth for to tell,
83:           the City did excell,
84: So great was their expressions of their joy,
85:      no great Joy could be here below.
86:           then let, &c.

87: The Lords and Commons likewise were glad,
88:      to see the people so soon to comply,
89: Many were reviv'd that were sad,
90:      for there were none that to joyn did deny.
91: This glorious sight was most tryumphant,
92:           so great was the noyse
93:           expressing their joyes,
94: And the peoples hearts were fil'd with such joy:
95:      not one was heard to make any complaint.
96:           then let, &c.

97: Many brave Gallents are gon to the King
98:      to bear such a present as never was sent
99: Heretofore, and wee hope they him will bring
100:      for to be crowned by this Parliament:
101: Cheer up fair England rejoyce and be glad,
102:           thy rights they'l restore,
103:           as was here to-fore,
104: And all offences they quite will destroy,
105:      and no one shall then have cause to be sad,
106:           then let, &c.

107: This famous City great Jove defend them,
108:      their grave Messengers from them are gone,
109: Unto the King for to recommend them
110:      unto him the Citizens every one.
111: Heaven blesse those Messengers that faithfull be,
112:           trust is reposed,
113:           their mind inclos d
114: For his Subjects welfare is all his joy.
115:      by his Declaration at large you see.
116:           then let, &c.

117: And now to conclude the eight of May,
118:      caused all English-men loud for to sing,
119: It was a joyfull and happy day.
120:      Bon-fires did burn and the Bells did ring,
121: Then let us praise our great God above,
122:           he hath brought to passe,
123:           the like never was,
124: Such great acclamations of exceeding joy,
125:      by fame performed and the God of love.
126:           then let us sing boyes,
127:           God save the King boyes,
128: Cast up your Caps and cry Vive La Roy.

The true manner of Proclaiming Charles the Second King of England, &c. by the two Houses of Parliament, Lords and Commons from Westminster, through all the streets of London, and accompanied by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-Counsell of the City of London: With all the City Trained Bands for their Guard, and many thousands of Citizens on Horse-back.
London, Printed for William Gilbertson.

Alexander Huish
verses from
Musa Ruralispp. [i verso], 7-8, 13
[10 May]

   Thomason dated his copy 10 May, 1660; Nicholas Crouch paid 4d for his copy, now in OB.The final latin epigrams on p. 17 are signed and dated "Mense Maio, 1660."

   Although the second set of verses appear under the title "The same in English," they bear little resemblance to the Latin -- check. Erskine Hill calls them a "free rendering" of the original Latin, and takes them as appearing in the May of Charles's arrival.

A Michaelmas nights Dream in the year 1653.
now accomplished in his Majesties Royall Per-
son, and his Opposites.

1: I Dream't, and to my thinking in my dream
2: I saw a pearch on high, whereon did pitch
3: A flight of birds, (black they to me did seem;
4: Crowes or Jack-dawes, I could not well tell which,)
5:      Nesting for place, till I beheld anon,
6:      Both pearch and birds were vanisht quite and gone.

7: I look't; and loe, another pearch as high,
8: As was the former, there in place did stand:
9: Where flew a Turtle, blew as Azure Skie:
10: But could not reach it, till by other hand
11:      She there was plac't: where she did safely sit:
12:      I wak't, and as I dream't, my dream I writ.

Septemb. 30. 1653.
ALEX. HUISH. (p. [i] verso)

[Latin verses pp. 1-6]
The same in English.

1: SPrung from great Kings and good, Thou of the rest,
2: Great Britanes greatest Steward, hop't the best;
3: Long is thy absence from thy native home:
4:      Come; thy great Councell bids thee, come.

5: Restore thy Country her lost light, good King;
6: Thine own sweet face, which since like lovely Spring
7: W' have hop't to see, the day hath merrier gone,
8:      The Sun hath brighter, better shone.

9: Look how a Mother her dear Child awaits,
10: Who is a voyage gone beyond the Streights,
11: Whom surly winds more then a long years space
12:      Deteins from his sweet dwelling place;

13: She look's, and vow's, and pray's; and ne're gives o're;
14: Nor turns her face from the creeke-winding shore:
15: Struck so with fealty and loves holy fires,
16:      Thy Country Thee, her Charles desires.

17: Hoping, the Ox shall freely walk again;
18: Plenty and peace, Thou reigning, now shall reign;
19: Merchants shall without danger passe the Seas:
20:      Faith shall not now fear to displease.

21: The Chast house shall with no shame be defil'd;
22: Manners and Laws foul sin shall tame; the Child
23: Like born shall yield the Mother praises true;
24:      And punishment all vice subdue.

25: Who shall need fear or forreign Enemies,
26: Or tumults rais'd by home-bread Sectaries,
27: While Charles is safe? who shalt by help of God
28:      Keep peace with Spain and all abroad.

29: Each one then lying under his own Vine,
30: The Widow Trees shall with her branches twine;
31: Then to the Temple go, and pray for thee,
32:      And all the Royall Progenee.

33: With prayers all true hearts, and some in verse,
34: As I do now, they shall thy name rehearse,
35: Wishing thee glorious in thy Royall seat,
36:      As France's Charles, more good, more great.

37: Long mayst thou live, and make long holy-day,
38: Good King, unto thy Country: 'tis the lay,
39: We fasting sing and full; at morn, at night,
40:      When the clear day hath lost her light.

(pp. 7-8)

[Latin verses, pp. 9-12]

Yet again,
Upon the Anniversary of his Majesties
Birth-day, May 29.

1: LIke as the Rose appearing now in Spring;
2: So lovely sweet, so pleasing to the eye
3: Appears our Charles, our Sovereign Lord and King,
4: With graces fit for so great Majesty:
5: Blessed be God, who hath thus brought once more
6: The Rose and Crown together as before.

7: Not the Red Rose, nor yet the White alone:
8: The Red too deep, the White too pale to be
9: For perfect beauty seemes; but both in one
10: The Damask Rose, the chief of all the three.
11:      Fresh be thy Bud, as Rose at end of May;
12:      On this thy Birth -- , this thy sweet Holy-day.

A. H.

Alexander Brome
England's Joy
14 May

   Thomason dated his copy of Henry Brome's edition on Monday 14 May; Wood dated his simply May. An earlier and shorter version appeared under the title "For General Monk his entertainment at Cloath-workers Hall." [13 Mar]." rpt in Songs and Poems (1661, 1664, 1668), pp. 114-15, and is reprinted in Dubinski, 1.175-177.

For the Coming in of our Gratious Soveraign
King CHARLES the Second

1: RIng bells, and let bonefires out-blaze the Sun,
2:      Let Ecchoes contribute their voice,
3: For now a happy settlement's begun,
4:      To shew how we do all rejoyce:
5:            If we by this
6:            Can have the bliss
7:      To re-injoy a Unity,
8:            Wee'll do no more
9:            As heretofore,
10:      But will in mutual love increase;
11:      If we can once agen have peace
12: How joyful shall we be?

13: The King shall his Prerogatives enjoy,
14:      The State their Privilege shall have,
15: He will not Theirs, nor will they His anoy,
16:      But both each others strive to save:
17:            The people shall
18:            Turn loyal all
19:      And strive t'obey his Majesty,
20:            And truth and Peace
21:            Shall both increase,
22:      They'l be obedient to the Laws
23:      And hate that Subtle name of Cause.
24: Then joyful shall we be.

25: The Parliament will rise no more in armes
26:      To fight against their lawfull King,
27: Nor be349deluded by their factious charms
28:      That all the Realm to treason bring:
29:            They'l learn to vote
30:            No more by rote
31:      Nor pass their Bills ex tempore,
32:            But study peace
33:            And trades increase,
34:      Since now we finde it is not good
35:      To write the Kingdomes Peace in blood,
36: But joyfull shall we be.

37: The Coblers shall not edifie their Tubbs
38:      Nor in Divinity set stitches,
39: Wee'l not b'instructed by Mechanick scrubs,
40:      Women shan't preach with men for breeches,
41:            The prickear'd Tribe
42:            That won't subscribe
43:      Unto our Churches Hierarchie
44:            Must England leave,
45:            And to Geneve,
46:      New England, or to Amsterdam,
47:      With all whom Church and State can't tame;
48: Then joyful, &c.

49: Wee'l toyle no more to maintain Patentees
50:      That feed upon poor peoples trade,
51: Star Chamber shan't vex guiltless men for fees,
52:      Nor Law to Vice for bribes be Bawd:
53:            The Bishops each
54:            Will learn to preach,
55:      Rich Clergy will not silent be,
56:            And Judges all
57:            Impartial,
58:      When Laws alike to all degrees,
59:      No sleeping Judges gape for fees.
60: How joyfull, &c.

61: Wee'l fight no more for Jealousies, and Fears,
62:      Nor spend our blood, we know not why;
63: The Roundheads shall shake hands with Cavaliers,
64:      And both for King and Countrey die:
65:            The Sword shall not
66:            Maintain a Plot
67:      For fear of plots which ne're shall be,
68:            Nor will we still
69:            Each other Kill
70:      To fight for those that are as far
71:      From peace as they will be from war.
72: But joyfull, &c.

73: The broken Citts no more shall lick their Chops,
74:      Nor wealth recruit with Country's store,
75: But lay down armes, and keep within their Shops,
76:      And cry what lack you? as before;
77:            They'll turn agen,
78:            Blew aprond men,
79:      And leave their titles of degree,
80:            Nor will they prate
81:            'Gainst Church, and State,
82:      But change their Feathers, Flags, and Drums,
83:      For Items and the total Sums.
84: How joyfull, &c.

85: We will not Garrisons of Lubbers feed,
86:      To plunder, drink, and gather pay,
87: While they lye lazing, and are both agreed
88:      To fetch our goods and us away;
89:            And though they Swear,
90:            We will not care,
91:      Nor to such Skowndrells servile be;
92:            We will not stand,
93:            With Cap in hand,
94:      Beseeching them to let alone
95:      The goods which justly are our own.
96: But joyfull, &c.

97: Fanatick Troupers must go home agen,
98:      And humbly walk afoot to plow,
99: Nor domineer thus over honest men,
100:      But work to get their livings now;
101:            Or if their mind
102:            Be not inclin'd
103:      To leave their former Knavery,
104:            A halter shall
105:            Dispatch them all,
106:      And then the Gallows shall be made
107:      The high'st preferment of their trade.
108: A joyfull sight to see.

109: Let Roundheads shake their circumcized ears,
110:      We'll ride about as well as they,
111: Nor will we stand in fear of Cavaliers
112:      That sleep all night, and drink all day;
113:            When we can find
114:            Both sides enclin'd
115:      To change their War for Unity;
116:            O 'twill be brave,
117:            If we can have
118:      The Freedom granted by our Charter,
119:      And scape from plunder, pay, and quarter;
120: How joyfull shall we be?

London, Printed for H. Brome at the Gun in Ivy-lane. 1660.

[349] be] he copytext

G. S.
Britains Triumph
14 May

To the Worshipful and truly Honorable
Major General of the Famous City of London;
Colonel of the Green Regiment:
True paterns of Cordial Loyalty to their
KING, Faithful Patriots of their
Countrey, and deserving Members of that
Noble Metropolis, in which they are
Exemplary Citizens and Gallant
Commanders; LONDON.

HEroick souls, to you belongs of right,
This, whatso'ere it is, I wish it might
Answer my wishes, and your due desert,
But as it is, accept I pray the heart
5: Of him, who most ambitious is to serve
You to his utmost power, who deserve
Immortal honour, for what you have done
In order to bring back th' Heir to's Crown.
Your grateful Countrey doth confess your praise,
10: London by your help now Triumphs in Bayes,
Which formerly did droop, the way was led
By that Great George, who struck our Dragon dead,
He led the Van, you follow'd in the Rear,
Your Loyalty now shines like Chrystall clear.
15: Accept (great Souls) these ruder lines, which I
Intend, to Celebrate your memory,
Such as they are, my good-will may express
The Lady's fair, though in a homely dress.

Worthy and Worshipful
Your faithful Honourer
Though undeserving Servant
G. S.

[ornamental header]
Britains Triumph.

AWake my Muse, let thy dull spirits be rais'd,
Shake off thy former drowsiness, from sleep
Rouse up thy heavy soul, let him be prais'd
Who from Destructions pit, out of the deep.
5:      Of troubles hath these Nations three redeem'd,
When to all mortall eyes they helpless seem'd.

Like to a Ship in storm, three Kingdomes lay
Upon Afflictions rageing Billowes tost:
The Pilot o're board thrown, (O dismal day!)
10: The Rudder of our Government quite lost.
Our Sun of happiness had hid his head,
And darknesse our Horizon overspread.

The Birds of darkness every where appear'd,
With frightfull shrieks which fluttered to and fro:
15: Goblins and Elves in every place were heard,
Hagges and Infernall Furies here below,
Had made their Mansion, and resolv'd to dwell,
Thus England seem'd the Suburbs of Black Hell.

After a long Night, loe our Sun appears,
20: Dispelling Mist and Fogges with his bright beams,
His heat and light, one warmth, th'other chears.
Our frozen, drooping spirits, so that streams
Of Joy now wash away the tears of grief,
From him our woes all finde their full relief.

25: Charles! glorious Name! but
glorious more by farre!
Of it the Subject, our Dread Soveraign!
Son of Great Charles, who now a sparkling Starre
In Heaven shines, his Son (long may he reign!)
Our Sun on Earth, let him excell in glory,
30:      His famous Father, matchlesse in any story.

Rest, Sacred, Royall Dust! sleeping in hope,
Thy Martyr'd Body Christs appearing waits,
While thy thrice blessed Soul, with Eyes wide ope,
Beholds his glory, thus those dismal Fates,
35:      Which snatcht thee from us, did but only lead
Thy spotlesse, Bridelike sp'rit to Christ her Head.

And thou the Son of an unpattern'd Sire
Who giv'st us hopes that him thou wilt excell,
Long mayst thou live, thy Subjects chief desire,
40: In pride of whom England shall shortly swell,
And bid defiance to her proudest Foes,
Charles! thou alone her bleeding wounds could'st close.

Skilfull Physician! who with Soveraign Balme
Three Kingdomes almost wounded to the death,
45: Didst know to cure, who so great a Calme
After so fierce a Tempest, with thy breath,
(Thy Princely breath) to this toss'd Ship could'st bring,
Which owns no Pilot but her lawfull King.

I'th Month of May, most pleasant of the Spring,
50: When Nature seemeth in her greatest pride,
Latona deckt with Flowers, Birds which sing
Sweetly upon each bow i'th Woods are spy'd,
Two days before its Exit, did appear
A Noon-day Starre in Englands Hemisphere.

55: That day, O happy Day! behold a Sonne
To Charles our King, (then happy King!) was born,
Three Nations joy and pride, what was not done,
His Princely pomp, (when Christned) to adorn?
He as his Fathers Heir, his Royall Name,
60:       Inherits first, and best it him became.

Charles! son of Charles, thus enters Englands Stage,
Whose brith (his Saviour like) a Starre did show,
An Omen, that he rist should feel the rage
Of Persecutors, and should glorious grow,
65:      By suffering first, this was our Princes Fate.
Whom Hells Afflictions led to Heavens Gate.

Ten years and scarce six Moneths this Royall Bud
Had grown upon the Sacred Princely Stock
When sad divisions, like a fearful floud,
Did threaten Majesty, against which Rock
70:      So many swelling waves billowes beat,
That overturn'd at last the Royall Seat.

His, and his Countreys Father by the streame,
Carryed with violence into the Deep,
This Infant Prince beholds, (poor soul) a Theame
75: Too sad to think on, thinking makes him weep,
And ev'ry object doth augment his grief,
Pity'd by some, yet findes of none relief.

Thus lives our Soveraign Lord, whom sorrowes School,
For twice ten years, had pious wisdome taught,
80: While Villanous Usurpers think to rule
His Kingdomes by an Iron Rod, which brought
The milder Scepter into due esteem,
When Saints in Title, Reall Monsters seem.

Then all men loath Usurped Tyranny,
85: Wish for their Kings Return in safety home,
Repent their long expressed cruelty
Toward so sweet a Prince whom only some
(Out of a guilty feare) kept in Exile,
Oppressing all his Loyall Friends the while.

90: The same Moneth which the joyfull newes did bring,
(Before its Exit) of this Princes birth,
Now enters with the Tydings of our King,
(Tydings most full of Joy, and reall Mirth)
When thrice ten years over his head had past,
95:      (Our King before) our King is own'd at last.

Ring out proud Bells, let these our Joyes resound,
In every Steeple through this gratefull Isle,
The Ecchoe's from all Countyes let rebound
Back to this Joyfull City, and the while
100:      Quite tyred Pho/ebus, in the Ocean hides
His weary beams, let Bonfires be our Guides.

Thus we the darkenesse of the Night will turn,
To artificiall day-light, and each street,
For want of Fuel, shall their Sign-posts burn,
105: The painted Lamb and Wolf in flames shall greet
Each other, proud thus to expresse their Joy,
That Charles shall come, whom fiends sought to destroy.

And now the day approaches, which did see
Our Charles (at one view) both a Man and Prince,
110: A Prince not greater by descent, then he,
Equalls his birth by merit, who long since,
Compell'd his Foes his Valour for to own;
And yet as mercifull, as stout is known.

Charles, that the World may know, how neer he comes
115: Unto his Saviours pattern, thirty years
Passeth more silently, Trumpets and Drums Sometimes awake his Courage, and the fears
Of his aspriring Enemies, who still,
Seem for to prosper, and to have their will.

120: But when thrice ten years of his Age are past,
Or thereabouts, behold our Royall King
Is owned publiquely, and for a taste
Of England's love, and bounty, Bells do ring,
Bonfires shine, Moneys are freely lent,
125:      And for a Present to our Charles are sent.350

With Expectation great the Eighth of May
Doth adde Incouragment to former hope,
This was to London a Triumphant day,
Those who in darkness seem'd before to grope,
130:      Now opened have their Eyes, and clearly see,
Englands Restorer can be none but he.

Oh! he that saw the joy express'd that day,
The peoples concourse, and their lively shout,
Who so had heard, how every one did pray
135: For this Kings Health, could entertain no doubt,
But that as he is Heavens Darling known,
So him (as their chief good) his Subjects own.

This was the Day wherein, (a turn most strange!)
Our Peerlesse Prince, Son of a matchlesse Sire,
140: From Pallace-yard, down to the Royall Change
Most solemnly, (by such who did aspire
Him to Proclaim and hear) proclaim'd and heard,
Was, our true Soveraign, to all indear'd.

Then might you heare the spritefull shouts, and cryes
145: Long live our blessed King, Charles! pious Prince,
Whose name with acclamations, rent the skyes,
And they their kinde acceptance to evince,
Let fall at first of Joy some sprinkling tears,
But soon with his bright beams the Sun appears.

150: Thus Heaven seems with Earth for to agree
In paying this just debt to both their friend,
The sky from Clouds and blustring windes was free,
The streets, (proud of this Office) did attend
On this Solemnity in cleanest dresse,
155:      The very houses Joy seem'd to expresse.

Each Shop stood early ope, then soon was shut,
Boasting their riches first to grace their King,
On whom such dreadfull reverence they put,
That day to work is judg'd a sordid thing.
160:      Work they that list cryes ev'ry Prentise Boy,
This day I'le only sing, Vive la Roy. [sic

The London Train'd Bands, glad that they might shew
Some signal token of their dear bought wit,
Early in Armes appear, at length they know
165: Rebellions sin, by punishment of it.
All are resolved now to make appear
Their Loyalty, unto their Soveraign dear.

And that they may wash off the staine and blot,
Contracted in these Wars first infancy,
170: When 'gainst their King they took up Armes, whose lot
It was to die his Subjects infamy.
(Though Crownd himself with such a Crown of glory,
Not to be parallel'd by any story.)

Now with a different, but better zeal
175: One heart doth seem in each mans breast to dwell,
All willing are a like the breach to heal,
In forwardness all strive for to excell.
So great appearance never England saw,
Charles magnetisme did so strongly draw.

180: The streets too narrow to receive the throng,
Were of themselves most ready to make room,
Nature our King to gratifie did long,
Dispenst with her dimensions law, for whom
A man would think five streets could scarce receive
185:      Finde place, yet for the show due space do leave.

Gallant spectators every room do fill
Whose prospect forward lay unto the street,
Each window stor'd with Ladies, who with still
And silent Eloquence, their Sov'raign greet;
190:      Their graceful countenances, beauties choyce,
Their cheerful smiles, made ev'n the stones rejoyce.

The splendid Servants of these charmes divine,
Each one his Mistress stood observant by,
Yet seem regardless of her beauties shrine,
195: A rarer object, had rapt ev'ry eye.
Love charmes are idle toyes, the only thing
Which all attend, is to proclaim their KING.

The ruder sort of Mankind, that stood by,
Both old and young, servants, both maids and men,
200: Poor Tradesmen likewise, 'mongst themselves did vye, Who should express affection most, for when,
The name of Charles did in their ears but sound,
Their Acclamations rent the very ground.

The Soldiers in most splendid equipage
205: Attend, this Joyful day to Celebrate,
Each one a young man seem'd, for elder age,
This news had changed to a younger date:
Among them were so many Voluntiers,
Six Regiments, an Army great appears.

210: You would have thought that every one in Armes,
Had there appear'd a Lady for to win;
So clad, so cheerful, as if all the charmes
Of Love each breast possessed had, but sin
Each man (that day) accounted such a thought,
215:      Thee, thee, O Charles! (none other) there they sought.

Each Alderman who there was in Command,
Exchang'd his Scarlet Robe for Warlike dresse:
Robinson of the Green, his Trained band
To Fleetstreet led, to be in readinesse
220:      The Proclamation to attend, so soon
As it the City entred, which was done.

Stout Browne who led the Horse, was ready there
In this great Solemn Scene to act his part,
And stately did perform it, every where
225: Throughout his Regiment, both voice and heart
Concur, thy Title just, great Charles! by word,
As to proclaime, so to defend by Sword.

Oh! what a gallant sight, 'twas to behold,
The spritely flower of the London youth,
230: Outvying one another, in their bold Defence of Charles their King, whom with one mouth
They all Proclaim their only Sov'raign Lord,
And do defie his foes with one accord.

Their Swords aloft over their heads they wave,
235: God blesse King Charles the Second, is the cry:
Their glittering weapons, with their clothes most brave,
Do make a glorious object to the eye:
This addes a lustre, but the cause ofjoy,
Is that we heard Proclaim'd, Vive la roy.

240: This cry the hearers so affects, that they,
Eccho it back again with such a voice,
As showes a true affection, Happy day
Saith ev'ry one, the very streets rejoyce:
Guns, Drums and Trumpets, rend the skies with noyse,
245:      Th' earth quakes with shouting of the London Boyes.

The prancing Horses very richly drest,
With riders who excell'd in gallantry:
Their joy together with their state exprest,
All ravish't seem with Charles his memory.
250:      The very houses wondred at this chance,
For joy the pavements ready were to dance.

Th'old drooping Churches, who had long been rob'd
Of their most faithfull Preachers, and for fear
Of never having them again, had sob'd,
255: And in sad grief had let drop many a tear:
Do now rejoyce at this approaching show,
The Bels themselves to ring are ready too.

Long live King Charles, the very stones would cry
Should men be silent, yea the very Drums,
260: Trumpets and Guns, to all the standers by,
(Sometimes, though seldom, as to passe it comes,
I know not by what fate) seem'd to Proclaim,
(The best Monarchs) great King Charles's name.

265:      Now comes the matcheless shew, and it to meet,
Londons Lord Major, and the Aldermen,
In all their Pompe, the welcome Heralds greet,
At Temple-bar, where that was done agen
Which was done twice before, at Palace-yard
270:      And at Whitehall, Great Charles, our King declar'd.

Th'attendants did withall solemnity
Perform their charge, and did such joy express
As might become the dread of Majesty,
Awful by right, yet lovely neretheless.
275:      Now England once more on her basis stands,
She hath her King, though yet he want his Lands.

To grace this sight both Houses now combine,
On it who with their Speakers do attend;
While Rumpish Lenthal sate at home, and whin'd
280: That his longwinded speaking had such end.
Yet one who once abjured both King and Duke,
Repents (as some say) limping, Rumpish Luke.

O that the Preaching Statesman had been there,
And heard Proclaimed his old Masters Son,
285: Whom basely he betray'd, t'have seen his cheer,
How like a patient of Doctor Dun
He'da look't, would doubtless have encreast the joy,
To see him louting, like the Hangmans boy.

Now Lord of Durhams Bishoprick! what chear?
290: No thoughts now how to cheat poor Collinwood?
To bribe a Jury? hire men to swear?
To turn the City to a bath of blood?
To fire the houses? and the Goldsmiths plunder?
Poor Arthur's jaw faln351, is not that a wonder?

295: Lord! what a Lord is Monson now become?
The Lord knows what, but ev'ry one knows where
He is to go, there is an equall doom
On him, and Harry Martin, who's in fear,
To live in Goal, will be too mild a fate,
300:      The hopes of both are gone with their Free-state.

Good Master Cecill, how like you this news?
Cry mercy Sir, I mean an Earl, I think,
But know not well, yet something on you shewes
Like to a badge of honor, though it stinke
305:      So Rumpishly, that I abhor the smell,
You have a neighbour by you, stinkes as well.

Oh! fie my Lords you make me hold my nose,
Basely degenerated Rumpish Earls!
Vile self-degrading Peers! I'ad rather chose
310: T'have been transmuted into Countrey carles.
Self do, self have, no wise man need to grieve,
A self undoing fool, who would relieve?

Poor Tom, by Nation English, by name Scot,
What shall I say thy chance for to condole?
315: Some say th' hast got (privily) God knows what,
And some men guesse, at Hockley in the hole.
Hadst thou but seen the triumph of that day,
'T had made the quickly Tom of Bedlam play.

What pity 'tis that Bradshaw went to Hell
320: So long before his time, upon whose Herse
So many tears from sobbing Needham fell,
Whose grief made him forget to weep in Verse,
But snivel'd out in Prose his Patrons prayse,
'Twas well his own curst hands cut short his dayes.

325: So dy'd accursed Pilate, as is told
By some who write of his deserved end;
Who ignorantly sentenc't 352 Christ, but bold
Villanous Bradshaw, like a hellish fiend,
Knew, yet condemned his most guiltlesse King,
330:      No hands like to own, his death to bring.

Now Needham get the rod of Mercury
His Caducean Rod, and once more change
Thy Knavish shape, 'thas been thy policy
To turn with times, but this a turn too strange
335:      For thee to turn with, therefore turn aside,
And take with thee the Hangman for thy Guide.

But who appears here with the Curtain drawn?
What Milton! are you come to see the sight?
Oh Image-breaker! poor Knave! had he sawn
340: That which the fame of, made him crye out-right.
He'ad taken counsel of Achitophell,
Swung himself weary, and so gone to Hell.

This is a sure Divorce, and the best way,
Seek Sir no further, now the trick is found,
345: To part a sullen Knave from's Wife, that day,
He doth repent his Choyce, stab'd, hang'd or drown'd,
Will make all sure, and further good will bring,
The wretch will rail no more against his King.

What newes from th'Ocean, I fain would know?
350: How doth the Rota turn? my pretty Boyes,
What hopes Republicans in such a show?
Certainly these are Babylonish toyes.
Poor Overton! himself who long did gull
With hopes that Christ would come and land at Hull.

355: Forsaken Fleetwood who of Fate complain'd,
Because she threw so great a stumbling-block
I'th way of his Rebellion, how disdain'd
He was, and how God seem'd his Prayers to mock
Ninive's Fast he fasted to no end,
360:      God in his face threw dirt, nor would attend.

Despairing Lambert! whither wilt thou run?
However let him scape he humbly begs:
Hard-hearted Ingoldsby353, could'st not be wonne
To let this Valiant Champion use his legges,
365:      When his hands failed him? O man forlorn!
Who might have push'd, yet did not use his horn.

Okey what wilt thou doe? there's no more Rump,
The Devil lately claim'd it as his Fee,
Took it, and pick'd it to the very stump,
370: Threw Barebones in his fire, there let him be,
Hee's well content may but his windowes scape,
Then hee'l Praysegod, and chatter like an Ape.

The rest who thought that Christ would come as King,
And reign among them, but mistook the time,
375: Which they were confident would be this Spring,
And were providing for to welcome him,
It is but fit they should both weep and bleed,
Who were so confident, yet lost their Creed.

Foolish Fanaticks, now at last repent.
380: What means this Idle Caterwawling Mew,
Who with his Brother Barebones idly went,
With a Petition of the Devils hew:
How scape his windowes? Praysegods Boyes did souse;
So, thrice, he seem'd to keep a Brothell-house.

385: Like fate, 'tis pity but that all should finde,
Who have so to their Reason bid adieu,
As for to be such a sottish minde
To leave Old Treasure for Toyes that are new,
T'abjure our King, (whom God preserve in health)
390:      To set up a Fanatick Common-wealth.

But now since our Distractions cause is gone,
And all our breaches likely to be heal'd.
Oh! let this King be dear by whom 'tis done,
Let former grudges ever be conceal'd,
395:      Let them no more revive, but buryed lye,
And be forgot unto Eternity.

Once more we see our Nobles in esteem,
Who all in state did solemnly attend,
To pay this long due debt, was't not a dreame?
400: Or was it reall? to me it reall seem'd,
And yet a dreame appear'd, a turn so strange!
Eight Moneths agoe, who would dream such a Change?

Long let thy name live most heroick soul,
Who of this Change was the grand Instrument.
405: Let Moncks Name famous be, who did controul
That Dragons Tayle of Monstrous Government,
Made Lambert jump into a Muddy Ditch,
And made the Rump scratch where it did not itch.

Will. Lenthall spake so long till he was hoarse,
410: Now he is speechlesse, Sexton tole the Bell,
If but a Quincy trouble him, perforce
Let Ropewort cure him, 'twill make him well,
If Haslerig or Vane should chance to faint,
Hemp is a strengthner, fit for such a Saint.

415: Lawson (it's like) may chance to learn more wit,
Taking Example from some rash mens harms,
Who were of his Fraternity, and split
Upon the Rock of rashnesse, soft fire warms,
Too great consumes, just so it is with Zeal,
420:      Blind, fiery, makes braches, milde, doth heal.

Let us at length be all united close
And firmly bound to this our matchlesse Prince,
Let's grutch him nothing, let not basenesse lose
Our choycest good on Earth his love, but since
425:      None but his Art our grief knew to allay,
'Tis most just we should for the medicine pay.

Live long Most blessed Soveraign, and let
Thy Birth-day (which is coming) see thee Crown'd,
God grant this Sunne of ours may not set,
430: Till Olive Branches stand thy Table round.
Thus, when to Nestors years, in peace thou hast
Us Govern'd, and shalt yield to Fate at last,
May thy more happy Sonne ascend thy Throne,
When thou shalt change Earth's for a Glory's Crown.

Sic lusit Poemate fausto, ad Calendas May, 1660. G.S.

See The Answer of The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common-council of the City of london, to hi Majesties gracious Letter and Declaration, sent by the Lord Mordant; and a Present of ten thousand pounds from the City to the King; With their Declaration to submit to his Majesties Government, and an Order for taking down the States Arms, and setting up of the Kings. The names of the Earls, Lords, and Gentlemen appointed to go to the King; the rich and glorious Crown and Scepter, preparing for the Day-tryumphant of his Royal Majesties Coronation; and one hundred thousand pound a year to be setled upon the King, in lieu of the Court of Wards and Liveries, to the great joy of all loyal subjects. [1660] Th=5 May; E 1023(5); and "An Historicall Poem" in the Marvell canon.

jaw faln] jawfaln

sentenc't] setenc'd

Ingoldsby] Ingold by

The Subjects Desire
16 May

To see our Gracious King Charles

REturn Great King. For Loyalty implores
Our Soveraigne, to leave the Belgick shores.
And bless the Brittish soyle, which longs to greet
Her Second Charles, and kiss his Princely Feet.
5: Let not the Ocean, or the more profound
Abisse of guilt, wherein our Island's drown'd,
Deprive us longer of that Influence,
Thy radiant Sun beams of benevolence,
But crosse that envious Sea, that separates,
10: And show those smiles, all anger dissipates.
Let Neptune solemnize his conquest now;
Erect his head, and smooth his wrinckled brow.
As proud of such a trust, whose precious Lading
Not countervail'd, by all the Indian Trading.
15: Let curled waves354 in pleasant triumph dance,
To give us notice of that Ships advance.
Whose happy fate, shall by supream decree
Engrosse three Kingdoms wealth containing Thee,
May Heav'n her Pilot be, so to conduct,
20: That no aspiring rock, dare once obstruct.
May Holy Angells guard her day and night
May Winds, and Waters, joyne to speed her flight.
Who in their whisp'ring murmurs, seem to say,
We are the best of Subjects, We obey
25: Our Soveraign's Laws. And tacitely imply
A check to us, for past disloyalty.
Such may thy passage be, as shall presage
Those Halcion dayes, Thou promisest this Age.
May no tempestuous storm disturb thy rest,
30: Be Seas serene as is thy Royall Brest.
May Heav'ns propitious seem to favour Us,
Who towards thy safe return contribute thus
Our contrite teares, as Seas, to waft thee o're
And bring Thee reconciled to our shore.
35: Faith climbs the mast's; Our hopes do swell the Sailes,
And loyall wishes, breath (Thee, prosp'rous gales.
Till day shall come, (our kalendars shall boast)
KING CHARLES againe, arrived on our coast.
More welcome then the Rain to parched Land,
40: Then shall the Scepter court the Regall Hand.
Mean time, It is our hopes, and humble suit,
Of Royall Bounty, still to taste more fruit.
That as thy Kingly Word hath all forgiven,
Thy Prayers would get, this pardon seal'd in Heav'n.
45: That whereas We, Thy Happy Reigne, might misse,
As jug'd unworthy of so great a blisse;
May for thy sake obtaine it. And be spar'd,
As those, on whome, thy Clemency declar'd,
Whil'st own'd a People, Not reduc'd by Sword,
50: But wonne by Favour, and thy Princely Word.
Such conquest shall atchieve the greatest Glory,
And shall suffize t'immortallize thy Story.
Since such a work, no spirit coulde compleat
But such as Thine355, all Royall, Christian, Great.
55: Who, but the Son of Charles, thy Glorious Father,
Could cherish us, deserve destruction rather?
Who, but the Deputy of God* Above*
Could woo Rebellious Subjects, with such Love,
Who but Thy Selfe, could do as thou hast done?
60: So never Conqerour, such triumphs wonne.
To God be Glory. Did thy Heart encline,
And for these gracious Acts, the honour Thine.
Long happy be Thy Reigne, so as to tell,
Succeeding Ages, None could parallell.
65: These are our prayers, this our sole Ambition.
To see Thee here inthron'd in Rights fruition.
Whil'st We thy Subjects labour to redeem
By future loyalties Thy good Esteem
And make conspicuous to thy Royall Eye
70: The major part retain'd integrity.

FINIS.       M.D. LONDON: Printed for H. B. at the Gun in Ivy-Lane, 1660.            

waves] ed; wares LT

Thine,] ed; Thine.

"A Bonfire Carol"
A Private Conference
16 May

   Titlepage: A PRIVATE / CONFERENCE / BETWEEN / Mr. L. Robinson, / AND / Mr. T. Scott, / Occasioned upon the Publishing his / MAIESTIES / LETTERS / AND / DECLARATION. / [rule] / LONDON. / Printed for Isack Goulden at the Dolphin / in Pauls-Church-Yard, 1660. Verses pp. 10-12.

    Luke Robinson (1610-69) was a radical parliamentarian who changed in time for Charles's return. Whitlock noted of him: "although formerly a most fierce man ag[ainst] the King, did now . . . magnifie his grace &goodnes," (Whitlock, Diary 1 May). Pepys also reports him swearing duty to the King following the reading of the king's letter promising "an act of Oblivion to all, unless they shall please to except any. . . So that Luke Robinson himself stood up and made a recantation for what he hath done and promises to be a loyall subject to his Prince for the time to come" (2 May).

    Thomas Scott served as MP in the Long Parliament and had been a keen regicide. By January 1660, he was in great favour with the Rump, being appointed Secretary of State on the 14th. On the 16th, he and Robinson were sent to welcome Monck at Leicester on his march to London. After Monck had declared for the return of the secluded members on 18 February, Scott's position rapidly began to lose ground; his appointment as Secretary of State was repealed on 23 February. In late March, the Council of State ordered him to sign an engagement to keep out of Monck's way, and his name was excluded from the Act of Oblivion on 6 June.

    This satiric prose dialogue between Robinson and Scott shows them debating how to respond to the change in circumstances promised by the return of the king. Robinson reckons to compound for mercy while Scott reckons he is too well known an enemy to the king to get away with it. The tract ends with these verses that pick up and develop a common motif in anti-Rump songs -- that of using city bonfires to burn up the Rumpers and their appurtanances. In this version, the Rumpers are encouraged to leap onto the fires which loyalists have kindled in imitation of the followers of Sardanaplus -- the luxurious Assyrian king who was finally forced to immolate himself in the city of Ninus rather than fall to his rebellious subjects.

[ornamental header]


WHy does the pale Phanatick Grin
To see our general Joy?
Who thinks there is no use of Fire
But only to Destroy.

5: He long'd to see the City Flame,
And now has his desires;
But now he see's the City Flame,
Quoth he, Pox take your Fires.

Come boy's more wood -- -- -- there is no more
10:       Then fetch a Harp and Crosse;
Nay, fetch us all those rotten boards;
Wee'l burn 'um by the Grosse.

Great CHARLES the second is proclaim'd
Lord of his Native Right;
15: The day's too little for our Joy,
Which makes us Joy by Night.

Behold a sight! The Earth it self
Is now our Altar made;
But where's the Sacrifice you'l say?
20:       Oh! that is quickly had.

Bring hither the Rebelious votes
That beardlesse Tichborn fram'd;
And Records of th'Infernal Act
Of Bradshaw, who is damn'd;

25: Bring what the bold Conspiracy
Of Rumpers did impose,
When they abolish'd Regal Power,
In dread of Cromwell's Nose;

Bring the curs'd Hue and Crie, and him
30:       That dar'd to write it too,
And bring that Vote which Commomwealth'd us
Into our deepest woe;

Bring whatsoere the chief of Rebells
Upon the Nation forc'd,
35: To dispossesse his Soveraign,
For which his Sons are curs'd;

These should the Sacrifices be
If we might have our will,
And as for Priests yee shall not want
40:       To burn and burn 'um still.

But now I think on't where's Sir Arthur
As dry as Norway deal,
'Tis just he should be burnt, that first
Did fire the Common-weal.

45: Where's Thomas Scott, hee's pretty drye too,
As having lost his marrow;
But lest our fire be out too soon,
Bring Vane in a Wheel-Barrow:

Bring Martin too, that beastly Slave,
50:       And bring his Leman hither,
For as they liv'd like Antient Gaules,
Wee'd have 'um dye together,

Then boldly let um throw themselves
Into these Funeral Piles,
55: That all Rebellion may be buri'd
While we dance Round the whiles:

Tis better so to dye than live
Still Ignominious:
Perhaps they want a President,
60:       There's Sardanapalus.


Nathaniel Richards
Upon the Declaration.
18 May

[cut: royal arms]
Of ENGLAND the Second.

BLess Mighty God great Britains second KING
Charles: shield him Divinity (from the Sting
Of black mouth'd Murth'ring Malice, make him Live
The worlds true Mirrour, that do's now forgive
5:           Freely foul Facts; foul Faults, which makes all those
Enemies Friends, that were his greatest Foes.
KING Charles the First, that Glorious Martyr, He
Of never-dying Blessed Memory,
Expedit     His chiefest Charge unto his ROYALL SON
10: adversarios   Was to forgive his Enemies; 'tis done,
nostros con-   For all Earth's Potentates t'dmire, and see
donare,     KING Charles the Seconds Christian Charity;
memori-     Witnesse Gods Hand; Heav'n fights for him, by good
amque     And best of Subjects; shedding no mans Blood.
15: eorum ex      O beyond thought! blest comfort to us all
adversariis   Sent by the means of Vertues General;
nostris de-   No Fiends in flesh could sooth him to refrain
lere.      Obedience, true love to his Soveraign.
Rex sere-     A King, whose thoughts, think it his safest living
20: nissimus      To immitate our Saviour in forgiving;
Carolus      Praying for Foes, wherein He dos comprize
Secundus      The Funeral of All his Injuries:
noster, non   This from sad Exile, sent him Home to Heale
in imperio     The Bloody Wounds of Englands Commonweale:
25: tanquam in    Like Man and Wife, where both in Love agree,
virtute se-   Kings live in peace, prudent Parl'aments Free.

Nathaniel Richards.
            London, Printed for J. G. 1660.

Jo Rowland
His Sacred Majesty
22 May

Not a poem; the top of the brs. is a false anagram of Charles [given below]; under which are some verses "In Honor of the Lord General Monck, and Thomas Allen Lord Major [sic] of London, for their great Valour, Loyalty, and Prudence. EPINICIA." [NOT TRANSCRIBED] signed "Jo. Rowland, M. A. C C C Oxon."

    The top section reads:

             The ANAGRAM.

CHarls the Second, by the Grace     ACcept the valiant and loyall Georg
of God, of Great Brittaine,     Monck, Captain General of the
France and Ireland, King; Defender     Armis, and the chief Restorer of our
of the truly, anciently Catholick and      Du's, Laws, Religion and Liberti's,
Apostolick Faith, and in all Causes,      his princes friend at need.
and over all persons, as well Ec'le-     And recc'n Thomas Allen that is a
siastical as temporal, within these His loyal Subject, Lord Mayer of London
Majesties Realms and Dominions, by      City, and a like blessed means for
and under God, Supreame Gover-      us; sing prais and thanks as ever
nour.          du' to the Wise God.

Martin Lluellyn
To The Kings Most Excellent Majesty.
24 May

    Thomason dated his copy 24 May. The copy now in Bodley (O) is evidently an earlier, uncorrected state of the first printing, corrected at LT; both presumably precede the large paper folio. The Bodley copy repeats lines 41-42; while the later printing adds lines 45-46: other textual variants are reported.

    Thursday 24 May was declared a day of thanksgiving; Charles had set out from Breda the day before and Monk had set out from London to meet him. In Cambridge, William Godman preached Filius Heroum, subsequently published with verses.

    Lluelyn also wrote: An Elegie On the Death of the most Illustrious Prince, Henry Duke of Glocester (Oxford, Printed by Henry Hall Printer to the University, for Ric. Davies 1660), LT 1080(13*), date illegible.

   Martin Lluelyn (1616-81) was born in London, went up from Westminister to Christs' Church Oxford in 1636. In 1643, he fought for the king in the rank of captin. With the collapse of the royalist cause, he took up the study of medicine and was admitted doctor of Physick in 1653 by the Oxford and the College of Physicians. At the Restoration he was made personal physician to the king, retiring to Great Wycombe in Buckinghamshire in 1664 to practice medicine (Woods 2: 528-59)

   On the need to insist that chas was not restored by foreign agency, (lines 69ff) compare Higgons.


1: GREAT Prince of Cares and Us, by dark Fates hurld,
2: Round each false Corner of the treach'rous World;
3: Our doubtfull Joyes and Sighs distracted be,
4: Whether We first Bewaile, or Welcome Thee.
5: Whose wandring Feet can scarce that Soil disclose,
6: Which hath not bred, or else increas'd Thy woes.
7:            Or Thee, or Thine, each Nation did enfold.
8:            So wide a Ruine no one Clime could hold.
9: At Home, were drawn to most extensive length,
10: The Shafts of all our Stratagems and Strength,
11: 'Gainst Thy soft Bosome; when, to cruell Times,
12: But to be born our Prince, was all Thy Crimes.
13: When such, whose hands were stain'd in Sacred Gore,
14: And must secure past Ills, by acting more;
15: By interchanged mischiefs graspe the State:
16: Not to Relieve the Pressures, but Translate.
17: Our weapon'd Guardians raise them, their arm'd hand,
18: Makes each their Image, our dread Idoll stand
19: And though their brain-sick eyes could hope to see,
20: No dawn of Cure, no Hellebore but Thee.
21: Thou that sole Anchor of a floating Rout,
22: Art still as Anchors are, alone cast out.
23:            Abroad, thy griefs do their cold Friendships prove,
24: Who welcome now Thy Stay, strait Thy Remove.
25: It doth more greivous to a Guest befall,
26: To be Dislodg'd, then not Receiv'd at all.
27: If once a bold Usurper do pretend,
28: To thunder Menaces, or be their friend;
29: Thy fraile Allies, on Thy reception frown,
30: And a Confederate-Rebel weighs Thee down.
31: Thou must take wing afresh, a politick spight,
32: Makes Thee to flie, ev'n from Thy place of Flight.
33:            O where have then Thy carefull dayes been spent,
34:            Whose very Exile suffer'd Banishment!
35: But being now return'd our Numerous Prince,
36: By Birth, and Virtues first, by Sufferings356 since;
37: May Peace her Olive to Thy 357 Scepter bring,
38: And England know no Halcyon 358 but her King.
39: Thy Sacred Father in Thy memory weare
40: Piously firm, but not too sadly there.
41: No mean Unequall blood discount His Fate:
42: Let Veins despaire, Seas cannot expiate.359
43: May Loyall Breasts with unrevolting breath,
44: Attone Thy wrongs, and His 360 more clamorous death.
45: Live men Thy sacrifice; the slaughterd Foe
46: Is a Friend lost: Subjects take Vengeance so.361
47:       Camillus thus his injuries brake through,
48:       And came at once Romes blush, and Rescue too.362

49: No Crimson-guilty Streams, nor innocent gore,
50: Do tyde our Sea-tost Prince back to his Shore,363
51: What lingring time long wisht, but could not see,
52: Wrought by Thy martyr'd Sire, nor yet by Thee.
53: What Birth, nor Brains, Treasure, nor Force could do,
54: Our kind necessity hath rais'd Thee to.
55: And You attain your long disputed height,
56: A Glorious Conqueror without a Fight.364

57:            But though our Tears confesse, and sign it true,
58: That our own streights and wrongs have righted You;
59: Yet do those forcing streights extort no more,
60: Then what our generall Groans implor'd before.
61: For though we shiver in a thousand Rents,
62: Of querulous Sects, and unappeas'd intents:
63: Yet in this one we center, and agree;
64: We still request a King, and that King, Thee.365
65: Come then and bind us up with tender hands,
66: O Thou the Balsome of these bleeding Lands.
67: Ore-look the false, by prospect 366 on the True;
68:            And let the Many, expiate the Few.
69: Had You by Forreign Strengths regain'd Your Right,
70: You might at once Restore us, and Affright.
71: For Spanish Aides, had scarce the credit won,
72: Of Spanish Succours, but Invasion.
73: Your wisht Approach it self might so, amate,367
74: And Your Return had seem'd Our Eighty Eight.
75:            Our hopes Restorer France did fear to be,
76: And Spain though Hospitable; was not He.
77:            Renowned Monck alone to Us, and You;
78:            Is France, and Spain, and these three Kingdoms too.
79: With what Amazement our lost Phansies burn,
80: At this Your 'nigmaticall Return,
81: Mysterious Prince! three Kingdoms long disdain,
82: And now their Jubilee; their Cure, and Pain.
83:            Nor could the Issue lesse at length appear,
84: When we recount Your preservation here;
85: When at a Miracles expense, You show,
86: Whose Care You were, ev'n in Your Overthrow.
87: When Worc'sters hapless day proclaim'd it true,
88: That to Escape, was more then to Subdue.368
89:            Success crowns Rebel-fame, Yours higher flies,
90:            Nor are You Fortunes minion, but the Skies.
91: When Tarquin had receiv'd his exil'd Fate,
92: Not Porsena his Royal 369 Advocate,
93: Nor potent Armes his Restoration shape;
94: Oppos'd by his own Pride, and Lucrece Rape.
95: His Armies, are by Armies overcome.
96: And Porsena's grave Legats reason'd home:
97: In Fights or Parlyes still they disagree;
98: He strugling to be King, Rome to be Free.
99:            How different are these Sames! Your exiles friend,
100: Princes nor Aides, nor Intercessors send.
101: You use no Advocate, but mild Delay:
102: And we no Freedome find, but to Obey.
103:            After Your tyring Exile, we disclose,
104: You do Return the Prince we did Expose:
105: And in Your tempted Pilgrimage, we find,
106: That you have chang'd your Aire, but not your Mind,
107:            While to their Wants, or Weakness, most become
108: Tame Proselytes, and to Impatience some,
109: Thy breast was proof 'gainst all, &rais'd Thee Powers,
110: To stand our Faiths Defender, when scarce Ours.
111: No soft perswasive Errors bright Array,
112: Nor rugged stormy Usage, could dismay
113: Your fixt Resolves. You still your own sure Prince!
114: Whom Wants did oft Distress, but ne'r Convince.
115: And though Thy coole Revolt might soon have lead,
116: Thy Ravisht Crowns to Thy Rejected head.
117: Those beckning Gems want Lustre to allure,
118: Nor seem'd it great to Raign, but to Endure.370
119:            And now, though to be King is dignity,
120: Next Heavens transcendent Charter, great and high,
121: Yet some, in Forraign Empires seem Thy Peer,
122: And justly challenge Kingdoms, as Thou371 here.
123: Others Usurpe, their panting Nations Lords,
124: And carve out guilty Scepters with their Swords.
125: And though Injustice difference their Claim,
126: Yet All are Kings, and therein are the same.
127: But by a madding People chas'd away,
128: And mad again, till they restore Thy sway.
129: Woed to a Crown, and Courted to a Throne,
130: There You are Prince; there You are King alone.
131:            Let more Imperious Potentates rejoyce,
132:            To be their Subjects Soveraigns, Thou their Choice.


M. D. Lond. socius.

Sufferings] LT, OW, WF; sufferings L

Thy] LT, OW, WF; thy L

Halcyon] LT, OW, F; Halcyon L

Lines 41-42 are repeated from the bottom of p. 4 at the top of p. 5 in O, OW.

His] LT, OW, WF; his L

Lines 45-46 missing from LT, O, OB, OW, WF; supplied here from the large-paper folio in L.

gap in LT; gap missing O, L, OW

Shore,] LT, OW, WF etc; Shore; L

gap missing O, L, OW; present WF

Compare Dryden

prospect] LT, OW, WF; Prospect L

OED: dismay, daunt, dishearten.

lines 85-88 underlined in OB

Royal] LT, O, OW, WF; Royall OB, L

lines 117-118 underlined in OB

Thou] LT, OB, OW, WF; You O, L


M. D. Lond. socius.] L, LT, OB, WF; Coll. Lond. socius. O, OW

[ornamental header] TO HIS HIGHNESSE THE DUKE OF YORKE. Heroick Prince,374

YOUR bright Return doth equall glories reare,
To what You still return a Conquerer.
Nor hath your Sword abroad more Terrors won,
Then Your Renown hath purchas'd375 hearts at home.
5: Hence You create like cheerfull comforts here,
As when you did with safety Disappeare.
And ballance Times aright, the Blisse is one,
To travaile Home, and be securely Gon.
This only difference we must avow,
10: That what were then but Joyes, are Triumphs now.
Fear in our hearts, kept our Expressions low;
And though we did Rejoyce, we durst not Show.
Our Joyes are now no Stealths, but open clad;
Without the Felony of being Glad.
15: And what can check our Joys376? who receive
A Prince, whose losse forsaken Nations greive.
Whose Vigour, now, shall Spanish Caution warm?
And spirit grave Approach, into a Storme.
Thy Poize, must temper French Excesse no more:
20: Nor form that Valour, which was Rage before.
These adverse Camps, had each the bless'd event,
To heal Defects, by Thee their Supplement.
From whose divided Prowess either gains:
The Pondering learns Careere; the Giddie, Rains.
25: Each thus improv'd, a Peace must needs ensue.
Contest is vain, where Neither can Subdue.

M. D. Coll. Lond. socius.

Heroick Prince] L; om LT, O. OB, OW, WF

purchas'd] LT, O, OB, OW, WF; Conquer'd L

Joys?] LT, O, OB; Jo's L, OW, WF

[ornamental header]
Illustrious Prince,

1: THough, midst Your Countries flames You fled exil'd,
2: Like young Telemachus, a Frighted Child.
3: By soft Distinctions yet Thy flight's allay'd,
4: Nor wert Thou Forc't an Exile, but Convey'd.
5: The Courteous Tyrant will Thy harmes prevent,
6: And bids Thee to be safe in Banishment.
7: The glozing Crocodile doth fawn, and slay,
8: As he markt Thee 378 his Pilgrim, not his Prey.
9: Guids to Your youth, and Wayes, are joyntly lent,
10: You are for Amicable Ruine meant.
11:            Dire Monster! thus to aggravate Thy wrongs,
12:            Like Sirens; by the Musick of his Songs.
13: This Friendship, yet, from that fierce Tyger won,
14: Well may You aske; what 379 mischief have I done?
15: And rack Your crystal Innocence, to prove,
16: What Crime in You, commends You to his Love.
17: Dismiss that scrutiny: if he forbears,
18:            'Tis not his Kindnesse, but his Surfeit spares.

MARTIN LLUELYN M. D. Lond. socius.

Thee] LT, OW, WF; thee L

what] LT, OW, WF; What L


The Countrey-mans Vive Le Roy
[undated: early May]

    Recalling Sir John Suckling's celebrated "Ballad upon a Wedding," this dialogue extends the trope of "vox populi." It uses rural voices describing the hopes of ordinary folk in terms of an idealized countryside at a time when word is being brought to the country from the city that the people have declared for the king. Talk of tigers devastating the English countryside during the king's absence, though fanciful, is entirely in keeping with the ballad's use of pastoral conventions to engage imaginatively with contemporary issues, switching back and forth between country hopes and city events. On the other hand, the requisitioning of horses by soldiers had been a major problem facing farmers during the years of civil war. As so often, the pastoral here is a formal literary gesture mingling fact with fiction and addressed to a learned audience. The ballad ends cryptically with Jack declaiming a quatrain in Latin and English that contrasts king-killers Judas and Cromwell in order, presumably, to advocate punishment of the regicides.

    Judging by line 26 and the tense of the final wishes in lines 97-100, this ballad claims to be dated early May, just before the king actually arrived in England.

The Countrey-mans VIVE Le ROY.
His Joyfull Exaltation for King CHARLES 379 his Restoration,
In a Dialogue between DICK a Plough-man, and JACK a Shepherd.
With Jacks Epigram upon Englands Grand TRAYTOR.


COme, Jack shake off thy old disguise,
Of clouded Brows and watry eys.
Now mourn no more, for what is past
Our griefs have found a cure at last.
5: For now the youth in ev'ry Street,
As they do one another meet,
With hearts full fraught, and Loyal joy
Eccho and sing Vive Le Roy.


My sorrows are so great and fixt
10: And with such heavy Causes mixt,
My heart with grief is so opprest
No joy must harbour in my breast;
My dearest friend was snacht away
By Tigers, wolves and beasts of prey,380
15: By whose most Savage overthrow,
My heart is made the seat of woe.

For want of whom my flockes do stray
And by the beast do still decay,
Those few which yet are left behind,
20: Rob'd of their Fleeces I do find,
My Lambs lie slain before my face,
My self 381 am scorn'd and in disgrace,
My griefes are helpless, till with joy
I shall hear sung Vive Le Roy.


25: I was at London th'other day,
And sure 'twas in the Moneth of May,
When the whole City seem'd to me
By the great flame on fire to be.
Then as I past a little higher,
30: I found the Peoples hearts on fire,
Whose zealous flames exprest with joy,
And Caps flung up, Vive Le Roy.

Still as I past along no note,
Was heard that day from any throat,
35: But what did Loyalty expresse,
And their great joy for his success,
Unto his Royal throne, the mirth
Was greater now then at his birth,
For every Age and Sex, and Boy
40: Speak nothing but Vive Le Roy.


Dick welcome home for thou doest tell,
Such news which fits my humour well,
My flocks will now with safety feed,
And when they've yean'd 382 their Lambkins breed,
45: Free from the danger of the beast,
Safe under his protection rest,
For whose Return lets sing for joy,
With heart and voyce Vive Le Roy.


Jack now the case is alter'd quit,
50: And we shall all enjoy our Right,
Now we shall have no cause to fear,
The plundring wolf, or killing Bear.
Our Labours now will sweetned be,
With wisht content and Unity,
55: For which we may rejoyce and sing,
With heart and voyce God save the King.


Arcadia now's restor'd to Rest
Which was by Tyrants sore opprest,
My little Lambs skip ore the plain,
60: Which were by Tygers well nigh slain,
Forgetful of their former woe,
Securely wander to and fro,
Which on my Oaten pipe for joy,
Makes 383 me to play Vive Le Roy.


65: Our Horses now return at night,
Acquitted of the Souldiers fright,
For neither they of late, nor we,
Are led into Captivity.
We keep our poultry and our kine,
70: Now that is thine and this is mine,
For which whilst I hold plough my Boy,
Shall whistle out Vive Le Roy.


Now while my Lambkins feed and play,
I can securely wast the day,
75: And to avoid the heat of Sol
With pretty Nancie or kind Dol.
Sport in some shade: my Flocks return
I need not fear the wolf's in's Urne,384
For which let every Arcadian Boy
80: Rejoyce and sing, Vive Le Roy,


Come Jack lets go and take a sup,
And drown old sorrows in a Cup,
Of brownest Ale that we can find,
For to restore our drooping mind.
85: Bring thou thy Dol: I'le bring my Nan
And Frollick it with Cake and Can,
Wee'le make our Girles no more be coy,
But laugh and sing, Vive Le Roy.


I like the motion of my friend,
90: I'le fold my Flock, and thee attend,
To mother Mabs old tipling-house
Where we will take a smart carouse
Of her brown nappy stuff, 385 till we
Are full of Ale and Loyalty.
95: Wee'l drown all care and swell with joy,
Laugh, quaff and sing Vive Le Roy.


Come Frank strike up a merry strain
Since the King injoys his own again,
When we see our long wisht for King,
100: Let Bonfires flame, and the Bells ring.
Fill a full Cup, I'le drink a round,
My heart doth as my Cups abound.
A health to our King, pledge all with joy.
Heav'ns bless the King, Vive Le Roy.

105:            Their wish.
Make hast (Great Sir) to our Arcadi'n Plain,
And bless this Island with your beams again,
Heav'n grant that never such another night,
As we have felt since we did lose the Light
110: May Cloud us any more, O may the Sun
Still shine upon us, and our Day ne'r done
May the Suns influence of thy fair beams,
Give store unto our 386 Plains, Life to our Streams.
So shall our Flocks yield us a good encrease
115: When Plenty's usher'd in by welcome Peace.
Long may you live King of th'Arcadean Land,
And we learn to obey what you Command.

In Cromwillum Regicidum.
Ad mortem Dominum male prodidit Iscariotes
120:      Cromwelliq dola Rex borus interdit
Convenere pares solo hoc discrimine Judas
Obtinuit meritas, non tulit ille cruces,
Englished thus.
Judas betrayd his Sovereign 387 Lord to death,
125: By Cromwells fraud a good King lost his breath,
Only in this these Traytors different be,
Judas was justly hang'd, so was not he.

London, Printed for J. Jones, 1660.


compare Couch: "When Lyons, Tygers, and those Beasts of prey," line 45.

self] sel copytext

given birth

Makes] makes copext

i.e. there is now no need to fear since the wolf is now dead and in his grave (urn).

nappy stuff; foaming ale.

.úú111. unto our] uuto out coptext

Sovereign] Soveeign

J. G. B.
Royall Poems
[undated: early May]


    Harvard unicum inscribed "Harvard College Library / In Memory of / Lionel De Jersey Harvard / Class of 1915" dated Dec. 29, 1925.
Date: Internal evidence for dating is inconclusive, but the title and verses addressed to Charles asking him to "Come" suggest early May.
The publisher, Ralph Wood, also published works by Flecknoe,
What is the relation between the author of these verses and the final allusion to Henry Vaughan?

Royal Poems

On the KINGS most Excellent Majesties happy
Return to His Kingdomes.

COme Noble Phoebus and in our Horizon
Shine, 'tis long since, that in confusion
We darkly grop'd, for want of thee, the Skye
Is now clear'd by the Heavens Deity
5: Of opposing Clouds, and now our greatest Jove
With Mercury expect, that thou shouldest move
With thy resplendant Rayes, to irradiate
Our long-afflicted and distressed State:
Come; We expect thee long, with hearty groans,
10: We can no longer brook vain Phaetons.
Now all Malignant starrs are dimn'd save some few
Ill bodying Comets, and a little Crew
Of the Galazia's starrs, all which away
Shall soon hence fall, by vertue of thy Ray;
15: Then, I pray hither, now, And properate,
Being invited by the course of Fate.


In Principeu Brittannorum Carolus Stuartus, id est. Ar-
   thur, Laus, Custos.

ORex, ecce tuo quae funt sub nomine clausa,
Arthur, Laus, Custos, quae meliora, precor
Arthur es ut patriam reaimas, adjuncteq; laus est
Quod tu Brittannis fis decus omne tuis,
5: Costos es quod Regna tuo tutabere Nutu
Quam fanstum fato nomen hoc omen habet,
Id cinco quid flas O Princeps fortis Eremo,
Patres te invitant et bona fata, ven.
[line in Greek]
10: Vatem hunc prehibeto optimam qui bene conjicis Euripid.

On the Lord MONCK Generalissimo of all His Majesties Forces.

I Et much fam'd Egypt and the Eastern Coast
Give o're hereafter proudly for to boast
Of their Noble Pini, their Ptolemyes,
Their Warlike Joabs and stout Machabees;
5: For now England to us brave Monck hath bred,
Who doth surpass each man that ere did tread
O're conquered Foes, for sure, no Age did see
The like for Valour and State-policie;
For as in Field he never did retreat,
10: So by his wit he now doth such a feat,
That ne're was known, yet setling without Blood
Three Great Nations, that in confusion stood:
All after Ages will confess with awe,
That ne're so stout a Politician saw;
15: Wit and Valour in him have made their seat,
Both conjoyned for to make him great:
Nor is he onely Politick and Wise,
But also Pious; for his Noble Eyes
Look on the Widdowes Cause and the Orphans all,
20: That were long wrong'd; by this brave General
Are considered; for which, he shall be
The greatest starr, save Phoebus in the Skye;
And this admire in him 'bove each Conqu'ring man,
That after all Conquest, himself he Conquer can.
25:      Fortius est quise, quam qui fortissima vincit menia.

An Elegie on the Murther of His Gracious Majesty Charles the first, January the 30th. 1648. Quid fine Pectore Corpus
Calum fine sole, regnum fine rege.

O What is this? How is bright Phoebus gone,
Our Joy and Glory from our Horizon?
He, He by whom, we were made most splendant,
With splendour bright, full and aboundant
5: See, by thy fall; now all the World is grown
To a disordered Chaos and Confusion,
Wuithout Head or Tail; all in Obscurity
Are involved, none knowing where to stay,
Nor what way to move, some Retrograde
10: Like Cancer goe, others away do fade:
Those greatest starrs, are grown exorbitant,
Crossing each other; nor is here extant.
And order, now, or rule, but in this State
Each as high as other doth (O! strange Fate)
15: His own will, nay, here after Phoebus loss,
[line in Greek]
Thus by the enormous, and excentrique
Course of the Galaxia starrs, our politique
State is turn'd unto the Cyclops mode,
20: But at this let none admire abroad;
For this Land bread Monsters, to whom in ire
Breathed from their mouths against us fatal fire:
O Heavens high, how long shall these thus deal;
And make such havock of the Commonweal?

On the Regicides.

'TWas strange, 'twas strange, and could nothing suffice
These Canibals but that they must surprise
The Head it self, and it amputate
With such unnatural and deadly hate.
5: Was't not enough for your safe Guts, for food
To such of some Prime members Noble Blood:
No, no, these Hell-hounds must chop off the Head,
That on each part they may at once be fed,
O greedy Guts, O Gormandizng crew
10: Of ne're-fill'd Appetites, behold and view
This Tragick Act, shall you hot Burning Coals
Escape? believe there are no lurking holes
That can-defend you from the Noble hand
That shortly comes here from bold Neptunes sand:
15: Make hast to flie, O! Lap-Wings, this my best advice,
From the Eagles force, or else submit most wife,

On the Tribe of Fortune, the RUMP of the

COme well-vers'd Augurs and Astrologers,
That by Beast Entrals, and the rolling Spheares
Do seek for new Portents, run here and see
A strange, fatall, and monstrous prodigie:
5: For now 'gainst Nature, O sad Destiny,
All is hurled most preposterously;
The World is turn'd upside down, the Head now
Is become Tail, the Tail to Head doth grow;
The Worlds scum, Earths sons of Nativity,
10: (Then Nile's head more obscure) are raised on high
The Nobles now depressed, every Slave
Sprung from the Dung-hill doth the Heavens braive;
The Shrubs and Underwoods on high are grown,
The tall Elms and great Cedars tumbled down:
15: Now the Taylor is made of a bouncing Dux,
The Countrey Idiot as an Orthodox
Though no Clerk, is unto the Pulpit gone,
And for Pence and Groats doth blaterate theron:
Nay, the poor Foot-Boy is become a Knight,
20: Thus, thus, our Pedes is made an Eques right.
O absurd accidents, saddle henceforth the ass,
Dephalerate the Horse, seeing it came thus to pass:
Oh, What grief of greifs is't for to see
A Plebeian Crew o're men of Majesty
25: To domineer, it is intollerable
To see Batts and Owls rule thus or'e an Eagle
And glorious Birds; I am all on fire,
Not all the Thames can quench my raging ire;
Give strength to us, give strength, O Heavens high,
30: To rid our selves from such a slavery,
O Tribe of Fortune, whose turn did evene
To walk a while proudly on Fortunes Scene:
Your turn comes now, and you with all be brought
On the same Stage, shag-ragg'd us you ought.

  In Verba Caroli Regis dum suit Hispaniae in illud
Nasonis: Nunc notus adversa praelia fronte gerat.

IPse notum contra, oppositum pugnare videbas,
Quondam temporibus Naso Poeta tuis:
40: O Utinan contra oppunens nunc robore mecum
Hic notus adversa prelia fronte gerat.

Nota quod notus a Nasone pro vento qui persiabatur noto figurate sumebatur, ab
Authore sumitur natus pro populo qui in Nota habitant eadem figura, Centimens pro Contento.

Henry Vaughan, Cambro Britt.


Part V. Arrival and Progress in England, 25-31 May 1660

Giles Duncombe, "Cimelgus Bonde" and "T. F." verses from
Scutum Regale
21-28 May

    Titlepage: Scutum Regale, / THE / Royal Buckler; / OR, / VOX LEGIS, / A / Lecture to Traytors: / Who most wickedly murthered / CHARLES the I, / AND / Contrary to all Law and Religion banished / CHARLES THE II. / 3d MONARCH of / GREAT BRITAIN, &c. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / Salus populi, Salus Regis. / LONDON, 1660. / [enclosed within double-rule box] [printed in black and red inks].

    Engraved frontispiece headed "Iam redit Astr'a, Redeunt Saturnia regna, / Iam nova progenies, c'lo Demittur alto." shows Charles on his throne with the Lords and Dukes of York and Gloucester; below them the Commons; below them the Bishops with common prayer book. At the bottom, a double set of images: "Traytors rewarded:" and "Sectaries reiected."

   Wing: D 2599a and B3557; mistaken double-entry.
Format and date: 8to. Advertised in the Parliamentary Intelligencer 22 (21-28 May), p. 348.

   Copies: O1 Tanner 624, has an additional cut after the t/p and before the Epistle to the Reader of Charles about to be crowned by an angel, followed by a dedication page "To His Most Sacred Majestie," COPYTEXT 9/95; O2 Linc 8to c.183; additional engraving of Charles appears between sigs A and B; L1 292.a.15, plate of shepherd missing; L2 1483.aa.26; L3 G3535 (Charles 2's copy); ms note: "This Copy belonged to the Royal Library of Charles 2d whose cypher is on the binding. It has not only a very fine impression of the Frontispiece, but it has also a 2d Plate which precedes the "Shepherd's Complaint" at the end of the book, & is very seldom found with it. This Plate has been by some called "Charles 2d" but it is so unlike that it is not easy to believe it could be meant for his portrait"; C Adams 8.66.8; WF 140413; additional engraving of Charles appears between sigs A and B; CT; P; CH; CN; MH; Y; Exeter.

    Giles Duncombe was a young lawyer who evidently hoped to improve his situation by declaring, in print, his loyalty to the Stuarts with strong conviction, dedication, and learning, at some length, and as soon as possible. Scutum Regale was advertised in the last week of May, but must have been in almost continuous preparation from much earlier in the year. Later in December, Duncombe identifies himself as the author of this book in the signature printed at the end of A Counter-Blast to the Phanaticks (which cannot have appeared before the death of Princess Mary on the 24th of that month): "Giles Duncombe of the Inner Temple Gent. / Author of Scutum Regale, the Royall / Buckler. Or, Vox Legis, a Lecture / to Traytors."

    Evidence of haste and of last minute revision, or at least of the desire to seem to be among the first in print, abounds. Most copies are gathered differently from each other. One of the British Library copies mis-prints the anagram "Gimelgus Bonde," to which a contemporary hand has added "giles Duncomb Turn'd a -- -" (L2 sig. A5) suggesting that there were some around who knew who the author really was. The Errata page mentions that Monk, who "hath now cheared us with the hopes of a Free-Parliament," soon will "bring in our exiled King" (sig. A6v), suggesting that the book was being rushed along to appear in advance of the King. The Epistle to the Reader ends with a prayer for the arrival of "Charls the 2d our Augustus, and C'sars Successor" (sig. A4v); the major prose section of the book ends "let the Cryes of thy People come unto thee O God, and restore our Gracious King Charles the second to his H'reditary Crown: Whose Youth thou has seasoned with the Afflications of King David" (p. 393, sig. [Cc5]), while the mood of the whole enterprise is that of hopeful anticipation.

    The Reader addressed by the Epistle is specifically identified as urban and supposed susceptible to arguments concerning property rights:

O purblind City, how long will you enslave your selves to ravenous woolves? who by their often changing of their feigned Governments, do but change the thief, and still your Store-houses must be the Magazine, to furnish them with plunder. You must never look to enjoy your lives, estates, or Gods blessing, with the fruition of your Wives, and Children, before your lawful King and Soveraign CHARLS the II. unjustly banished by Rebells, be restored to his Crown and Kingdom. (sig. Av).
The address to city-dwelling property owners helps place the initial writing and perhaps even printing of the book during February and March while Monck, the guilds and parliament negotiated.

    "The Epistle to the Reader," ends with some Latin and English verses calling for a return of the king:

Enough of hail and cruel snow,
Hath Jove now showr'd on us below,
Enough with thundering Steeples down,
Frightned the Town.
Frightned the World.


O thou God of Order, now hold thy punishing hand, cement our Differences, and unite the lines of our Discord in the true Centre. Let Charls the 2d. our Augustus, and C'sars Successor, revenge the bloody Murther of C'sar. O most worthy Augustus, our only lawfull Soveraign, be thou a stay to our falling Kingdom, Patiens vocari C'saris ultor, do thou hasten to be C'sars Revenger, and then


Serus in co/elum redeas, diuque
L'tus intersis populo Quirini,
Neve te nostris vitiis iniquum,
Otyor aura

Tollat, his magnos, potius triumphos,
Hic ames dici pater, atque Princeps,
Neusinas Medos equitare inultos,
Te duce C'sar.

Return to Heaven late we pray,
And long with us the Britains stay,
Nor let disdain of our offence,
Take thee from hence.

Love here victorious, Triumphs rather,
Love here the name of Prince, and father,
Nor let the Rebels scot-free ride,
Thou being our Guide.388

Which is the continual Prayer of

Your Graces most humble, true, faith-
full and obdedient Subject, and most
dutifull Servant, usque ad aras.

Cimelgus Bonde.
(sigs. [A4v-A5])

   Since his style often recalls the political poetry of the early Civil War period, Duncombe would hardly claim to be an Augustan. Yet he was certainly among the first to address Charles in print directly as Augustus.389

    By adopting an anagrammatic pseudonym for the publication of Scutum Regale, Duncombe perhaps wished to suggest that there was still some personal danger involved in publishing his desire for a return to monarchy as early and as earnestly as he did. The author of some dedicatory verses, signed "T. F.", possibly Thomas Flatman, draws attention to Duncombe's personal heroism for writing when he does.390 While there is no direct evidence that "T. F." was Flatman, Scutum Regale is clearly the product of the Inns of Court, a coterie context in which the initials would have been unmistakable. "T. F."'s verses, however, do not appear in any of the editions of Flatman's Poems and Songs published in 1674, 1676, 1682, and 1686.

Guide] Gnide

.úúSee Erskine-Hill, who doesn't mention Duncombe.

[what was control over press like in late 59 and 60? see Potter on Crouch]:

[ornamental border]
To the Author of the Royal
Buckler, or a Lecture to

TO speak what ev'ry one desires, and in a strain
That suits with ev'ry Hearer, is no pain;
To trouble to profess the bloody Creed
Of Mahoment, among the Turks; no need
5: To be afraid amidst ones friends; but he
That talks of Virtue, before Villanie;
Who can be Christian, among the Crew
Of Sectaries, and bid defiance to the Jew;
He that i'th worst of Times dares to be good;
10: (Like Capel) seals his Ligeance with his Blood;
Can strive against th'impetuous wind, and wave,
And all their joynt-conspiracies outbrave;
In spite of Fortune resolutely stand
To argue with a bloudy, treacherous Land;
15: That Man's a Man indeed; can stoutly cry
Hosanna, when the Throng sayes Crucifie.
Sir, such are you, and such your Lines, to whom
Or to your shrine, Posterity shall come
Laden with Laurels: and the little brood
20: Of them whose hands were in their Prince's bloud,
Shall justifie thy Book; and read therein
Their own Misfortunes, and their Father's Sin:
Shall read the Miracles of Providence,
And borrow matter for Romances thence.
25:       Thus (Sir) your Pen shall to your self create
A Monument, beyond the Pageant state
Of breathless Oliver; or those Poor men,
That rul'd and dy'd, and rul'd and stunk agen.
Rebellion for a little moment shines,
30: But seldom with a brave applause declines:
'Tis only Truth, and Loyalty can give
Restoratives, to make a Dead man live.

T. F. (sigs [A7-A8])

   Other internal evidence suggests that the book was being prepared in a hurry during the early months of 1660. The Errata list which precedes "T. F.'s" dedicatory verses, advises us "since the last in execution, is the first in the intention; I must request the Reader to begin with the last part of the Book, and end with the first part in his reading" (sig. [A6]). This proves to be not bad advise, since we find him complaining about Monk --

Monck prov'd worse than Pharaoh himself, and instead of relieving of our distressed Jerusalem . . . he heaped misery to misery, and executed such a grand piece of Tyranny that none in the world . . . could invent. On Thursday the ninth day of February, 1659, . . . he drew up all his souldiers into the City, with their matches lighted, in a warlike posture, doubled his guards, and tore down all the gates, and posts of the City; neither did his intoxicated malice stay upon the gates, but leapt upon the Aldermen, and other Citizens, whom he presently cast into prison, so that now he is become odious, and stinks in the nostrils of all the Citizens and People: and whereas he was the common hopes of all men, he is now the common hatred of all men, as a Traytor more detestable than Oliver himself; who, though he manacled the Citizens hands, yet never took away the doores of their City, whereby all manner of beasts, (as well the Wolves at Westminster, as other out-lying Foxes, and Birds of prey) may come in, and destroy them when they please. (pp. 373-74).

   Within three pages, however, he starts a new section -- "Englands Redemption" -- and finds himself recanting this complaint: "No sooner had I written these last words of the momentary prosperity of the wicked, but immediately the same hour, news was brought me, that General Monck and the City were agreeed,[sic] and resolved to declare for a free Parliament, and decline the Rump . . . I was strucken with amazement, joy made me tremble, and the goodnesse of the news would scarce permit me to believe it" (p. 377).391

    The dedicatory verses signed T. F. are followed by "The History of Phaeton," an extended allegory in which King Phoebus, "representing the King," punishes Phaeton, "the hare-brained people" (sigs B-C2). The main body of the book, "A Lecture to Traytors" (sigs C2v-Aa4v) is interspersed with verses in Latin with English translations. The prose "Lecture" draws to an end with two final sections, "Englands Confusion" (sigs Aa5-Bb4v), and "Englands Redemption" (sigs [Bb4v-Cc5v]. Pagination also ends here. Two short poems, "On the late MIRACULOUS REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND, &c.," also signed "T. F.," and "Repentance for the Murther of Charles the Martyr and The Restuaration of Charles the II," both printed on separate leaves, are variously tipped in amongst the final gatherings.392

(Compare Pair of Prodigals on Monk's activities at this stage.)

In O1 Tanner, these leaves appear between the Cc and Dd gatherings, that is, between the Latin version of the pastoral and the English translation. In O2 Linc and WF, the leaf with T. F.'s verses is tipped in between [Cc5] and [Cc6], ie before the Latin verses, while the leaf contining "Repentance" has been tipped in at the very end of the volume. In L3, the copy from Charles's personal library, they appear in the opposite order immediately after the titlepage.

On the late

THree Kingdoms, like one Ship, a long time lay
Black tempest-proof upon a troubled Sea;
Bandy'd from wave to wave, from rock, to sand,
A prey to Pyrats from a forein Land:
Expos'd to all the injuries of Fate,
All the Reproaches of a Bedlam-State:
The brave Sayles torn, the Main-mast cut in sunder,
Destruction from above, and ruine under.
Once the base rout of Saylors, try'd to steer
The giddy Vessel, but thence could appear
Nothing but mad Confusion: Then came One,
He sate at Helm, and his Dominion
Frightned the blustring Billows for a while,
And made their Fury counterfeit a smile;
Then fora time, the Bottom seem'd to play
I'th'wonted Chanel, and the beaten way,
Yet floated still. The Rabble snatch't again It's mannagement, but all (alas) in vain:
No Anchor fixt, no wished shoar appears,
No Haven after these distracted years.
But when the lawfull Pilot shall direct
Our wav'ring Course (and Heav'n shall Him protect)
The Storms shall laugh, the Windes rejoyce thereat,
And then our Ark shall find an Ararat.

T. F.

Charles the Martyr.
The Restauration of Charles
the II. is the only Balm to cure Eng-
lands Distractions.

'TIs true, our Nostrils lost their Breath; What then?
'Cause we sinn'd once, shall's ne're be good agen?
We murther'd Charles, for which, Infernal Kings
With worse than 'gypt's Plagues have scourg'd our sins.
The Martyrs Goodnesse Angels cann't rehearse;
The Rebels baseness Devils cann't expresse:
Who in their Lower House have acted more
Than Belzebub in Hell, or th'Earth before.
And did not Charles the Son yet shine, I'de say
That, God of Nature, and the World decay.
But God is God, and Satan's Fraud we see.
Charles is our King, and Rebels, Rebels be.
Then since we ken a Traytor from a Saint,   The
Let's be for God, our King, and *Bel recant.   Rump.
Hee'l dry our Eyes, and cure those Wounds which we
Receiv'd i'th' dark, groping for Liberty:
For Liberty, which kept us all in Fetters,
Slaves to the Rump, and to the Rumps Abetters:
Who Freedom and Religion up cry'd,
When Freedom and Religion they destroy'd,
Who killed us with Plaisters, and brought Hell,
For Paradice: So Eve by th'Serpent fell.
Then if the death o'th'King caus'd all our woe,
The life o'th'King had sav'd us, all men know:
Behold him, in his Son, whose splendid light,
Shall heal the darknesse of his Fathers night.
'Tis madnesse to use Candles in the day:
What need a Parl'ament? when Charles le Roy,
Stands at the door, and to us fain would bring,
Freedom and Laws, instead of Rape and Sin.
The glory of a King is to command,
But Subjects shame to sit, when he doth stand.

God Save the King.   C. B.

   The final section of the book features an engraving of a Shepherd and some Latin and English verses evidently written well before there was any public certainty that Charles would be returning. Of this engraving, marginalia in the copy that once belonged to the private library of Charles comments: "but it has also a 2d Plate which precedes the "Shepherd's Complaint" at the end of the book, & is very seldom found with it. This plate has been by some called `Charles 2d' but it is so unlike that it is not easy to believe it could be meant for his portrait." [reproduce engraving]

   Some of the interest of Duncombes's version of pastoral is his use of the shepherd's voice to express a sense of natural justice in line with the call for law throughout Scutum Regale as a whole. The voice begins with a shepherd's conventional rejection of civic, political, and military ambition in favour of rural contentment, a theme Duncombe maintains throughout. At the same time, the voice nostalgically recalls and comes to personify a self-sufficient England that, disrupted by the civil wars, no longer exists. Personal greed and ambition now drive the men in political office while encouraging others to abandon their former ways of life to seek wealth in foreign lands. The shepherd, however, can still find peace away from it all in rural isolation; the same choice adopted by Astell's urban persona in Vota Non Bella.

   The Latin verses "Pastor Vit' Su'" (sigs. Cc6-Cc8v) are translated as follows:

The Shepherd commending the meanness of his life complains, that since the Heavens and all things else are Governed by a certain rule of Providence, yet that humane affairs go not in so setled a course, because Good men go backward, and Vice only is rewarded.

I am the Man that curbing my desires,
And checking passions, which my mind requires,
Command more largely and more freely sway,
A Scepter, than if Carthage did obey,
5: Or I joyn'd Lydia to the Phrygian shore,
And that to th'Indies, hardly known before.
Under a little roof with house-hold bread,
Securely I a life contented lead,
I care not to approach when Trumpets sound,
10: Calling to arms, on rigid Mars his ground.
His Playes to me are misery and wo.
Nor dare I on the rugged Ocean go,
In Ships; (a thing forbid) but Ah! our times
Do run more fircely to forbidden crimes:
15: I'st nothing think you, thus to stayn the flood,
And fields, through civil War, with noble blood?
But you must adde the sacred blood of Kings?
Fatal to after ages: hoydagings!
Of Law, dread Law! which yielding now gives place,
20: To arms, and Vertue meets with foul disgrace.
But wither now my Boat? you must contain
Your self in Rivers, not run to the Main,
Where threatening Rocks with their obscured head
Swallow you up, when danger least you dread.
25: When therefore 393 night is vanish't, and the day
Appears, inlighten'd with the glorious ray
Of regal Sol, arm'd with my Sheep-herds crook,
With Bag and Bottle hanging by, I look
My Sheep, and to the Fields, whose Green is lost
30: Under the texture of a morning Frost,
I drive them: when the Sun advanc't more high,
In his Diurnal course through th'arched sky,
Makes Grass-hoppers to sing, ith'parched grass.
Then to the Rivers or deep lakes I pass,
35: Driving my Flocks to water, which I lead
Panting through heat, thence to the loved shade.
Where the tall Beech and thicker leaved Oaks
Clashing their friendly arms with mutual stroaks
Make cooler coverts, under which Lambs please
40: To eat, to sport, to play, and take their ease,
How it delights now on my Pipes to play!
Anon my body on the grass to lay,
Seeking to take a nap, while in her song,
Progne bewailing her so grievous wrong
45: In mournfull notes, and all the woody Quire,
With warbling strayns, would perfect my desire.
Then, duskish when it grows, I quick arise,
And give to Pan a Lamb in sacrifice,
Who taught me sacred rimes which while I sing,
50: And lead my Sheep unto the Christal spring,
Their Dugs grow full of milk; but now the Sun
Ready to set, the evening Star is come,
Lo you, (to Shepherds so well known) whose sight
Bids us to fold our Flocks and count them right,
55: Lest some perchance strayd out into the Plain,
Or broke into the Fields repleat with grayn;
Where being taken they become a prey,
To the rude Clown who makes them soon away
Or else perhaps they wandring to the Sheep
60: Of some near neigbouring Shepherd, where they keep
Among the rest, till now through custome bold,
They'r driven to some strange and unknown fold.
Thus, thus I spend my life, and in content
Retir'd from the world my days are spent:
65: I thirst not after Rule, nor do I swell
With lusting after Kingdoms, I can tell
That such ambition's void of all that's good
Stand out for nought, but gorge themselves with blood.
Ah! who will Faith or Piety approve,
70: If good men be condemned, and such as love
Mischief, and Vices, be the only men
Set by and rais'd by Fortune from the den
Of unknown Stocks?
Yee Guardian Angels of this once blest Land
75: Have you still for our good the same command?
{Tis true the glistring Stars and heavenly trayn
{Do still in one continued course remayn
{The Moon doth still encrease & wax & wane,
The Sun keeps on his yearly course whereby
80: The Winter frosts denude the Tree's grown dry;
Which being lately beautified with green,
Yielded a shade most pleasant to be seen,
The Summers heat ripens the corn, and then
It's heat by Autumne is allay'd agen.
85: But wretched man lives without rule or square,
Without proportion all his actions are;
Is Fortune regent that doth blinded go,
And with unequal hands her gifts bestow?
Powr acts by will, and will without restraint
90: Doth what ambition teacheth, and the Saint
Is banish't from the Court: Oh horrid times!
[a] The King 393*
O. Cromwell. &c
Forcing the Britains blindly to obey;
95: But pious Ah in vain for Gold they hast
To th'Indies: True Religion is not plac't
In Wealth or Fortune (surely Heaven denyes
Goodness to bad, though prosperous treacheries.)
Who were the first that brought their private wealth
100: For publick Treasure, & as 'twere by stealth
Made that the lure to sin? Who first found Gold?
And Pearls? not willing to be known from Mould.
Before that time, no jealousies and fears,
No dayly Plots appear'd, no widows tears,
105: Were seen for slaughter'd Husbands, no mad rage
Of civil war corrupted had the age.
No Sword was sharpen'd yet against its King,
But corrupted Faith did duely bring
The People to the Prince with loving zeal
110: (Blest Omens of a happy Commonweal)
The warlike Trumpet was not yet, no blood,
The Wearer, or his Arms had yet embrew'd
The Sea was rugged, free the shore,
All were contented, with a little store,
115: They did possess: the greatest of their boast
Was to have seen and known their proper coast:
But now both Sea and Land are grown too smal
To feed our base ambitious minds withal
Desire to have and get burns now more fierce
120: Then 'tnae's flames, (renown'd by Virgils verse)
Stands ought it'h way? death shall remove the stock
We can bring Kings themselves unto the block
If such may be their fate? O dearest God,
Ironice.      How dreadful are thy Laws! how sharp thy rod!
125: Alas! fool that I was! I once had thought
That just, which now I see is vain and nought.
C'sar though oft forewarn'd at last was slain
By his own Subjects, a rebellious trayn.
But great Augustus on the factious head
130: Of most, revenged C'sar murthered.395
But Ah! for Martyr'd Charls what man or State
Will vengeance seek before it be too late?
O come Great God, we pray thee at the length,
For without thee, vain is our help or strength.
135: Let Charls the second in thy care be chief
Guard him, and give to his Affairs relief;
Preserve him safe, and when he will demand
His right from English Rebels, guide his hand,
Make them to know that thou dost Rule on high,
140: Strike them with Lightning from the thundring Sky.
Revenge his Fathers guiltlesse death on them,
While there remains or Root, or Branch, or Stem.
But whether now my Muse, where wilt thou croud?
Among the Shrubs it fits me best to shroud:
145: And not to climb the Cedar proud 396 and tall,
Lest while I seek to rise, I climb to fall,
Honor or Hopes calls most men to the Court,
Where one being wrought on by the great resort,
Is straightway struck, and shortly hopes to be
150: Seen in the City in full Majestie.
Another with much labour, toyl, and pain,
Would fain climb high, but all his labour's vain.
This courts Gemmes and Gold, nor th'Indians can,
Nor Europe sate the hunger of this man,
155: Nor fertile Lybia's plentifullest store,
But as he gets, so still he covets more.
Another to the people shews his tayl;
Boasts his descent, that so he may prevayl,
To draw the Fish into his Net: and there
160: Another for his valour doth appear,
And in the Publique place himself presents,
Spoyls of his Foes, his new got Ornaments.
A rustick shepherds life doth laugh on me
More sweet, than all the lives that be.
165: I, in my meaner way, great things deride:
For why, I know the vales have seldome try'd
The force of thundring Jove, when mountains high
Have trembled at his threatning Majesty.
The meat and drink purchas't by me, is not
170: Bought with the treasure of much goods ill-got,
My sleep's unguarded, I fear not to dye,
But in my little cot securely lye:
Not troubled with the noise of men, or drums,
No trumpet there or horseman ever comes.
175: Oft when I rise, I sit a little while
Upon my fragrant bed of Camomile:
The Strawberries that in the thickets thrive,
My faintest hunger serve away to drive:
And pleasant apples (as my Grandsire first)
180: So do they serve to quench my greatest thirst:
While Great ones drink in gold, poison and blood,
I drink clear water out of wholsome wood.
Thus do I passe my time, harmlesse to all
But birds, for whom I make some new pit-fall.
185: Thus stranger to the world, yet to my self
Known, shall I dye, and leave this wordly pelf.
But, Sol withdrawing, the approaching night
And Starres appearing, do to sleep invite.

[393] therefore] therefote copytext, WF

[393*] When [a] Vertue bears the punish-ment of Crimes: And Wolves pretending harmles-nesse bear sway.

[394] ie: Augustus revenged the murder of Caesar by punishing most of the leaders of the faction.

[395] proud] L1, WF etc prond L3


ACcept these lines, which I have plainly writ,
Though not adorn'd with curious Art or wit,
And thou shalt be my Patron, at whose beck
My Muse shall hoist her sailes, or give them check,
5: So may I chance hereafter to relate
Some things more solid, and of greater weight.
And as our Palat's pleas'd with various fare,
So is our mind with studies choice and rare:
All things have changes: ev'n the Law it self
10: May lye and gather cob-webs on the shelf,
Though they be thine (grave Cook) 396 who did revise,
And mend the same, or Plowden 397 grave and wise:
But I love various learning, and so do
Make it my study, and my pastime too:
15: And thus while others play at Cards, or Drink
Away their time, I on Apollo think,
And pray his favour, that he will admit
Me from the Muses fount to sip some wit.

1659. Yours in all officiousness and Love most obliged

[396] Cook: who is this??

[397] Edmund Plowden, jurist, whose collections of cases (written in French) were of considerable importance -- DNB

Richard Bradshaw
"Upon the most desired return"
25 May

   Title: A Speech made before the King's most Excellent Majesty CHARLES the Second, / on the Shore where he Landed at Dover. / By Mr. John Reading B. D. who presented his Majesty with a Bible, the Gift of the / Inhabitants there, May 25th. 1660.

    Wing: R453.

    Copies: brs. O Wood 398 (11).

    At the outbreak of war in 1642, John Reading was a canon of Canterbury and Rector of Chartham. He was sequestered by Parliament, congratulated Charles in this oration, and was restored to office to die at Chartham on 26 October, 1667. In September 1662, Henry Oxinden wrote to his wife that he wished "Mr. Reading could procure me that [certificate] at Tenterden"; see Gardiner, ed., Oxinden Letters, p. 265-8; cf p. 273; citing Somner, Part 3, p. 127

    Who was Richard Bradshaw? one Henry Bradshaw was headmaster of Wye Grammar School during the 1640s; Oxenden's son went there; did he have a son? brother? Check Wye Church and Wye College, Orwin and Williams -- ref. Oxinden Letters, p. 126. and check A. E. Everitt, Community of Kent, 1640-1660.

    John Reading also wrote Christmas Revived: Or An Answer to Certain Objections Made Against the Observation of a Day in Memory of our Saviour Christ his Birth (for John Andrews, 1660; LT 1053(4) dated 12 Dec.

    Richard Bradshaw's formal verses appear double-columned below Reading's speech, given here in full.

Dread Soveraign!

    1. BE pleased to know that your Majesties loyal Subjects, the Mayor, Jurates, and Commons of this your Town and Port of Dover, seriously minding the admirable work of God's Mercy in your Majesties Deliverances, Preservations and restitution unto your long afflicted People, cannot but enquire for some Remonstrance of their due thankfulnesse to God, and Declaration of their Joy of your Majesties peaceable, and safe Return into your Kingdomes.

    2. Nor can they find any means in their power here so to accommodate, As the presentation of your Majesty with this holy Book, commanding our Allegiance and faithful Obedience to our Soveraigne Lord, God's immediate Vice-gerent over us on Earth.

    3. And if we may light our Taper to this Sun, we must say it is God's eternal will, in the fulness of time revealed for Mans salvation: The golden Pot of Heavenly Manna fitting every age, and palate, wherewith God having fed his Israell for a time, said of this selected Homer, of the same (sufficient for every man to salvation) recondatur posteris.

    4. Nor may we be diffident of your Majesties gracious acceptance hereof, considering your invincible love of truth (according to the estimate thereof, by the Prince after God's own heart) better then thousands of gold and silver; 'tis the Treasure hid in the Lord's field, the inestimable riches of his mercy in Christ our Life, and that through which we shall prolong our dayes in the Land; the royal Ornament of holy Princes, which they carry as the Symbolum of God's presence with them and blessing on them.

    5. No more shall we add concerning this tabernacle of God's testimony, whose beauty and riches are within, but our hearty prayer to the Almighty, that it may be our happy auspicium Regni to your sacred Majesty, and as the Arke at Obed Edom's house, a blessing, causing all to prosper, and the good Lord God say Amen, and let all God's people present say Amen, Amen.

In reditum exoptatissimum Regi' Majestatis Sacratissim'
apud Dubrenses.
Votum pro Rege, Lege, & Grege.

Nomov empsixov tov Basilea Vocat Aristoteles.

Carolus secundus Vivat Rex;
Rediviva jam tandem currat Lex.
Exultent vere Protestantes,
Exulent nec non veri Recusantes.

5:           Exurgat Deus, & dissipentur inimici Regis.

Nomos empsuxos o Basileus. Rex viva Lex.

Vivida Lex noster Rex, nostri Spiritus oris,
Luminibus lux, cujus & est absentia morte,
Pejor. Juda Leo juvenis sit, simus & Agni;
10: Dumq; lupi, & Vulpes stupidi metuunt, fugiuntq;
Pastor adest noster: Deus en miranda peregit,
Fit caput Angelli summum lapis ipse relictus:
Nam sua sceptra tenet Rex noster, legiser Ille,
Cujus & Herculei scymni ira rebellibus est par:
15: Sed sua conspicuum comitas sibi ducet honorem;
Unde timete Deum verum Regemq; coletis.

Sic obtestatur Majestatis vestr' perenni servorum
humilimus, R. B.
Regis ad exemplum totis componitur orbis.
Qualis Rex, talis Grex.

Upon the most desired return of the Kings most Sacred
Majesty at Dover.
An humble Sute, or Supplication
For King, and Law, and the whole Nation.

The King is Law's life Aristotle cries.
Stopt be that mouth which Royal Law defies.

May Charles the second King, live long and Raign;
The Lawes concur at length reviv'd again:
5:            Let Protestants rejoyce from bondage free,
Let non-conformists each Exiled be.

Let God Arise, and the King's Enemies
Scatter'd shall be with their Hyprocrisies.

The King is a living Law.
10: Our King's a lively Law, our Nostrils breath,
Light of our Eyes, whose absence worse then death.
 Judah's a Lyons Whelp, let us Lambes be;
Since Wolves, and Foxes shamed, Fear, and Flee;
Our Shepheard's come, great wonders God hath done,
15: What was dispis'd is now th'head Corner stone:
For He the Scepter beareth our Law-giver,
Whose wrath's a Lyon fell to the bad liver:
Yet his free Mercy will Him Glory bring,
Hence fear ye God, and honour ye the King.

So prayeth the most humble of your Majesties continual
Subjects, Rich. Bradshaw.
Printed in the year 1660.

"When Charles King of England"
[undated: after 25 May]

   Title: [missing] The second part, to the same Tune. / [cut] / [text] / London, printed for F. Grove dwelling on Snow-hill. Entred according to order.

   Wing: Not listed.

   Copies: Blackletter broadside. O Firth b. 20 (25). Rpt. in Ebsworth, 9: 788.

   This item is the second half of a ballad, printed on one side only, that has been bound in with Englands Captivity. This title is the catch-phrase of the chorus; Ebsworth suggests "Charles, King of Engalnd, Safe on Shore," and reports that the cut -- angelic host top left -- some mounted; figure with sword and book in cloud top right; castle bottom left, host of sodiers bottom right gesturing towards the angelic troops top left appeared on Nathaniel Butter's Good Newes to Christemdome of 1620 (9:788).

The second part, to the same Tune.

GOod Subjects and they
That lov'd him did pray
but Rebels did wish the ship
Were cast away
5:           for fear Divine Justice
Should turn them all ore,
When Charles King of England is safe set on shore.

The joy that did ring
Just at his landing
10: did pierce the high heavens with
GOD save the KING.
the Rocks in an Eccho
As loudly did roare,
To see Charls the Second come safely, &c.

15: The Trumpets did sound
The Cliffes did rebound,
with hands lift to heaven,
And knees on the ground,
they all did give thanks and
20: True praises good store,
To see Charls the second come, &c.

The Cannons at Dover,
And every rover,
did thunder with joy that
25: The King was come over,
some Caps were cast up
That they never saw more,
For joy Charls the second was safe, &c.

Men, women, and boyes,
30: Did make such a noyse
they made Kent & Christendom
King with their joyes.
such high exclamations
Were nere there before,
35: For joy Charls the second was, &c.

The true men of Kent
And all that was in't,
deserve their good deeds should be
Publish'd in Print.
40:           a Loyall just County
And sufferers sore.
Till Charls King of England was, &c.

Put on the rich Robe
Thy Crown and the Globe
45:           for thou hast been well nigh as
Patient as Job,
such intricate hazzards were
Nere known before,
But thanks be to God thou art safe set, &c.

50: May every sinew
Of him strong continue,
true peace and prosperty
Raise his Revennue,
God blesse my Lord Monke too
55: We humbly implore,
By whom Charls the Second got safely on shore.

FINIS London, printed for F. Grove dwelling on Snow-hill. Entred according to order.

Vox Populi, the Voice of the People
28 May

   Written in two parts, the first set of thirty heroic stanzas are not composed in quatrains such as Dryden had used to praise Cromwell, but rhymed pentamenter couplets organized into fours. The second part, an "Elogium Carolinum," is both more learned and more formally composed, and the poet even claims to be able to outdo Virgil since he is singing of so noble a ruler. Since these verses were reissued in Edinburgh, it is tempting to imagine that the poet of Laetitiae Caladonicae had them in mind when composing the satires of that poem. Lots of exaggerated claims are made on behalf of the peoples willingness, skill, and desire to fight foreign nations and extend the new king's empire.

    The brief character sketch of Charles in the Elogium is vague and generalizing; contrast with Flecknoe's portrait.

Vox Populi,
His Sacred Majesty 398 happy return congratulated
Thirty Heroic Stanza's

BRitain behold thy King, and Royal Head,
For whom thy Nobles and Plebeians bled,
Thy common Saftey, Glory, and the Sun
That ends the Night which in the Sire begun.

5: Whom absent thou so long hast doted on,
The Heav'ns399propitious to thy wish hath thrown
Into thine400Arms, that thou might know and see
T'was401his Exile commenc'd thy Misery.

They were thy sins, not his that did engage
10: Him in so sad, yet Royall Pilgrimage,402
Whence he returns with Reliques stor'd to heal
Thy Sick Estate, and widow'd Common-weal.

A Nobler Prince ne're wore thy Diadem,
Of all that issu'd from that Noble Stem;
15: Affliction made him wise, and Wisdom good,
He is the best of Princes and of Blood.

Nor his return that made the Gallique State
Do homage to his Sword; nor his whom Fate
Design'd the jarring houses to compose,
20: Nor his that did, divided Britain close.

Produc'd such quiet to his State, as we
Hope from his Soveraign Sacred Majestie,
His People's only joy, their life, their love,
To whom all hearts as to their Center move.

25: He, he it is that can Fanatique rage,
And Bedlams Quakers fury disengage,
The Elders and the Miters shall not jar,
Zeal and Religion shall not henceforth war.

But both united Zealous Puritan,
30: And the Religious, Loyal Protestant
Shall shake the tripple Crown, and make it know
We have Religion in the life, not show.

For now our Keepers and our chains are gone,
Pluto bestirs how to secure his own,
35: Least of his despair should drive them down to Hell,
They there attempt to frame a Common-weal;

That lech'rous House long Pandariz'd to please
The rampant humours of State Tyrannies,
The Monsters that for Laws forth from it came,
40: Would blister any modest tongue to name.

They have out-done their Ancestors in crimes,
And Acted past belief in Future times;
Religion, Law like twins of grief lament
Th'invenom'd sting of that Tail-Parliament.

45: The Bloody Cannibals would shame to own
Those Hellish Acts, this monstrous House hath done;
And cruell 403 Tartar, barb'rous Arabs they
Go not to Hell, through such a sanguine way.

But now those Meteors which we fear'd and felt,
50: Are by a Northern Star to vapours melt:
O may they fall in Lethe's stream, that so
Forgetting us, we may them never know.

And now our Bells report unto the Sky
The restitution of our Liberty;
55: And sacred Flames have purg'd th'infected air,
The heavens now smile to welcome home the Heir.

Since then thou art most glorious Prince return'd,
See how thy love our loyall 404 hearts hath burn'd;
Be thou the head, and we will Members be,
60: Obedient Members to thy Laws and thee.

Nor fear thou Treason now, we love too well
To breed up Vipers that are hatch'd in Hell:
Nor shall thy heart to thee more faithfull prove,
Then shall thy People's fix'd and constant love.

65: No greater care doth on our spirits lye,
Then how to care for (Charls) 405 thy Majesty;
To see thee glorious, in a glorious Throne,
No great care have we then thee alone.

Men train'd for War attend on thy commands
70: With Marshall Weapons in their warlike hands;
What King more blest, what Subjects happier be,
Thour't blest by them, they happy made by thee.

Nor may'st thou boast of some few Cohorts, we
Auxiliar Legions here present to thee,
75: Whose daring swords do wait upon thy will,
To save thine allies, and thy Foes to spill.

A Legion yet of English lads there are
Born for to fight, and bred up in the Warre:406
Let Monck but head them, stubborn France shall bow,
80: And humbly set her Crown upon they brow.

The Austrian house shall shake and quake for fear,
The Lyon's Paw should the spread Eagle teare,407
And force the vaster Continent to come;
To this your Isle for to receive its doom.408

85: Our hearts and Purses, we will ope'together,
Ask which thou wilt, we will deny thee neither:409
The first are thine, thou hast them in possession,
The latter shall be thine by free Concession.

Command and have; who for a Prince 410 so good,
90: Would spare to spend his treasure or his blood:
We have no riches, but to spend for thee,
Our riches whil'st thou want'st are Povertie.411

Nor is your land lesse rich, then that of France,
And for her king, dares pound for pound advance;
What they do by constraint, we willing doe;
We pray thee to receive, and thank thee too.

And though rich Spain be underlaid with Gold,
We've English Brasse, will force it from their hold; 412
95: We let them drudge to bring the Indies home,
The greater part unto your Coffers come.

The watry continent owns none but you
As Lord; your Fleet did it long since subdue:
Nor Spain, nor Belgium dares, without you please,
100: To give them leave, appear upon the Seas.

We have provided for you, such a Fleet
As makes the Belgians tremble when they see't:
They've 413 felt the vengeance of our Guns, and now
They think it safer then to fight, to bow.

105: Brave Mountague 414, he rules upon the Main,
And gallant Monck commands the Martiall 415 Train,
That, shall your Forreign foes ship down to hell,
This shall Domestick flames and fury quell.

See how the People throng unto the Town,
110: To see your brows invested with a Crown:
And thus by me they doe Congratulate
Your blest return, to this now-blessed State.

Long live our C'sar, our Augustus long,
May he triumph over our hearts and tongue's,416
115: Our hearts shall love, our tongues his praises sing:
Both heart and tongue, now cry, God save the King.

Floreat Rex Angli'. Floreat, floreat.

Majesty] OC; Majesties EN

Heav'ns] OC; heav'ns EN

thine] thy EN

T'was] 'Twas EN

Royall Pilgrimage] Royal pilgrimage EN

cruell] cruel EN

loyall] Loyall EN

(Charls)] (Charles) EN

Warre] War EN

spread Eagle teare] Spread-Eagle tear EN

doom] dome EN

neither:] neither; EN

Prince] prince EN

Povertie] povertie EN

hold;] hold? EN

They've] EN; The've copytext

Mountague] Montague EN

Martiall] Martial EN

tongue's] tong's EN

Elogium Carolinum, Or, a brief Panegyrick to the praise of his Illustrious Ma-jesty, our most Serene Soveraign Charls the II. by
grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and
Ireland; Defender of the Faith.

YOu thrice three sisters, all ye sacred Nine,
Apollo's 417 darlings! Helicon Divine,
And sweet Castalian Groves forsake, distill
Immortall Verses from my numerous quill;418
5: And whilest one better then 'n'as, 419 I
Doe sing, then grant sweet Maro's melodie:
Would you I tell his birth? Tis 420 one who springs
From the Illustrious 421 stock of ancient Kings,
Whose Sires, and Grandsires fame and lasting glory,
10: Not any former Hero, or their story
Can parralel,422 but let our Muse survey
His proper virtues, which themsevles display
Through every lineament,423 shall I commend
His outward form, my verse would have no end:
15: His stately height doth so advance his Crest,
As if in worldly things thee were no rest:
He emulates the skie, and would fetch down
A starry Diadem to grace his Crown,
Nature herself determin'd him to be,
20: A Royall C'dar, no inferiour Tree;
What shall I of his comely Visage Tell?
Wherein both Majesty and mildnese dwell:
These are his outward gits; what bold pen dare
His inward undertake for to declare?
25: His large endowments do exceed the station,
And narrow bounds of humane Declaration,
His Learning, Valour, Bounty and great spirit
Accomplish him throughout, for to inherit
Paternal Kingdomes, and to govern all
30: The Nations in this vast terrestiall ball;
When like to furious Mars, he doth advance
To his unhappy foes, his dreadfull lance
Is tipp'd with speedy death, no spell can charm
The Conquering force of his victorious arm;
35: When bloody conflicts and stern War asswage
Its fatall violence, and his just rage
Appeas'd, when cloath'd in milder purple, he
Excels just 'acus 424 in clemency;
Then glorious Hero since the Gods ordain
40: That England shall be happy in thy reigne;
And that thy Potent arm shall rule and sway
The Brittish Scepter, (long'd for many a day)
And that we shall regain our old renown
And usuall lustre by our Monarchs Crown:
45: Then let thy radiant brightnesse quite dispell
The clouds of all sedition, and refell [sic
Phanatick errours, whilst the skie shall ring
With one applause, God save our noble King.


Apollo's] Appollo's EN

quill;] quill? EN

'n'as,] AENeas EN

Tis] 'Tis EN

Illustrious] Illustruious EN

parralel] parallel EN

lineamENt] lieamENt EN

'acus] Aeacus EN

H. H. B.
A Poem to his Maiestie
on His Landing
[28 May]

    Descriptions of crowds eagerly travelling to Dover to meet Charles were not uncommon in works published during the days immediately following his return. Here most of the commonplaces are well represented, especially the emphasis on a general desire to see this spectacular occasion. This version opens with a cosmogenic analogy -- Charles creates the world by his return -- which develops into a series of biblical references that, in turn, slide into analogies with classical mythology and Virgilian georgic. This displacement of biblical by classical allusions is singularly apt since the interregnum governments had legitimated their authority by constant reference to, and use of, the Old Testament. Against this tendency, Charles's return reintroduces the neo-classicism associated with the culture of the Stuarts. Writers who supported Cromwell had commonly identified him with the olive-branch of peace, so the careful conditional usage in l. 18 neatly marks the structural transition from biblical to classical while also suggesting how the Restoration really began with the protector's death in 1658. Severalo other poets explained that the years which Charles had spent abroad were a providentially ordained education in foreign politics that could only benefit him and his kingdom now he had returned to rule.

   Only one copy of this poem seems to have survived. I have been unable to identify the author.

THe Spirit that inform'd this Soul-lesse Frame,
We read, first on the face oth'Waters came;
And You our Quickning Spirit Heaven sent
This sad Nation by the same Element.
5: With eyes upheld, Knees bow'd, glad hearts, clasp'd hands
Upon the shore as numerous as its sands
People stand, and your unseen Fleet descrie,
So much their joyes, see further than their Eie.
The City's empti'd, all towards Dover strive,
10: And like starv'd Bees for sun-shine leave their hive.
Some panting up to the proud Cliff ascend,
And being too low still there, on tip-toes stand:
Nor will that serve, upon this Castle lie
Perspectives planted,425 stilts too for the eie.
15: The Arke when in the Deluge toss'd design'd
The swift-wing'd Dove, the long-lost Land to find.
Had we the Bird, This Land without all doubt
Would send her forth, your Ark for to find out.
The Olive Branch that should this Nation shade
20: With Peace, growes now at Sea about Your head.
The floting world once of each kind held two,
Yet now grown bigger can not follow You.
See your long-captiv'd People ready stand
To loose their Fetters by your Sacred hand.
25: The fair Andromeda thus hopelesse stood.
Allotted for the cruell Monsters food:
When she espi'd her God-like Persius come
And by that Monsters death reverse her Doom.
Your Harbingers, your Acts of grace, were here
30: Long since, And told the Guilty You were near.
'Twas to our Saviour's comming then not long
Men knew, when once good will and peace were sung.
One year of Grace Heav'n did to all allow,
But this unhappy Land stood need of two.426
35: Think (Injur'd Prince) your wrongs were all well ment,
You were to Travail, not to Exile sent.
With sev'ral Countries wisdoms fraught you'r come
Like the glad Bee from flours with honey home.
For common good the Subject Bees perhaps thus drive
40: Rudely sometimes their Master from the Hive.
Alasse your Enemies did but for You
What fondest Parents for their Children doe;
Tis true, your woods they sold,427 your Lands, your Lead,
But yet they'l leave you all when they are dead.

F I N I S.

.úú13. i.e. telescopes. I have not been able to find out whether there really were optical devices made available to the public.

.úúOliver Cromwell -- the "Monster" of line 28 -- had died in 1658.

.úúThe House of Commons put an end to the public use of royal woodlands; 18 June 1660.

H. H. B.
The Noble Progresse
T. H.
Iter Boreale, the Second part

[undated: 28 May]

   The model for this reissued ballad was clearly Robert Wild's Iter Boreale, perhaps the single most popular set of broadside verses published on the eve of the Restoration. Dryden glances at Wild's panegyric to Monck in the Essay of Dramatic Poesy, for exemplifying the decay of poetry into popular journalism; everyone on at the Exchange was reading this instance of terrible versification. Reprinted in POAS.

    The version of this ballad ascribed to "T. H." and published by Henry Brome, tries to cash in on the famiiar and popular title, but the text makes no attempt at imitating Wild's versification. Ebsworth noted that The Noble Progresse is the same as T.H.'s Iter Boreale, with some variants, most notably the repeated catch. I have taken for copytext the slightly longer version from The Noble Progresse which includes the anti-sectarian refrain as chorus to each verse paragraph. Substantive variants appear in notes, and suggest rather more about how carelessly ballads were composed in the print shop than the date of issue of either.

   In 1860, Wilkins included The Noble Progress commenting:

This curious street ballad, the original or which is in blackletter, was discovered forming part of the lining of an old trunk. It is, probably, unique. The first part relates to the final dismission of the Rump, and the election, with the concurrence of Monk, of a free parliament, or Convention, which voted the restoration of the exiled King. The second part describes the triumphal progress of Charles II. from Dovor [sic] to Whitehall, accomaonied by the princiapl nobility and gentry of the kingdom.

The Noble Progresse
Or, A true Relation of the Lord
Generall Monks
Political Proceedings with the Rump, the calling in
the Secluded Members,
their transcendent Uote for his
Sacred MAjesty, with his Reception at
Dover, and Royall conduct through the City of London,
to his famous Palace
at Whitehall
The tune is, when the Scottish warrs began.


GOod people hearken428 to my call,
Ile tell you all, what did befall,
and hapnd of late;
Our Noble Valiant Generall Monk,
5: Came to the Rump, who lately stunk,
with their Councell of State
Admiring what this man would doe.
His secret mind there's none could knew,
They div'd into him as much as they could,
10: George would not be won with their silver nor 429 gold.
The Sectarian Saints at this lookt blew,
With all the rest of the factious crew,
They vapour'd awhile and were in good hope;
But now they have nothing left but the Rope.430

15: Another invantion 431 then they sought,
Which long they wrought for to be brought
to clasp him with they,
Quoth Vane and Scot, Ile tel you what,
Wee'l have our Plot and he shall not,
20:           wee'l carry the sway.
Let's Vote him a thousand pounds a yeare,
And Hampton Court for he and his Heire,
Indeed quoth 432 George ye're 433 Free-Parliament men
To cut a Thong out of another 434 mans skin.
25:           the Sectarians. &c.

They sent him then with all his Hosts
To break our Posts and raise our Ghosts,
which was their intent
To cut our Gates and Chains all down,
30: Unto the ground this trick they found,
to make him be shent:
This Plot the Rump did so accord,
To cast an odium on my Lord,
But in this task, he was hard put unto't
35: 'Twas enough to infect both his horse and his foot,
the Sectarians, &.

But when 435 my Lord perceiv'd that night,
What was their spight he brought to light,
their knaveries all.
40: The Parliament of Forty eight,
Which long did wait, came to him streight,
to give him a fall
And some Phanaticall people knew,
That George would give them 436 their fatall due,
45: Indeed 437 he did requite them agen,
For he 438 pul'd the Monster out of his Den,
the Sectarian, &c.

To the House our worthy Parliament,
With good intent they bodly went
50:           to Vote home the King.
And many hundred people more,
Stood at the doore and waited 439 for
good tidings to bring,
Yet 440 some in the House had their hands much 441 in blood
55: And in 442 great opposition like Traytors they stood,
But 443 yet I believe it is very well known
That those that were for him were twenty to one.
But the Sectarian Saints at this lookt blew,
With all the rest of the factious crew
60: they vapour'd awhile and were in great hope
But now they have nothing left but the Rope.

THey cal'd the League and Covenant in,
To 444 read again to every man,
but what comes 445 next.
65: All Sequestrations null and void,
The people said none should be paid,
for 446 this was the Text.
For as I heard al the people say
They voted King Charles the first 447 of May,
70: Bonefires buring, Bells did ring.
And our street did eccho with God blesse ye King.
At this the Sectarian Saints lookt blew,
And all the rest of the factious crew,
they vapour'd awhile and were in good hope,
75: But now they have nothing left but the Rope.

Our General then to Dover goes
In spight of Foes or deadly blowes
saying, Viveleroy.
And all the Glories of the Land,
80: At his command there they 448 did stand,
in Tryumph and Joy
Good Lord what a sumptuous sight 'twas to see
Our good Lord General fall on his knee,
To Welcome home his Majesty.
85: And own his sacred Soveraingty,
But the Sectarians, &c.

Then all the 449 Worthy Noble Train,
Came back again with Charlemain
our Soveraign great.
90: The Lord Mayor in his Scarlet Gown,
Ins 450 Chain so long went through the Town,
in Pompe and State.
The Livery-men each line 451 the way,
Upon this great Tryumphant day,
95: Five rich Maces carried before,
And my Lord himselfe the Sword he bore,
Then Viveleroy the Gentry sing,
For General Monk rode next to the King,
With Acclamations, shouts and cryes,
100: I thought they would have rent 452 the Skies.

The Conduits ravished with Joy,
As I might say, did run all day
great plenty of Wine.
And every Gentleman of note,
105: In's Velvet coat that could be got,
in glorie did shine.
There were all the Paeres and Barrons bold,
Richly clad in Silver and Gold,
Marched through the streets so brave,
110: No greater Pomp a king could have:
At this the Sectarians, &c.

And thus conducted all along,
Throughout the throng till he did come
unto White-hall.
115: Attended by these Noble-men.
Bold Heroe's 453 kin that brought him in,
with the Generall.
Who was the man that brought him home,
And plac'd him on his Royall Throne.
120: 'Twas General Monk did doe the thing,
So God preserve our gracious King.
And now the Sectarians &c.

Printed for F. Coles, T. Vere and W. Gilbertson.

hearken] all hark Iter

nor] and Ite

refrain not in Iter

invantion] invention Iter

Indeed quoth] Quoth Iter

George ye're] George Indeed you're Iter

another] anothers Noble

But when] So when Iter

them 'em Iter

Indeed] For indeed Iter

For he] He Iter

doore and waited] door which waited Iter

Yet] But Iter

had their hands much] whose hands were iter

And in] In

But] And Iter

To] To be Iter

comes] came Iter

for] So Iter

first] second Iter

there they] there Iter

the] his iter

Ins] With's Iter

line] side iter

rent] rend iter

Heroe's] Hectors Iter

Thomas Mayhew
Upon the Joyfull and Welcome Return

29 May

    Lots of neologisms eg "clementest", "stook"; northern dialect sometimes seems to come through??

    a brief Ottoman moment when the Army are figured as tyrannical janissaries; notice Ottoman interests in Brett and Higons.

   Mayhew spends a good deal of time bemoaning the past conditions that will come to an end; he seems specially vehement about the evils of war and religious freedom.

    According to Wing, Mayhew wrote an elegy to Cromwell; MH unicum broadside.

   Of Thomas Mayhew I can find no record in Wood,

[ornamental header]
Upon the Joyfull and Welcome
Of his Sacred Majesty,
CHARLS the Second, &c.
To His Due and Indubitate Right of
Government over these his Majestie's King-
doms and Dominions.

REach me a Quill from some bright Angel's Wing,
To write the Welcomes of our dearest King;
Whil'st Vulgar Pens, in modest silence, say,
This lofty Work exceeds their Systema.
5: And first like those, whom mighty Joys surprize,
Let me weep dry the fountains of mine Eyes;
Quitt head and heart of Grief, that All may be
The spacious Organ of a Jubilee:
For difficult it is to apprehend,
10: Much more t'expresse the Joys that thus transcend.

If Peace be welcome to a Nation, rent
With twenty years intestine Discord, spent
And 454 opprest with armed Rapine, and unjust
Exactions, made a sacrifice to Lust
15: And Tyranny, and delug'd with a Floud
Of Vulgar, mix'd with choise and sacred Bloud:
When Persecution stains the reverend Gown,
And Priests before insulting Rage fall down:
When God's Anoynted, and our Nostrill's Breath,
20: By Treason never Parallel'd,455 is quench'd in death.
Hence, hence those Tears: Go read Illustrious Men,
Recorded by some Venerable Pen.
Extract from each his Vertues, and you'l find
Th'Elixir formed in that Hero's mind.
25: There was King David and his wiser Son,
Without their great Crimes, modelled in One.
Would you know Adam, or like what a Man
God once in Eden walk'd; no likenesse can
Better inform you than the Soul he wore:
30: Never was King so like to God before.
This was the Prince, whom we did late behold
Unto his Grave in horrid murder roll'd:
Those, Brutus-like, embrued in his gore,
Whom he, as sons, had bred, and blest before.
35: Hold, Muse, thou wilt retrive our antient cries,
Thou Panegyricks mean'st, not Elegies.

If Plenty with the Poor may welcome find,
Where welcomer, than to a Land design'd
To ruine, and the Monster, War, a prey?
40: Whose greedy throat hath swallow'd up, in pay,
And pillage, quarter, plunder, and in prize,
By force and fraud, gifts and gratuities:
The Bounty of his Saints, the Spoils oth'Loyall,
The Lands oth'Crown, and all th'Issue Royall,
45: The Sacrifice from off the Altar took,
(But Oh! the Coal that to that Morsell stook! 456)
All these, with Contributions, and Excise,
And Customes, not his Gluttony suffice,
But fifty Subsidies he snaps, in short;
50: And lest his stretch'd Maw shrinck, there's ready for't
Fifths, Twentieths, Tenths, All, Treason could contrive,
To keep the ravenous Prodigy alive.
On all our pleasant things, and every good,
His hand he spread, like an o're-whelming floud.

55: If Liberty restor'd may welcome have
From free-born men, enthrall'd, and made a slave
By their own Slaves, who must not onely pay
The Lording Janizary, but obey;
Not yield up their Revenues, but the Right
60: Of their Inheritance to armed Might;
Whose Laws and Charters, like the Gordian-knot,
Are not disputed, but assunder cut.
Whose Heritage by strangers are possest,
And in whose Habitations Aliens rest;
65: Whose necks to grievious Persecution bow,
Nor may their Labours intermission know.

If Settlement in State may joy a Land,
Dissolv'd and broken by the boystrous hand
Of Civill Wars, from its harmonious Chime
70: Of Monarchy untun'd, but th'sawcy crime
Of potent Faction, from its form and frame
Shook into novell Chaos, and a name
Of State unknown, whilst its old Church and State
Stand on their head, the feet predominate.

75: If Discipline and Doctrine welcome be
Unto a Christian Churche's Hierarchy;
A Church, late excellent for both, but now
Confusion written on her mournfull Brow;
Whose Gold is pallid grown, whose pure, refin'd,
80: And radiant gold, its splendor hath declin'd;
Whose polish'd Stones, of late her Ornament,
Are now not onely cast by, with contempt,
But Hewn in pieces, that, the Pillars thrown,
The Cath'lick Building might at once fall down;
85: And in its stead, as many Sects arise,
As Jesuits and Fanaticks could devise.
Its Liturgy with wicked scandall stain'd,
Its reverend Orders Superstition feign'd.
The Holy place to use profane employ'd
90: For Beasts; at best, by men unqualifi'd,
Ill-principl'd, worse taught, or not at all,
But mock'd and blow'd, made ev'n by these a Stall.
Vain foolish Things her Junior Priests have told,
Not touch'd the sins, which did her Cure with-hold;
95: But these cri'd up, for blessed Reformation,
(The ready way to gain a Sequestration)
False lying burdens brought, and hence extrude
As well her Fractions as her Servitude:
These have not wag'd with God spirituall force,
100: Like Jacob, for a Blessing, but a Curse:
Whose ignorance hath onely made them bold,
To censure every Principle that's old:
Who, for pretence, can tedious pray'rs extend,
And Nonsense preach, and Treason without end.
105: And in one Sermon damne (would God agree)
More souls, then that choice vessel sav'd in three.
Hence our Defections, hence it is we run
Into by-paths of Separation.
This way's not right, and the old Standard's down,
110: And each Enthusiast sets up his owne;
From which unpaled platt, more Sects have sprung,
Then if the Dregs of Amsterdam were wrung.

But see a glorious Sunne arising, bright
As morning Titan crown'd with radiant light!
115: Who long, in an injurious Cloud conceal'd,
Exerted hath his Lustre, and reveal'd
His all-refreshing beams, and with him brings,
To our blest Hemisphear, these welcome things:
Thy King, O England, that best Name, which wears
120: Thy Glory-in it, stamps the Characters
Of Honour and Renown upon thy brow,
Whilst forreign Nations to thy Triumphs bow;
Thy Prince, O England, whom thy rebell Crime
Forc'd into civill arms, in early time.
125: And next, (to say no more) to Banishment;
Schools too severe and strict, but that he spent
His time so well, that he hath brought from thence,
Th'Endowments of a most accomplish'd Prince:
Which acquir'd Gemms, set in his native Gold,
130: Heav'ns eye nought more illustrious can behold.

Old Poets, hush, be still; your Pages swell
With weak and poor Romances, when ye tell
Your story's of the Grecian Traveller,
Or Him, that wandred from the Trojan warre.
135: They never prov'd such angry Fates as he,
Nor such Encounters met by Land or Sea;
O're which his Valour, like an high Tide run,
And vanquish'd what so e're it could not shun:
Nor to their Countryes, when at length they came,
140: So much of vertue brought, nor so much fame:
Witnesse, That for his Crown he would not foyle,
With aid of forreign arms, his native soyl;
And that he brings his old Religion home,
Maugre the Circean charms and arts of Rome.

145: This, England, This is He, that brings thee now
After thy flood of woes the Olive-bough.
To make thee know, that Deluge could not cease,
Till this thy Dove were home return'd in peace:
To let thee know, that Heav'n would not agree
150: To grant thy Peace, till made 'twixt Him and Thee.
His are those Feet which welcome claim by right,
Bringing those Tidings, which none other might;
Tidings of peace on Earth, which the most High
Committed onely to his Embassy:
155: For Heav'n decreed no Mercy to dispence,
But through the Conduct of his Influence?
Nor any but his sacred presence shou'd,
Stop the long-running Issue of thy blood.

This, England, This is He, who brings thee back
160: That Amalthean-horn, 457 thou long didst lack.
Each now may sit beneath his Vine in peace,
And eat the plenty of his Field's encrease:
Not labour still, and still the poorer wax,
Nor sell his bread to pay his monthly Tax.
165: This is your Oedipus, that doth explain
The riddle of your Cheat, and Sphinx is slain:
Your Theseus this, that hath the Monster sped,
Who on your Noble sons so long hath fed.
Your Hercules, that hath destroy'd the Boar,
170: Which did your rich Arcadian fields devour.
Yet your Injustice thus just Heav'n controul'd,
Who would enjoy your Birth-rights, His with-hold;
And set Oppressours your own rights t'invade,
Till his Prerogative and Rights were paid;
175: Your Honours and Estates by vassail hands
Usurp'd, whilst you usurp'd his Crown and Lands;
Servants suborned over you to raign,
Whilst you the Scepter of your Prince disdain.

This, This is He, that breaks those Iron-bands
180: And Gyves, that fetter'd thy gaull'd feet and hands:
Who, like St. Peter's Angell, whilst thou sleep'st
Betwixt thy Souldiers, a true Vigill keeps.
And takes thy fetters off, sets ope thy dores,
And thy excluded Liberty restores.
185: And how doth blushing Anarchy decline,
And droop, now Monarchy begins to shine?
How do the Circles of false greatnesse fall
Into their first simple Originall?
Those blazing Stars, which late aloft did climbe,
190: How falne, nought else appear but froth and slime?
How do those aery Pageants melt away,
Before the glorious beams of this bright day?
They, who but now, with strength of Arms and Laws,
Did fortify their greatness, and their Cause;
195: And made our Lands, our Lives, our Liberties,
At best, their Vassail, oft, their Sacrifice;
How, like a morning mist, are they dispers'd,
Our Rights asserted, and their State revers'd?
So true it is; Earth's glories once must fall,
200: But laid in blood, they cannot stand at all.

This, This is He, that all thy Breaches bounds,
And binds up all thy State and Churches-wounds;
That to thy Bruises brings restoring Balme,
And layes thy tedious Tempest in a Calme:
205: That sets in Tune thy long disorder'd sphears,
And with composed notes delights thine ears;
Reparis the runies of thy batter'd frame,
And re-impresses thy old stamp and name:
Enstyles thee Kingdome, such as Heav'n thinks fit
210: To be, and makes thy Government like it;
Rears up the broken Pillars of thy Peers,
And fixes thy secluded Commoners;
Refines thy Temple's Gold, files off its rust,
Elects her precious stones from heaps of Dust.
215: And sets them in her Tyre, discharging thence
Those Cheats of Ignorance and Impudence.

And now, O Land, with blushes dye thy cheek,
Sink on thy lowly knee, and humbly seek
Thy God's and Prince's pardon: Ah! too long
220: Hast thou thy self undone, in doing wrong
Unto thy Sov'raign's right: thy Treason hath
Kept off these blessings, and drawn down the wrath
Of vengefull Justice: but Light now breaks in,
And undeceives thee, and unmasques thy Sin.
225: Great Providence, whose wayes are too profound
And intricate, for human skill to sound,
In this its time, in Men and Devil's despight,
Hath brought at once thy Crime and Cure to light.
'Tis true; Thou in thy Judgments might'st have read
230: Thy sinne, but that, like 'gypt, hardened.
What ment the Elements? Why all enrag'd,
As if in Wars against the World engag'd?
The Fire? what flames have in thy Land appear'd,
And turn'd to Dust the Piles thy Grandsires rear'd.
235: What antient Town hath scap'd its rage? And hath
Not this express'd, how fierce thy Maker's wrath?
The Ayre? What Tempests have the Fabrick shook,
As if the Poles from under Heav'n were took,
And earth in pieces rending? What from hence
240: But thy confusion shewn, and Heav'ns offence?
The Earth? How sparingly of late it yields,
Unto the Ploughman's toyle; as if the fields,
By some divine instinct were taught, that they
Ought not the Disobedient to obey?
245: The Seas besides their rude Invasions made
Upon this Iland, how have they convey'd
Prodigious creatures to thy frighted shore,
Such as the Nymphs of Thames ne're saw before?
To shew, thy Continent, at that time, held
250: No lesse a Prodigie, so parallel'd?
But these were Heaven's Hieroglyphicks, since
Interpreted to thy Intelligence;
Reveal'd in season. And thy Prince's Grace
Extends his Mercy, free as thy Embrace;
255: Who, with thy other blessings, Pardon brings,
The freest and the clementest 458 of Kings;
Who from advantage of his power defies
The vengeance of his private injuries;
Whose Sword, for want of use, may neither rust,
260: Nor surfett with the bloud of the unjust;
Who punishes the Ill, the Good rewards,
Protecteth Peace, and Truth and Justice guards;
Who for Obedience on his Subjects layes
No Rules, but those by which himself obeys
265: His Soveraign Lord; in Arms no lesse expert
Then in the Peacefull Gown sage and disert;
Who as a Tutor to his Church appears,
His Country with a Father's love endears,
What lesse then God inn'd in an human breast
270: Is such a King, of Men and Kings the Best?

O! with what welcome canst thou entertain
This lost Palladium, now retriv'd again?
What Joys canst thou expresse, what Io's sing,
To usher in this rare and Pho/enix King?
275: Unfold obedient arms, and clasp him round,
But with your hearts more than your bodies crown'd:
Unfold those dores, and lodge him there, above
The reach of Envy, in those Towers of Love.
Thy Bells must cease, but let thy Toung still ring
280: That Peal of Loyalty, God blesse the King.
Thy Bonefires must in livelesse dust expire,
But let Allegiance live, like Vestall fire:
Thy Conduits will grow dry of Healthing-wine,
Let Duety be an unexhausted Mine:
285: These Accidents of Love and Joy must end,
But may the Substance without bounds extend:
And by experiecne warn'd, resolve again
No more to quarrell with thy Soveraign;
But make it all thy Practice to obey,
290: And to thy C'sar, what is C'sar's pay.

And here, though Heav'n amazed Earth may tell,
That it hath wrought, ev'n now, a Miracle;
Brought mighty things to passe, to puzzle sense,
And human reason for Intelligence;
295: That the entranced world doth yet scarce know,
Whether it be Reality, or no:
And when the Arme of flesh was tyr'd and spent,
Took up the work, and gav't accomplishment;
To tell the Royalist, there was no need
300: Of him, to bring to passe, what it decreed:
And Rebells, they should fall without a Name,
And not three Kingdomes have, for fun'rall flame:
Yet Heav'n did means and Instruments employ,
Whose merits may not in Oblivion dye.
305: With Bayes no more, the bloody Victour crown,
Nor Conquests, gain'd with thousands slain, renown:
Let Him, in Triumph, through the City ride,
That conquers with his Weapon by his side;
That can an Army, without battail, beat,
310: And every Troop, without a Charge, defeat:
That Gideon-like, with his small handfull, frights
To nothing the distracted Midianites;
That without blows, makes angry War surcease,
And layes his Country in the arms of peace.
315: Who those advantages improves aright,
Which others lost, ensnar'd by Appetite;
From forth whose Loyall and Heroick brest,
His Countrey's love drives his own Interest;
Who knowes Obedience better than a Crown,
320: Which Usurpation cannot make his own:
And such is He, whose Name I need not give,
But as a soul, to make this Poem live;
George Monck, the truly Noble: whose great Name
Shall ever shine'ith Firmament of Fame:
325: We need not Garlands make, nor Statues rayse,
For Him, whose worth is Imag'ry and Bayes;
Nor do his vertues any Herauld need,
Which have their Proclamation from the deed:
What Honour can, or Industry invent,
330: Is but a perishable Monument,
But ne're in Ruines, shall that Name be hid,
Who makes his Country's peace, his Pyramid.

And next to him, there's Honour due to those,
Who, Pho/enix-like, from the old ashes rose;
335: This Legall Parliament: who do not do
Their owne work only, but the Nation's too.
To those our Peers, who sprung from high Descent
Now shine, their King's and Kingdom's Ornament;
And to those Loyall Commons, whose blest Lots
340: Have falne, to be their Country's Patriots;
Whose words have earnest been, like Judah-men,
To bring their Soveraign David home agen:

O! May this three-fold-Cord for ever hold,
And in a lasting Peace these Realms enfold!

H'c ara tuebitur omnes.


And] inked out O1

By Treason never Parallel'd,] ä (Treason unParallel'd), O1 hand corrected

stook: a pile, a mass, esp of hay or straw; also obsolte past participle of "stick." NB OED sb.4: "Coal-mining ... The portion of a pillar of coal left to support the roof" 1st useage, 1826.

ie the horn `of plenty'

ie mildest; from clement; not OED

William Pestell
A Congratulation To His Sacred Majesty

[29 May]

   Despite the "1661" of the titlepage, the moment of these verses is very much that indicated in the title, 29 May.

    DNB: entry for Thomas Pestell (father): vicar of Packington, Leics and chaplain to Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex and eventually royal chaplain; published sermons. In 1644 he resigned his living at Packington to his son Thomas; published elegies and sacred verses. Wife was daughter of Mrs Katherine Carr. 2nd son, William (d. 1696), graduated BA 1634 and MA 1638 from Queen's College, Camb, became rector of Cole-Orton in 1644, "whence he and his wife were driven by the parliamentary soldiers under Sir John Gell. He appears to have resumed his benefice at the Restoration, and in 1677 was instituted to Ravenstone in addition." This seems to be his only publication.

[ornamental header]
His Sacred Majesty,
His safe Arrival, and happy Restauration to
his Three Kingdoms.

AMongst the Giant Wits of these ripe times,
My Pigmy Muse creeps in, to bring her Rimes;
An humble Present, to that Sacred King
Regards the Heart more then the Offering.
5: At our bright Northern Blazing Star's approach,
The Sea his Horse was, and a Ship his Coach:
To bear so rich a burthen, Waves did dance,
And (swell'd with humble pride) strove to advance
Their heads to kisse his Hand; the Fish did play,
10: And leap for joy, making it Holy-day,
Dancing Levoltoes to the whistling Winde,
Which then conspir'd them Musick for to finde:
And (which is wonderfull indeed) they say,
A Regiment of Water Nymphs, that day,
15: Meer Maids, per se, came up in shoals, to sing
A Maiden Caroll to our Virgin King.
Thousands of Dolphins Crown'd (but none from France)
With Stramers Honi soit qui mal y pense,
Rode waiters by; the Whales brought up the Rear,
20: And was resolv'd to have a Frolick there.
Neptune resign'd his Trident, and did swear,
'Twas his by right who was three Kingdoms Heir.
No sooner landed, and Devotions past,
But Canons (to discharge their Duties) haste,
25: And give inteligence from Port to Port,
Speaking his Welcome in a loud Report:
The Bonefires gild each Hill, to whose bright shine,
The Moon grew pale, and did her beams resign.
Quakers grew Lunatick, to see such Fire,
30: And thought the World should now in flames expire.
The Bells did ring men by the Ears, and say,
It was Great Britain's general Holy-day.
See how his Loyal Peers, and Gentry, throng
To gild his way, as he doth march along,
35: CHARLES in his Glory, with his sparkling Train,
Outfac'd the Sun, who went to bed again.
Vollies of Acclamations, peals of Joy,
(Which sent to Heav'n on an Embassie)
Return'd this Answer to their Lowd Request,
40: Vive le Roy, be he for ever blest.
To which his Subjects cry'd Amen so loud,
'Twas like a Clap of Thunder from a Cloud.
Blest are his Kingdoms now, in this one Vote,
O may they n'ere divide, nor change their Note.
45: Women then lost their Tongues, Mens Arms were thrown
Quite out of joynt for Joy, yet no harm done.
Some lost their Heads, which were next morning found,
And some had Leggs could stand upon no ground.
The May-poles stood too't bravely, all the way,
50: Crown'd all with Garlands of Good Will, that day.
Phanaticks said the World was drunk, I think
It was indeed with Joy, but not with Drink.
The Earth was drye as dust, with which some say
Gallants were powdred to some tune that day.
55: The Zealots oft miscarry, there are some
Say, they were fowl ore'seen, to let him come.
Ride on, Great CHARLES, Triumphant, whose rare Arts,
By killing Foes with Kindness, gains their Hearts:
Sure there is Magick in thy Name, or Thee,
60: Pardon, (Great Sir) I'le no Familiar be,
From whence doth flow such powerfull Influence,
That all Rebellion is banish'd hence:
No Subject hath the Evil, none diseas'd,
But with Your touch is Cur'd, and pain appeas'd:
65: All Hail to Englands Monarch, may I see
Thy self reflexed, and Posterity
Provided for by You; a Royal Race,
To Rule these Kingdoms, with a God-like grace.
Which is a debt You owe: The World adieu,
70: But I despair of seeing one like You;
From whose bright presence Majesty doth rise,
And like a Sun enlighten all our Eyes.
Let every Coblers Wife a Diamond wear,
And Pearls be hang'd in every common Ear:
75: We have the Indies now, brought home, in Thee
All Treasures, and all Sweets, there hyved Bee:
The Worlds our Store-house now, and we have all
That can be wish'd; our Life's a Festivall.
Our dayes all Halcyon, the time is come,
80: To bid our Golden Fleece a Welcome home:
Thrice Welcome, Royal Sir, our Soveraign Cure;
What Heav'n is Ease! to those long pains endure?

William Pestell.

James Shirley
Ode upon the Happy Return

[29 May]

    Titlepage: AN ODE / UPON THE / HAPPY RETURN / OF / King Charles II. / TO His / LANGUISHING NATIONS, / May 29. 1660. / [rule] / By JAMES SHIRLEY, Gent. / Composed into Musick by Dr. Coleman. / [rule] / Et capitur minimo Thuris Honore Deus. / [rule] / LONDON, Printed 1660,

    Rpt. in G. Thorn-Drury A Little Ark Containing 17th-Century Verses 19-25; and in Armstrong, ed., Poems.

    Checked to HM original; some cropping of margins; line over-runs copied as in original.

To the King.

ANd is there one Fanatique left, in whose
Degenerate Soul a thought can stray,
And by the witchcraft of a cloud, oppose
This Bright, so long expected, Day?
5:           Whence are these wild effects of Light,
Emergent from our tedious night?
Oh! can it be, those life-creating beams,
That warm the Earth, and gild our streams,
Purging th'infected air, our eyes, and mind,
Making even Moles themselves to see, should strike these
10" rend="right: (poor men blind?

It will convert an Atheist to a faith
Of the Creation, no less strange,
Will he believe our Chaos, when he hath
Read the Miracles of our change:
15:            In such a rout was all our Frame
Of things, until the Fiat came;
Stoop, and lay down thy reason trifling man,
From such account the world began,
After a dark Abysse to shew his face,
When natures, stifl'd in the deep, came gliding to their
20" rend="right: (place.

But wonder cease, the Altars call to burn
With thanks and vows; what sacrifice
Can be enough, great Prince, for your return,
Who are the Joy of Hearts and Eyes?
25:            Our dutie's paid to him, that is
The Spring of Your, and all our bliss:
Let us to Loyal Monk some trophies bring,
To whom, next God, we owe the King,
Our peace, & Princes; and may you think fit,
Whilest on Your Head three Crowns, on his as many gar-
30" rend="right: (lands sit.

Now welcome, Royal Sir, our bells impart,
And piles of wood, but heat and noyse:
Then take it from the language of a heart,
Whose crowd of wishes break into a voice;
35:            And thus do upward fly. May all
That pious men can think, or call
A blessing, wait and watch about your throne;
Live long our glorious King, and be your own!
And when time, faint with years, points to the Biere,
Find it no loss, to be in Heaven, and Charles the second

40" rend="right: (there.

James Sherley.

[ornamenal rule]

WElcome thou happy day, in which was born
The pledge of all our Joy, the Prince,
Welcome again the same white happy morn,
Although sad thirty winters since!
5:            And now I sing
That Prince our King.
The cure of all our wounds is He.
Guns, every Bell,
And Bone-fires tell
10:      His safe return, our Island round Nothing but Charles, King Charles resound.
A joyful sight to see.

The Major, and Train of Scarlet-Brethren ride
To meet the King, next them we told
15: Five hundred more, all in their plush and pride,
And Chains, you may believe were gold.
Conduits made fine
Pist Claret wine.
The Troops and Trumpets were hard by,
20:            Buff and gold lace
As thick as grass
Triumphant march, to and agen,
Some gallant horse, some gallant men,
A joyful sight to see.

25: The Dutch at this strange turning of the stream
Will be our Trouts another while,
But King & Common-wealth's all one to them,
So they may keep their Fishing still,
Purchase and prey
30:            And Spawn at Sea:
But oh, the French that were so free!
Pardonne moy,
Excuse their joy.
The Exil'd CHARLES this day is come,
35:       Who may send all the Pedlars home.
A joyful sight to see.

The Irish, that in Usquebauh did pledge
His Birth, their jolly tunes give ore.
A Lord not now is master of a Hedge,
40:       Scarce bonny clabbor within door.
But you, that were
No Rebel there
May re-assume your merry glee,
And change your tone
45:            Of Hone, oh Hone
When you shall hear a voice proclaim
Back to the Province whence you came
A joyful sight to see.

The Scots like honest Men, Hosanna crie,
50:       They knew his Father mickle well,
And say, God save the King; Amen say I,
From such as have the trick to sell.
There are some few
That are true blew.
55:       The Welsh with joy transported be,
Plutter and Nails
Pless Prince of Wales
Who now is King, and pright as star
Upon the top of Penmenmaure,
60:            A joyful sight to see.

But oh, the Landlord of the Rich Peru
Is sayling with his golden Fleet,
And in a sea, of pure Canary too,
To land his Oar at Charles his feet.
65:            Rouse from your shade
Dull men of Trade!
The storms are laid, the seas are free,
A peace with Spain
Brings all again
70:       You shall like Grandes march in state
And swim in Rios de la Plate,
A joyful sight to see.

That Hand that brought our best of Kings and Men,
Now fix him in his Royal Throne.
75: That Knaves may never preach him out agen,
Nor us into Rebellion,
'Tis our turn now
To Vote and Vow,
And Justice cry our streets throughout.
So, Charles, God bless,
Queen, Dukes no less,
And Monk, who has thrown off his Hood,
And by his Prudence, without blood,
Brought all these things about.


Englands pleasant May-Flower

[29 May?]

    Employs a broad series of rather forced parallels from the OT to compare Charles with the divinely annointed with David.

Englands pleasant May-Flower
Charles the second, as we say,
Came home the twenty ninth of May.
Let Loyal hearts rejoyce and sing
For joy they have got a Gracious KING.
The tune is, Upon Saint Davids day.

WHy should we speak of Cesars Acts,
or Shimei's treacheries,
Or of the Grand Notorious Facts
of Cromwels Tyrannies.
5: But what we all might gladly sing,
and bravely chant and say,
That Charles the second did come in
the twentie ninth of May.

Since that his Royal person went
10:      from us beyond the Seas,
Much blood and treasure have been spent
but nere obtained peace:
Untill the Lord with-held his hand
as we might chearfull say,
15: And did a healing balsome send
the twenty, &c.

This healing Balsome Soveraign is,
and a very Cordial thing,
Which many evils can suppress
20:      by vertue of a King,
And poysoned blisters overcome
Which in three Kingdoms lay,
Twas God that sent this Balsome home
the twenty, &c.

25: Surely he is determined,
a mighty King on Earth,
That God hath so remembred,
and kept him from his birth:
As David from the Lyons paws
30:      Whose beard he bore away.
So Charles the second made good Laws
the twenty ninth of May.

The King of Africa subdu'd
by fire and by sword,
35: But Charles the second was indu'd
with power from the Lord.
Whom trained was in Davids field
with prayers night and day.
That he three stately Kingdoms held
40:      the twenty, &c.

King David had a General strong,
and Joab was cal'd by name,
He made him Lord of Babylon,
and rul'd where ere he came.
45: But through his spleen with envi'd quarrels
David did betray.
But our Saint George brought home King Charls
the twenty ninth of May.

The second part, To the same tune.

NOw give me leave to speak so far
50:      as truth might justifie,
Of that most glorious blazing Star
at his Nativity,
The grandest Planet of the morn
shin'd glorious at noon day:
55: Which was the time King Charls was born
the twenty ninth of May.

I think I could my self ingage,
in deep Astrologie,
To speak what this same Star presag'd
60:      of Glorious Majesty
A mighty Monarch he shall Reign
which makes me chant and say
Now brave King Charls is come again.
the twenty, &c.

65: 'Twould blunt the pen of any Poet,
to write what may be said,
But to the Order Honi Soyt
just tribute shall be paid
For such a prudent Gracious King
70:      lets never cease to pray,
He heald the sick when he came in
the twentie, &c.

Gods holy band doth him protect
his Angels doth him guard,
75: Likewise his students doth direct,
which makes his foes affraid.
On Davids musick we will sing
and bravely chant and say,
The glory of the world came in
80:      the twentie ninth of May.

He alwayes weareth Joshua's hands
and beareth Davids praise.
And like to upright Job he stands
to wear out Abrahams dayes.
85: He was the wit of Solomon,
and upright in his way.
So like to Joseph he came home
the twenty ninth of May.

Like Daniel he was so devout,
90:      his Star did follow him,
In all his tragedyes throughout
Like that of Bethleem.
Twelve years he travel'd Christendom
that makes me chant and say,
5: 'Twas marked out just for his own,
the twenty, &c.

Now let all people celebrate
this day which is so pure,
And to be kept by Church and State
100:      for ever to endure.
That Generations all might see
the honour of the day,
Which everlasting it shall be
the twenty, &c.

105: So God preserve our Gracious King
the Duke of Yorke also,
Defend them from the Dragons sting
and every Christian Foe.
Then let true Loyal Subjects sing
110:      and bravely chant and say,
The like in England nere came in
the twenty ninth of May.


Printed for W. Gilbertson.

The King and Kingdoms Joyful Day of Triumph. [undated: after 29 May]

    This ballad is attributed to John Wade by Ebsworth; see headnote to W. J., The Royall Oake. Wade also probably was the JW who wrote "A Second Charles.

    Ebsworth dates this shortly after 29 May and notices the similarity of some lines in the Trunk Ballad without a title given here as "Come."

The King and Kingdoms joyful Day of Triumph.
The Kings most Excellent majesties Royal and Triumphant coming to London,
accompanied by the ever Renowned, his Excellency the Lord General Monck,
and an numerous company of his Royal Peers, Lords, Knight,
Citizens, and Gentry, who conducted his Royal Majesty
in Honour and Triumph from Dover to London.
To the Tune of, The Scottish Lady, or, Ill tide that cruel peace that gain'd a War on me.


KIng Charles he now is Landed,
to ease his Subjects moan;
Those that are faithful handed
he takes them for his own:
5: Oh he is our Royal Sovereign King,
And is of the Royallest Off spring,
Peace and plenty with him he'l bring,
And will set us free
from all vexations,
10:      and great taxations,
woe and misery,
And govern all these Nations
with great tranquility.

Lord General of fair England
15:      marcht forth to meet the King,
To entertain him when he did Land,
and to London him did bring;
He is the worthy Man of Might
That doth both King and Countrey right,
20: In whom God and man taketh delight:
For surely he
well doth understand
what he doth take in hand;
and most discreetly
25: He doth his warlike Troops command,
renown'd to Posterity.

The Trumpets bravely sounded,
the Kings Return again.
With joy their hearts abounded
30:      the King to entertain:
Aloud they sounded forth his praise,
Englands Glory for to raise;
For God is just in his wayes
35:      most hearts then were glad,
no man seeming sad,
the bravest day that ever came,
We happy by our King are made,
to his eternal fame,

40: The Citizens of London
with a most pompous Train,
For evermore hath praise wone,
his favour for to gain,
Gallantly marched out of the Town
45: To King Charles's Royal Renown,
In peace to bring him to the Crown
Richly attired:
by the Lords perswasion
after the richest fashion
50:      greatly admired;
The chiefest in this Nation,
whose hearts with joy are fired.

The second Part, to the same Tune.

THen many brave Noblemen
All most gallant and brave,
55: Marched out of the Town then;
both valiant, wise, and grave,
Counting it a most delightful thing
For to honour Charles our Royal King,
And to the Crown him in peace to bring:
60:      desiring he
now might be Crowned,
and still Renowned
to posterity,
On whom fortune had frowned
65:      for his sincerity.

Many thousands of Noblemen,
then marched o're the Plain,
For to defend King Charles then,
and him to entertain:
70: Their Horses went prancing along,
When they were the rest among,
And seem'd to dance amidst the Throng
So merrily;
seeming to be glad,
75:      they that journey had:
they marcht on most,
They were neither heavy nor sad,
but went delightfully.

Their Riders richly tired
80:      in costly Cloth of Gold,
Their journey so required,
most rich for to behold:
Oh it was the most glorious sight,
And did my heart so much delight,
85: That I could not forbear but write.
They were such gallant Blades,
and so richly drest,
as cannot be exprest,
they were most bonny Lads,
90: All malice they did destest,
they were such brave Comrades.

Each Regiment from other
known by their sev'ral notes,
As plainly it did appear,
95:      and was all in Buff-Coats:
And in silken Scarfs all of green,
With Hats and Feathers to be seen,
Most rich as well I ween,
Were these brave men:
100:      England did never
see the like ever
but may again
They marched most courageous,
the King to entertain.

105: And this doth these Lands rejoyce,
and all that in them live,
Then both with hearts and voice,
and thanks to God do give,
Which restored unto us our King,
110: And Usurpers down did fling:
Freedom unto us to bring;
We shall be free
from all Exilements
and ill Revilements,
115:      we and our posterity
Shall have our full enjoyments,
and happy dayes shall see.


London, Printed for John Andrews, at the White Lion near Pye-Corner.

The Glory of these Nations.

[after 29 May]

   Fifth of the "trunk ballads," this broadside marks various stages in the king's progress with the putative authority of an eye-witness report, listing names and places along the way from Dover to Westminster. As with all such eye-witness reports, it provides a selective list of those the poet recognizes. Monck and the king, are greeted at Deptford by "maidens … all in white." Apprentices appear to greet him at Walworth field; the Lord Mayor joins the train at Newington Butts where a banquet is served. This ballad names several members of the Sealed Knot who had plotted the king's return.

   Despite its title, this ballad's perspective is English rather than British -- at times appearing to be specifically aimed at appealing to those living in metropolitan London. There is a strong commercialist emphasis in the final emphasis on the return of trade.

   Of this ballad Ebsworth writes: "A Second `Trunk Ballad' is `The Glory of These Nations; or, King and People's Happiness.' It is an imitation of Martin Parker's ballad `Upon Defacing of Whitehal' (reprinted, vii. 633), and to the same tune, When the King enjoys his own again. It begins, "Wher's those that did prognosticate, and did envy fair England's state, And said King Charles no more shall reign? Their predicitions were but in vain, For the King is now return'd" etc. It tells of his reception on 22nd May at Dover, and his progress to Canterbury, Cobham Hall, Deptford, Walworth, and Newington Butts, where he was received by the Lord Mayor." (9:786-7)

The Glory of these Nations.
Or, King and peoples happinesse, being a brief Relation of King
Charles's Royall progresse from Dover to London, how the Lord Generall and
the Lord Mayor with all the nobility and Gentrey of the Land, brought him tho-row the Famous City of London to
his Pallace at Westminster the 29. of May last, be-
ing his Majesties birth-day, to the great comfort of his Loyall Subjects.
The Tune is, When the King enjoys his own again.

equestrian King with two heralds in front, riding left to right]

WHer's those that did Prognosticate,
And did envy fair Englands State;
And said King Charles no more should Raign;
Their Predictions were but in vain,
5: For the King is now return'd
For whom fair England mournd.
His Nobles Royally him entertain,
Now blessed be the day
Thus do his Subjects say,
10: That God hath brought him home again.

The twenty second of lovely May 1
At Dover arrived Fame doth say,
Where our most Noble Generall
Did on his knees before him fall.
15: Craving to kiss his hand.
So soon as he did land
Royally they did him entertain 2
With all their power and might
To bring him to his Right,
20: And place him in his own again.

Then the King I understand
Did kindly take him by the hand,
And lovingly did him embrace,
Rejoycing for to see his face;
25: Hee lift him from the ground
With joy that did abound,
And graciously did him entertain,
Rejoycing that once more,
He was o'th' English shore,
30: To enjoy his own in peace again.

From Dover to Canterbury they past,
And so to Cobham-Hall at last;
From thence to London march amain,
With a Triumphant and glorious Train,
35: Where he was receiv'd with joy
His sorrow to destroy.
In England once more for to raign,
Now all men do sing
God save Charles our King.
40: That now enjoyes 3 his own again.4

At Deptford the Maidens they
Stood all in White by the high-way,
Their Loyalty to Charls to show,
That with sweet flowers his way to strew;
45: Each wore a Ribbin blew,
They were of comely hue;
With joy they did him entertain
With aclamations 5 to the skye
As the King passed by,
50: For joy that he receives his own again.

In Wallworth-Fields a gallant band
Of London-Prentices did stand
All in White Dublets very gay,
To entertain King Charles that day,
55: With Muskets, swords and Pike,
I never saw the like,
Nor a more youthfull gallant train,
They up their Hats did fling,
And cry God save the King.
60: Now he enjoys his own again.

   [cut: royal coat of arms]

At Newington-Buts the Lord Mayor 6 willed
A famous Booth for to be builded,
Where King Charls did make a stand
And received the sword into his hand,
65: Which his Majesty did take,
And then returned back
Unto the Mayor with love again;7
A Banquet they him make,
He doth thereof partake,
70: Then marcht his Triumphant Train.

The King with all his Noblemen,
Through Southwark they marched then.
First marched Major General Brown,8
Then Norwich Earle 9 of great renown
75: With many a valiant Knight,
And gallant men of might,
Richly attired marching amain.
These Lords Mordin, 10 Gerard 11 and
The good Earl of Cleavland,12
80: To bring thee King to his own again.

Near sixty flags and streamers then
Was born before a thousand men,
In Plush Coats and Chaines of gold,
These were most rich for to behold
85: With every man his Page,
The glory of his age,
With courage bold they marcht amain,
Then with gladnesse they,
Brought the King on his way
90: For to enjoy &c.

Then Liechfields 13 and Darlyes 14 Earles,
Two of fair Englands Royall Pearls;
Major Generall Massey 15 then
Commanded the Life guard of men
95: The King for to defend,
If any should contend,
Or seem his comming to restrain,
But also joyful were
That no such durst appear,
100: Now the King, &c.

Four rich Maces before them went,
And many Heralds well content.
The Lord Mayor and the Generall
Did march before the King with all,
105: His Brothers on each side,
A long by him did ride;
The Southwark-Waits did play amain,
Which made them all to smile
and to stand still a while,
110: and then they marched 16 on again.

Then with drawn swords all men did ride,
and flourishing the same then cryed
Charles the second now God save.
That he his lawfull right may have,
115: and we all on him attend,
From dangers him to defend:
and all that with him doth remain
Blessed be God that we
Did live these days to see
120: That the King, &c.

The Bells likewise did loudly ring,
Bonefires did burn and people sing,
London Conduits did run with Wine;
and all men do to Charls incline,17
125: hoping now that all
Unto their Trades may fall,
Their Famylies for to maintain
and from wrong be free,
'Cause wee have liv'd to see
The King enjoy his own again.       FINIS.

London, Printed for Charles Tyus on London Bridge.

[1]A hasty error? should be 26th of May.

[2]entertain] enertain copytext

[3]enjoyes] ed. enjoyss copytext


[5]aclamations] ed. a clamations copytext

[6]Lord Mayor of London at the time was Sir Thomas Alleyne, who followed Sir John Ireton and was followed in turn by Sir Richard Browne, the alderman who suppressed Venner's insurrection in January 1661. Alleyne's sheriffs were William Bolton and Richard Peake. Alleyne is linked with Monck in a poem by John Rowland, M. A. of Christ Church, "In Honour of the Lord General Monck and Thomas Allen, Lord Mayor of London, for their great Valour, Loyalty, and Prudence: Epinicia" (LT copy dated 22 May, 1660).

[7]see The Noble Progress

[8]Major General, later Sir Richard Browne (d. 1669) was one of the most influential figures in the City of London at the Restoration. Representing the City, he was among those sent to meet the king at Breda and, as indicated in the ballad here, headed the procession that brought Charles into London. Browne was appointed Lord Mayor in October 1660, having served as MP for the City in 1656, Jan-April 1659, and in the Convention Parliament 1660. A woodmonger from Whitefriars, Browne emerged into national politics as the leader of the City trainbands in the early stages of the first civil war, but broke with the war party in 1648, spending five years in prison. During the early preparations before Booth's rising, he received a commission from the King on 1 March 1659 together with Lord Willoughby of Parham and Sir William Waller. These three, as former parliamentarians, were to cement support with the presbyterians, but only Parham signed on at that time (Davis, 125). Following its failure, Browne went into hiding but continued to be involved in Sealed Knot activities; he was a member of the group in December 1659 that tried to preempt Monck by urging Whitlocke to persuade Fleetwood to see the king at Breda and agree on terms for his return (Davis 188). Browne took his seat representing the City of London in the Convention Parliament on 21 February 1660, and was unanimously nominated recorder (ibid 293, 324). In January 1661 he suppressed the Venner's insurrection. He "remained a favourite with the London apprentices" to the end of his life (Pepys, Companion, p. 48).

[9]George, Lord Goring, later Earl of Norwich (d. 1663), had known Charles personally since at least 1645, when Goring was appointed general in command of the royalist field army in the Westcountry at a time when the royalist effort there had been assigned to the young Prince of Wales. Unable to hold out against Waller's invasion and the internal squabbling among the other royalist generals, Goring fled to France.

[10]John Mordaunt, viscount (1626/7-75); check DND, G. E. C. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage. While a commoner, he plotted against both Charles I and Charles II. In 1658-60, however, he was one of the leaders of the royalist underground aiming at a restoration by bringing about an alliance between the Presbyterians and the City. He was tried for treason 1-3 June 1658, but was acquitted thanks to the casting vote of John Lisle, president of the High Court of Justice. Francis, Lord Willoughby of Parham appealed to Whitelocke to help Mordaunt, 5 June 1658. During July and August, he helped organize a nationwide uprising that failed. In 1659, Mordaunt accompanied Greenville and joined Charles in Brussels where he was created Baron Mordaunt of Ryegate and Viscount Mordaunt of Avalon in July 1659. For services leading to the Restoration, he was appointed High Steward of Windsor and Governor of the Castle, but was impeached by the Commons in January 1666 -- for arbitrary persecution of a subordinate at Windsor -- he was pardoned but resigned; see Whitelocke Diary 22 Oct 1667.

[11]Gerrard: ambiguous, probably (1) Charles, Lord Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield (cf DNB): this is Ebsworth's candidate but check: (2)Sir Gilbert Gerrard (1587-1670): former treasurer at war for parliament during Civil War, became committed royalist; secluded MP (Davies, 321-2);; see Keeler, The Long Parliament, R, Somerville, Office Holders of the Duchy of Lancaster (1972), G. E. Aylmer, The Kings Servants; Davies 1955: 321-22; Of Grays Inn; created Bart. 1620. Treasurer at war for Parliament during the Civil War, Gerrard became a devoted royalist. Appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in 1648, he was secluded at Pride's Purge, but later reappointed.

[12]Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Cleaveland, "lead a company of 300 noblemen and gentry in the Restoration procession" (Ebsworth, 9:xxxix), cf J. W.'s The King and Kingdom's Joyful Day.

[13]Charles Stuart, Earl of Lichfield and afterwards Duke of Richmon; plotted with Mordaunt for the King's return cf Davies 138

[14]No doubt a misprint for "Darbyes." Charles Stanley, Earl of Derby, was son of the murdered James Stanley, 7th Earl, and Charlotte de la Tremouille, the heroine of Lathom House in 1644. (Ebsworth 9.xl)

[15]Major General Sir Edward Massey, had defended Gloucester for Charles 1; joined with Mordaunt and Sealed Knot to bring King back; he stood for Gloucester in early May and nearly lost his life (Davies 327) See Pepys 25 November 1661.

[16]marched] marced copytext

[17]incline] inclineline

Iter Australe

[undated: after 29 May]

   Titlepage: Iter Australe / Attempting something upon the happy / Return of our most Gracious So-/ veraign Lord, / CHARLS II. / FROM / BANISHMENT / TO HIS / THRONE. / [rule] / By a Loyal Pen. / [rule] / -- -Virum non arma Cano. / [rule] / LONON 1, / Printed by Tho. Leach, in the Year, 1660.

   The title reverses the direction of travel in Robert Wild's celebrated Iter Boreale, or journey from the North, in order to trope on Charles's arrival from the south in the final stanas. Although the poem is printed to look like Wild's -- they share similar typeface, page layout, use of a nom-de-plume -- there is no reason to think Wild wrote these lines. The poet here doesn't have a great deal to say about Monck. The text was obviously printed in a hurry; inking is poor in all copies. The copy at O=Firth would seem to be an early state, subsequetly corrected in the O=Tanner ad BL copies.

   The poem provides a general history of the period from the civil wars up to and including the king's journey home; thin on explanation, wide on narrative.

[ornamental header]
The Portal.

WEe'l no Cronostick numbers here
Compose, to figure out the year
Wherein our Second Charls did make
His Blest return; lest we mistake.
5: For Iustice breaking from her Iron Cage
Ha's back again reduc'd the Golden Age;
That Time no longer will the old style bear
O'th' Sixteen Hundredth and the Sixtieth Year.

Nor will we yet presume to joyn
A Nominal Letter to each Line,
And with our slender Art to frame
Acrosticks on his Sacred Name,
For 'twill be Forgerie to Interline
Those Letters Patents Providence Divine
15: Hath Copyed forth for us in CAPITAL
Out of their Heaven-Inrold Original.

Nor yet to make an Anagram
Disjoyn the Letters of the same:
(So Antient Adam had the Honor
Without all doubt to be the donor)
Lest (as those Lawlesse Traytors did Translate
His Royal Kingdoms to a Rebel State
So) we, whilst we endeavour to inforce
A Better Sense upon't, should make a Worse.

But yet my Muse would something, she
Might demonstrate her Loyalty;
Plain humble verse she thinks will best
Her Kneeling Reverence Attest.
His Beams are such, were not the Poets Bayes
30: Charms against Lightning, she durst not rayse
Her self above the Pitch of Prose -- Lest she
Should burn her Plumes, and fall a Scorched fly.

O might she gain Acceptance, this
Would prove her chief, her Master-piece:
35:      So whilst the Sun withdraws his Light
'Twill seem at least an Eagle flight:
But if his splendor be so great that he
Cannot pluck in his daz'ling Raies, and she
Shal stand Convicted of Pr'sumption,
40: She sues the General Act -- -Oblivion.

[1]sic in both O copies; and BL

Iter Australe, Attempting somthing upon the happy return
of our most gracious Sove-
raign Lord,
From Banishment to his


SHoot up thy head my Muse, thy Foes are flown,
Made the retreat to mournful Helicon:
Come dive no longer, now thou need'st not fear
Upon the forked Mountain to appear;
5: Put thy neglected Buskins on, and shake
Thy watry Pineons, and leave the Lake;
Fly to Pernassus Airy top, and see
What from the high Ascent thou can'st descry;
And when thou shalt discern on Thetis floor,
10: The royal Navy, wafting Charles to shore,
Go Crown thy gladded brows with flowers whereon
The names of Kings have their Inscription,
To entertain his blest arrival, and
Carol his welcom to the happy Strand.
15: In the mean time rehearse those mournful Lays,
Thou erst did dedicate unto the praise
Of Charles the first: Go gather up again,
Those Quills of Porcupines thy high disdain
In a Satyrical disguise did cast
20: At Traytors Heads, (whose Feathers as they past,
Sung their Prophetick Elogies) and now
Shoot, shoot in triumph, for their overthrow.
But stop your ears with black, with mourning wool,
Or send your twice-repeated griefs to School
25: Amongst the tortur'd Ghosts, they may from thence
Bring back the Lesson of forc'd Patience,
To hear my now relapsed Muse relate
The Tyranny of our late Monarchs Fate.


NOw that Prophetick Simile proves true,
30: England's an Axe in shape, and nature too:
Whilst startled Conscience winks, One fatal stroak
Prostrates Great Britains Tutelary Oak;
And reason good; Why cumbers it the Ground?
The Traytors cry, our Providence hath found
35: A better way to Husband it, no more
We Beggars-bushes will, as heretofore,
Stand in the barren paths and ways, since we
To plant our seves on his fat soil agree.
Down with th'imperious Cedars too (they cry)
That by their power enfenc'd his Majesty,
40: From our encroachments; And upon their Land
The brave aspiring Poplars shall stand.
The Briery Souldiery shall have a share
With us and a Commission to tear
Their Golden Fleeces from the backs of those,
45: Whose zeal to King, of Conscience, shall expose
Themselves unto our mallice; -- -- -They'l dispence
With penance in their Robes of Innocence.
Thus fell our Gracious Soveraign, and they
That own'd their Princes cause his Fates obey;
50: So the Barbarians have a Law that when
The Master yields to Destinie, the Men
That were his most obsequious Servants must
Descend his Grace, to wait upon his Dust.
Which of his vertues did foment their rage
55: So high, nought by his blood could it asswage?
Was it his Justice? Yes, for they did fear,
Before that high Tribunal to appear.
Was it his mercy? Yes, 'cause he refus'd
To murther whom they wrongfuly accus'd.
60: Besides (they say) Religion bade them make
An holy Warre (forsooth for Conscience sake:
But stay a little, step aside and see
How God himself was wrong'd as well as he.


IF Christian Reformation that will prove
65: Wherein the Serpent overcomes the Dove,
Farewell ye silenc'd Oracles; our Sun
Sets in a Cloud, our happy days are done.
But search and try (my Muse) before you speak,
Turn not a she Phanatick and mistake:
70: For when their warlike Swords and Muskets drove
Out our holy Church, of the peaceful Dove,
Amphibious Batts did spring up in the night
Of blinded zeal, and play'd the Hypocrite;
And damned Spirits walk't therein, which make
75: Our Quakers their possessed joynts to shake,
And Thou and Thee us all, 'cause they foretel,
They shall find no distinctions in Hell.
The Ingis Fatuus of whose lights do bend
Their paths unto perditions, pit and lend
80: False beams a while unto the fatal Brink,
Then (like the Devil) vanish in a stink.
The harmless pictures of th'Apostles must
Out of the Temple windows all be thrust;
(They hate such good examples) that before
85: Ungodly men their light might shine no more:
And why all this? because the Scriptures speak
How Eutichus fell thence and broke his neck.
Each one ordains himself; Mechanick men
Set in the Temples up their shops agen
90: Which Christ himselfe drave out; these silly Elves
(Gifted from none that I know but themselves)
Pretend to Prophecie, and why not then
Coblars of Souls, as Fishers er'st of Men?
Dissembling Souldiers this, and worse have wrought,
95: And Crucified their Christ, but kept his Coat:
And the Rump-Senate set the Tail where we
In vain endeavour'd, that the Head should be.


HEre give my pious Muse leave to lament
Great Charles his Crucifixion, which hath rent
100: Our Church into so many Breaches, that
Good are thrust out, bad men thrust in thereat.
And as the Jews astonish't at the knell
When th'holy Temple rang her Passing-Bell;
So when our Faith's Defender Fell, had we
105: No cause to write a mournfull Elegie?
He was both King and Prophet, that he might
Yield both to subjects, and to God their Right.
And these two Functions did so meet, his Laws
Were on the Decade but a Paraphrase.
110: How did he brandish the Two-edged Sword
Of God's Soul-piercing, Heart-dividing word?
Nor sefish ends, nor false opinion
Could make him burnish a false Gloss thereon;
Who wrot his name upon't, and his devise
115: With the Strong Aqua Fortis of his Eyes.
Then see his Life, not like Cylennius, whose
Statue did point the ready way to those
Were Pilgrims, 'mongst the Mountains, & stood still
Whil'st they asceded the brow-bending Hill;
120: But dy'd a Martyr in a Good old Cause,
Defending both Divine and Humane Laws.
Then come, O Loyal Subject, let us raise
A Monumental Trophee to his Praise.
And in succeding ages let it stand
125: Untouch't; and may that Sacrilegious hand
That shall by force attempt to raze it, ne're
Enjoy the blessing of a Sepulcher.


BUt what though he be murthered, his Son
The Prince of Wales ascends his Royal Throne:
130: Come, we may mitigate Our Griefs, though we
Can ne're enough bewail His Destiny.
No 'tis not so, his Fathers Vertues are
Descended unto him, as lawfull Heir;
And it is fit, the Fates do say that He
135: Should likewise taste of his Extremitie
To countermand such Blessings; and be hurl'd
In wandring mazes up and down the world:
Like to that pious Heroe, who did hast
From flaming Troy, when as the fire did wast
140: That Cities stately Structures,4 before he
Attain the place of his Regallitie.
But after many dreadfull 5 hazards run
'Twixt Hope and Fear, at length the Scottish Crown
Is set upon his Brows by those that took
145: Pole-money for his Fathers head, and struck
That luckless bargain, sad experience told
Prov'd loss to them that Bought and them that Sold.


THe English Rebels hearing this, there comes
Their General with an Army, thundring Drums
150: Roar 6 nought but Canon-language, Trumpets sound
A Brazen Perseverance, they are bound
That have engag'd against their Prince, to be
No more Retreaters to their Loyaltie.
Charles hunted out of Scotland by the Crew
155: Of these pursuing Blood-hell-hounds, he threw
Himself to Worsters Borough to obtain
A shelter more secure, but all in vain:
For they dislodg'd our Dear, and made him flie
For safer covert 7 to a Hollow Tree:
160: And now the Ranging Doggs the sent have lost;
But would not yet desist, till having crost
The Champian ground twice or'e, they could not finde
Their Pray, which thus their Fury had declin'd.
Thus did his Majesty escape, whose Rayes
165: Heav'ns Providence design'd for better daies;
And to a Forraign soil is fled from hence,
Till that Reducing Power recalls him thence.


ANd now Aspiring Oliver by Force
With the Black Rod whips the Rump out of doors,
170: And makes himself Protector; Thus we see
Treason 'mongst Traytors sometimes there may be:
One Interregnum thus encludes its Brother;
Here's one Parenthesis within another:
Time-servers tongues, Lick'd (out of Hope or Fear,)8
175: Into a Formal Lamb this Savage Bear.
One would have him a David, (cause he went
To Lamberts wife, when he was in his Tent.)9
A second, Moses styled him, (for why
His shining Nose made the Synecdoche:)
180: And Most were so besotted that they found
No grief at all; For hard Oppression ground
Their Faces with such cruelty, that there
Did no impressions of dislike appear.
But Providence at last to purge our Ayr
185: From this most noysome Vapour, did prepare
A wind to drive him hence, and sent him gone
To his deserved place; and straight his Son
Richard assumes the Load, and all adore
The Ass, (but for the Burthern which he bore.)
190: Some thought he would again our King recall,
But yet the Goose sav'd not our Capitoll.
Lambert Degrades him presently, and then
The Rump let loose, ran to their stools agen.


BUt they must turn out too, and not repine
195: But to the Wallingfordians resign
Their late acquired power, the Rump again
Is thrust besides the Cushion, may not Raign;
And now great Monk advances over Tweed,
The Priviledge of Parliaments to plead,
200: But his White-powder 10 gave no crack; for he
Wrought not so much by Power as Policie.
All are restor'd again, nay more then that,
For each Secluded Member takes his seat
Among the rest; I hope we may not fear
205: To style the King, Monks Privy Counceller.
The Royal Party make it their Resolve.
With all the speed that may be to dissolve
The now Divided House, with an intent
To make room for another Parliament;
210: Which might the Great Work do, and so agree
To pass a Fine without Recoverie.
Fly then ye restless Furies, fly, begon;
No more the Mazes of Confusion
In Brittains Soyle; trace out, hence off, make room
215: For gentle Fayries, their glad feet may come
And Dance the Rings of Everlasting Peace
About our Blessed Isle, so that the Seas
Of Violence and Rapine may no more,
Cast their unheard of Monsters on our Shore.


220: THe Senate is Assembled, which receives
The Style 'oth 11 Peoples Representatives
Now in a down-right sense; they are the Glass
Wherein his Subjects may see their Kings Face;
And eas'ly apprehend there doth abide,
225: A Silver'd plenty on the other side:
Their Rumpships Breeches now no more shall be
The Impress of our Lawfull Coyn; But we,
For his Reward who did bring home our King,
Shall have Great George on Horseback ride the Ring.
230:           As when the Earth bewailes in Mourning Weeds
The absence of the long set Sun, and dreads
A Non-repeated Course, the Gray-ey'd Morn
Giving a signal of his blest Return,
She then puts off her Cypress vayl, that He,
235: Might wipe her dewy Tears away; so we,
For Charle's, 12 his Wains Declension had vowd
Our Souls all Proselites to grief, and bowd
Our necks unto her Altars; Till from far
Unto our Watry eyes there did appear,
240: Monck in a Scottish Mist, who straight did pour
On English Rebels heads, a drowning shower:
Which having done, the Coast began to clear,
And straight upon our English Hemisphere
We did expect that Star should rise and be
245: Exalted to its Regal Dignitie.
And whilest our King makes ready to Return,
With Zeal inflamed Joys our Hearts do burn.


THe Brittish Seas Fly to a Forrein shore,
With an unwonted speed, to waft Him o're,
250: And make their Inroads on the Continent
That still detain's their Lord, and when they've spent
Their strength in vain, they backward bend their course
They may assayl it with a greater Force:
And having won 13 the Field, and got their Prize,
255: Ev'n Rarifi'd with joy, they Scale 14 the Skyes
To fetch the Clouds from thence, whose waters may
Send their Assistace to the happy Bay.
Both Heaven and Earth (for nought else yet we see)
Fight for, or yield to CHARLES his Potencie.
260: Neptune his Trident brings, and will not own
A Scepter suiting to a Triple Crown:
Iris, that stout Virago, thinks it fit
To paint her Bow with Purple, Green, & White
To shew whose cause she owns; Heaven would have made
265: Her stragling Meteors Torch-bearers i'th'shade
Of wandring Night, the Royal ship might stear
Aright amidst the Waves, but that there were
So many Bonefires on the shore that forc't
A day when Tytans Chariot was unhorst.
270:           Now! now he sails in view! but yet no land
Appears unto his sight, the people stand
So thick (like King-Fishers) upon the Coast,
Th'Inhabitants he found, the Isle he lost.
Some wish themselves Arions Dolphin, they
275: Might shoot into the Waves and bear away
Their wished King to Land; and some would be
Int'Eagles Metamorphos'd, that from Sea
They might bring Charles the Great, as it is told
That feather'd Prince did bear the child of old.
280: All would be Christophers that they might bring
Unto the happy shore their welcome KING.
How did the people croud to see him set
His foot on English ground? He scarce could get
Room to Ascend; and thus their very Love
285: And Loyaltie did Petit Treason prove.


The Guns report his Landing, posting Fame
Rode all the staged Cannons as she came
Quite out of breath, and fainting, short had flown,
But Fleeter Eccho lent her Wings to Town.
290: The Bells rack'd on their turning wheels Confesse
The happy news to all the Parishes,
Whilst to their tuning Cords the Steeples dance
For joy at this their great Deliverance.
The Citizens began to curse the Day
295: Gave Birth unto our Civil Wars, that they
Could not rebuild great Pauls his Spire, (that fell
As an Ill-boading Omen to foretell,
The Ruine of the Church) so that they might
Have now ascended his prodigious Height
300: To view Charls in his Progresse, guarded by
The Quintessence of England Cavalry;
Whilst Loyal-hearted Subjects made a Lane
Fenc'd with a double Quick-set hedge, and strain
Their Throats, like merry Birds therein, so sing
305: The blessed Restauration of their King,
That now at Black-Heath makes a stand, to greet
Them Graciously, that at his Royal Feet
Cast themselves down for Pardon, and arise
In his Defence against his Enemies.
310: Thence They conduct him to his Throne, and He
Assumes his double-staft Supremacy.15


REturn'd! O happy News! Is Charles his Wain
On our Horizon wheel'd up once again,
(And drawn with Doves, which tacitely express
315: This Emblem'd Motto, Conquerer by Peace.)
Go scotch the Orb 16, ye God's, this Chariot may
Run the Olympick Chace no more, but stay
Till pale-fac't Death sets up the White, which done
May Ariadne's Star be-studded Crown
320: Enshrine his noble Brows, may he appear
In Cassiopeias High Imperial Chair,
A Star of the first Magnitude, and be
As in his proper Seat and Dignity.
Go scotch the Orb till then, we may no more
325: His Peregrined Aspects here deplore.
Then let our Joyes, O Loyal Subjects, Dance
The Flourishes of our Deliverance
Upon our Ravish'd Heart-strings, and our Tongues
Sing Confort to them with Bliss-brimmed Songs,
330: Since Providence our Monarch doth Recall
From Miseries Black-Heath, to Joyes White-Hall.

Vive le Roy. FINIS.

[2]; in L and O=Tanner: weak inking in O Firth and WF gives ,

[3]Of] O but weak ink in all copies except O=Tanner

[4]S rtuctures in O Firth

[5]dreadfull] dereadfull in all copies

[6]Roar] Rore in O Firth only

[7]For safer covert] missing in O Firth only

[8]closing parenthesis missing in all copies

[9]On the affair between Cromwell and Mrs Lambert, see Newes from the New Exchange; or the Commonwealth of Ladies, Drawn to the Life in their severall Characters and Conceivements (Printed in the year of women without grace, 1650).

[10]not OED; though "white gunpowder" appears in the 19th century as a specific development in gunpowder; so presumably a poeticism.

[11]Style 'oth] Styl e'oth O=Firth only

[12]Charle's,] Charle, O=Firth only

[13]won] wun O=Firth only

[14]Scale] Skale O=Firth only

[15]Supremacy.] Suprem cy. O=Firth only

[16]In line with the title of the poem; "scotch the Orb" means to make a permanent incision upon the face of the earth; "scotch" thus OED v.1. "to make an incision or incisions in, to cut, score, gash."

James Bernard Upon His Sacred Majesties Distresses

[undated: after 29 May]

   Titlepage: A / POEM / UPON HIS / SACRED MAJESTIES / DISTRESSES, / AND LATE / HAPPY RESTAURATION. / [rule] / [design] / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for R. Marriot, and are to be sold at his shop in / St. Dunstans Church-yard, Fleetstreet. 1660.

    Date: Bernard's welcome is composed in very general terms that imagine Charles has recently arrived in England: so place in late May.

    The publisher Richard Marriot also issued the large paper reissue of Waller's poem in early June (Thomason's is dated 9 June).

    Bernard's heroic verses welcome the king in the guise of a warrior whose recent fate has been of some considerable concern to the Titans and gods of Olympus. Bernard's imagination is exhuberant to say no more.


CEase, Phancie, cease, thus to disturb my Muse
With strange Chymera's, not for any use
But barren subjects, or some aiery theam,
The issue of A Non ens, or a Dream,
5: Which scrued up to the most tow'ring strain.
Its former nothing strait resumes again:
My Muse denies to bate one scruples right,
Back forty foot, for thou'rt a grain too light.

Armes, and the Prince, I sing, whose generous vain,
10: Pregnant with sacred purple, knows no stain
But that he's Albions Prince, which may put on
A title more significant, Rubicon.
Nor can the factious Rhetorick of the Times
Nose forth a Canting glosse, t'excuse the Crimes,
15: The horrid treason of a vip'rous Brood
That slue their Countries Father, who then stood
The Pilot of their Faith; but since he fell
Their Faith was shipwreckt, and they sunk to Hell.

Just so a sturdie Oake, which climb'd so high,
20: Its vertex seemed to gore the azure skie,
Through the complaint of an ambitious Brier,
Humbl'd upon the Earth, doth there expire:
But blustring Boreas through distended Cheeks
Empties his Belching lungs, the bramble seeks
25: For shelter, as before, but cannot find
Its spatious Friend to fan away the wind.

What Phlegra's this, whose Typhon scales the skies?
Will not such crimes awake heaven's Deities?
Hath Ganimedes (Nectar not profuse)
30: Sophisticated Jove with Lethe's juice?
Sure jealous Vulcan, searching for his Dame,
Doth disappoint the Gods, and lets his flame
Faint for a new supplie.
But, harke what sound!
What horrid object's this! see how the Ground
35: Blusheth with scarlet, whilst the thundering Gun
Disputes the Business, and th' affrighted Sun
Sweats to drive up his steeds: But, Muse, declare
What high-sould Prince is that, who, thus, doth dare
Doe wonders at each motion? have ye heard
40: Niles Deep-base Cataracts? or the crackling beard
Of domineering flames? heard ye the winds
Break from Eolian Caves, whilst Boreas finds
Resistance from the foaming brine? his steel
So stormes at every passe, till his foes reel:
45: Since wonders are so cheap, that every blow
Must be so prodigall, Let Heaven bestow
One on my trembling Muse, that she may see
Her Prince's miracles in a simile.

-- -- -- Have ye 'ere seen
50: A roaring Lion, big with rage, whose spleen
Durst venture on the Gods, when his proud foe
On solitarie Cliffs, presumes his Bow
With his dividing steel, sufficient force
To beard his highnesse with, whose voice is hoarce
55: Already with his boyling rage, whose eyes
Shootforth contracted flame, his shag doth rise,
His tallons all unsheath, whilst a deep groan
(Like Gorgons head,) would fright his foe to stone;
But yet the generous Archer speeds amain
60: His well-taught shafts, though still they light in vain
Upon his Royall fur: The Rampant King
Unites his furie 'cause he faild a spring,
With open mouth receives the bolder Dart,
First spits it forth, and then his generous heart
65: Kindles a double flame; his spirits rise,
Dart naught but vengeance from his blazing eyes,
Seizeth his foe, and then his rending paw
Teares up his bosome, for his grinding jaw
To craunch his vanquisht heart: So, just so
70: Our Royall Lion doth entreat his foe,
With equall courage and with equall flame,
But with unequall stars, which seems to shame
And make Olympus blush: But Atlas frownd,
Swore Heaven should sink for him to th' Stygian sound,
75: If its more favouring aspect did not look
Upon the just designs; then Phebus took
The deep-divining rowles of Fate, and read
As great deliverance on my Soveraign's head,
As ever cop'd with danger: thus appeas'd
80: Thick-shouldred Atlas was again well pleas'd
Had you been there you might have heard a shout,
A suddain tempest, loud enough to rout
Joves thunder to a whisper; Th'army flyes,
And Save-the-King runs Clambering up the skies:
85: But he, brave soul, rather then think of save,
Incircled by the dead, doth court his grave;
Yet is preserv'd, and gone, Jove best knows how,
But, by Joves favour, I'l goe beat the bough.

A stately Pallace 'tis, 'tis large and tall,
90: My Leidge hath turn'd his White to a Greenhall!
His father purpl'd it! the Phancie's rare,
Since Purple, White and Green his Colours are.
But lo the Crescent-crowned Queen of Night
Spangles the double Poles with borrowed light,
95: And decks with wanton rayes her gamesome hair,
Whilst shooting stars run trick about the Aire:
And wonder much to see the sifters loome
Spin a long thread withing the strutting womb
Of a comsumptive Oake, which had not teem'd
100: An hundred years before: but yet it seem'd
Latora must be fetcht, though't be in vain,
For now my King's secured by a Lane:
A raritie indeed, since when, I'm sure
The via Regia nere was thought secure.

105:       -- -- -- But heark, the Capering brine
Doth call my Muse, to frisk a nimble twine
With it, for joy my Soveraign doth daine
T'accept the service of the prouder maine,
Whilst Zephir' whispers-forth a softer gail,
110: Whose wanton sporting swells the pregnant sail;
The furrow break in silver foam all o're,
And straight, the stout Keel plows the Norman shore;
Which Eccoeth welcome, and, repleat with joy,
Doth storm Olympus with a viv' le Roy:
115: But fortune still, as various as before,
Ventures to dally with his stars once more;
And, as an Ignis Fatuus doth climbe
Sometimes aloft, then courts its mother-slime:
So she unconstant paces foots amaine,
120: First wantons with her flattery, then disdain;
And 'cause the French, of all men, sympathize
Her most transcendent rare varieties,
She makes them be the racket that must toss
My Soveraign (like a ball,) into a loss,
125: Or band' him to an hazard, whilst his foes
Are courted for a league, a rebell nose?
Makes them forget their honour, and their blood,
For fear it should take snuffe; thus, in the bud
My Princes hopes are nipt, whilst Fiends, not men;
130: First entertain, then turn him out agen.

So have I often seen a greedy Cur
To cramb his spacious gut make a great stir,
With eager haste swallow the pleasing bit,
And then at length his paunch disgorged it.

135:      But now the storm is past, the Day is fair,
French complements evaporate to aire,
While th'Austrian Prince exceedeth France as far
As substance doth a shadow, Sol a star,
Yet still there doth some chequer'd clouds appear,
140: Like beautie-spots, within his hemisphear;
But are dispersed; and a Monck, whose hood
Vaild his designe, prevents a purple flood;
And by a Labyrinth of windings, brings
Phanatick Gustes up to rellish Kings:
145: But now the stars with better aspects crown'd
Distill rich influence, and forget they fround,
The whilst our Prince doth gradually scale
Up Fortunes wheel by steps, that doe not fail.

So have I seen Apollo's radient eye,
150: Peeping through sable Curtains of the skie:
First powder it with Argent, Or it next,
And after comment largely on the text.

But then arose a grand dispute, what Fee
The Senat held by; some would have it be
155: Fee-simple, but the greater vogue prevail,
And all conclude at last it was Fee-tail.
At whose decease no issue did succeed,
So the Reversion, as is due, must need
Fall to my Soveraign.

But, methinks, I hear
160: That Charlemaine moves in his proper sphear;
Whose harmonie exceeds Apollo's lire,
Or Orpheus crystall sphears, though all conspire
To ravish with their accents. Plato's true,
Th'old Realme of England is become a new;
165: 'Tis its Platonick year, then let my soul
Extract the spirits of joy, and crown my bowle
Brimfull with wishes, whilst the Sun keeps time,
And ecchoing shouts do foot the measured rime.
Melpomene no more, come, come, and twine
170: About our, Olive merriest of the nine,
And, when thy jolly store is emptied, then
Its quintescence extract, and that agen.

Europa's Bull went wading by degrees,
First dipt his golden hoofes, anon his knees;
175: So hath our Soveraign done, yet still we see
He is to us, as Jove to Semele.

Thus have we seen a swelling Cloud arise,
Whose spacious bulk did Lord it o're the skies,
And golden Phebus did a Prisoner doom
180: To the black conclave of it's sooty womb,
But thanks to Heaven, a more refulgent beam
Turn'd the Usurper to it's former steam.

And since our glittering Sun, with rayes full grown,
On high Olympus top hath fixt his Throne,
185: If any ambitious meteors shall appear,
Let them prove falling-stars in's hemisphear.

By James Bernard.

Laurence Price
Win at first, lose at last.

[undated: after 29 May?]

    The narrative here brings events up to the moment after Charles has returned, but only just.

    This ballad evidently became a very popular piece since it was so often reprinted in slightly different forms. Internal evidence suggests that it may have been written in response to what might have been an earlier ballad called A New game at Cards. Or, The three Nimble Shuffling Cheaters. To a pleasant new tune, Or, what you please (nd; O=Wood 401 (147/148), which tells of a game between "three cheaters," an Irishman, a Scot and an "English-man so round."

    Wilkins notes: "This humorous piece, in which the events of the time are narrated in a supposed game of cards, closes the satiric chronicle of the Commonwealth. It is one of the very few ballads, written against the Rump Parliament between the years 1639 and 1661, that is entirely free from licentiousness, virulence, and falsehood" (1:144).

Win at first, lose at last; or, a New Game at Cards;
Wherein the King recovered his Crown and Traitors lost their heads.
To the Tune of, Yee Gallants that delight to play.


YEe merry hearts that love to play
At Cards, see who hath wone the day.
You that once did sadly sing,
The knave oth'Clubs hath wone the King,
5: Now more happy times yee have,
The King hath overcome the Knave,
The King hath overcome the Knave.

Not long ago a Game was playd,
When three Crowns at the stake was layd,
10: England had no cause to boast,
Knaves wone that which Kings had lost,
Coaches gave the way to Carts,
And Clubs were better Cards than Hearts.
And Clubs, &c.

15: Old Noll was the Knave oth'Clubs,
And Dad of such as Preach in Tubs:
Bradshaw, Ireton and Pride,
Were three other Knaves beside,
And they playd with half the Pack,
20: Throwing out all cards but black,
Throwing out, &c.

But the just Fates threw these four out,
Which made the Loyall party shout,
The Pope would fain have had the Stock,
25: And with these Cards have wip'd his Dock,
But soon the Devill these Cards snatches,
To dip in brimstone and make matches,
To dip in, &c.

But still the sport for to maintain,
30: Lambert, Hasleridge, and Vane,
And one-ey'd Hewson, took their places,
Knaves were better Cards than Aces,
But Fleetwood hee himself did save
Because hee was more Fool than Knave.
35:           Because, &c.

Cromwell, though hee so much had wone,
Yet hee had an unlucky Son:
Hee sits still and not regards
Whilst cunning Gamesters set the Cards,
40: And thus alasse, poore silly Dick,
He playd a while, but lost the trick,
He playd, &c.

The Rumpers that had wone whole Towns,
The spoyls of Mytres, and of Crowns:
45: Were not contented but grew rough,
As though they had not wone enough,
They kept the Cards still in their hands,
To play for Tythes, and Colledge Lands,
To play, &c.


50: THe Presbyters began to fret,
That they were like to lose the set,
Unto the Rump they did appeal,
And said it was their turns to deal,
Then dealt the Presbyterians, but
55: The Army sware, that they would cut.
The Army sware, that they would cut.

The Forain Lands began to wonder,
To see what Gallants wee liv'd under,
That they which Christmasse did forswear
60: Should follow Gameing all the year,
Nay more, which was the strangest thing,
To play so long without a King,
To play, &c.

The bold Phanaticks present were,
65: Like Butlers with their boxes there,
Not doubting, but with every Game
Some profit would redownd to them,
Because they were the Gamsters Minions,
And every day broach'd new Opinions.
70:           And every, &c.

But Cheshire men (as Stories say)
Began the shew them Gamesters play.
Brave Booth, 1 and all his Army strives,
To save the stakes, or lose their lives.
75: But Oh sad fate! they were undone,
By playing of their cards too soon,
By playing, &c.

Thus all the while a Club was Trump,
There's none could ever beat the Rump,
80: Until a Noble General came
And gave the Cheaters a clear slamm,
His finger did out-wit their noddy,
And screw'd up poor Jack Lamberts body,
And screw'd, &c.

85: Then Hasilrig began to scowl,
And said the General plaid foul,
Look to him Partners, for I tell yee,
This Monk had got a King in's belly,
Not so, quoth Monk, but I beleeve,
90: Sir Arthur has a Knave in's sleeve,
Sir Arthur, &c.

Then General Monk did understand
The Rump were peeping into's hand,
Hee wisely kept his Cards from sight,
95: Which put the Rump into a fright,
Hee saw how many were betray'd,
That shew'd their Cards before they play'd,
That shew'd, &c.

At length, quoth hee, some Cards we lack,
100: I will not play with half a pack,
What you cast out, I will bring in,
And a new game we will begin;
With that the Standers by did say,
They never yet saw fairer play,
They never, &c.

But presently this game was past,
And for a second Knaves were cast,
All new Cards, not stain'd with spots,
As was the Rumpers and the Scots,
110: Here good Gamesters play'd their parts
They turn'd up the King oth'Hearts,
They turn'd, &c.

After this Game was done, I think
The Standers by had cause to drink,
115: And the Loyal Subjects sing,
Farewel Knaves, and welcome King,
For till wee saw the King return'd,
Wee wish'd the Cards had all been burn'd,
Wee wish'd the Cards had all been burn'd.


London, Printed for Fran. Grove on Snow-hill. Entred according to Order.

[1]In July 1659, Sir George Booth captured Chester as the start of his attempt to reintroduce monarchy. he was shortly after defeated and captured by Lambert's troops who recovered the city.

Abraham Cowley
Ode, Upon the Blessed Restoration

31 May

   Titlepage: ODE, / UPON / The Blessed Restoration / and Returne / OF / HIS SACRED MAJESTIE, / Charls the Second. / [rule] / By A. Cowley. / [rule] / Virgil. -- -- Quod optanti Div-m promittere nemo / Auderet, volvenda dies, en, attulit ultro. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Herringman, and are to be sold at his / Shop on the Lower Walk in the New Exchange. / Anno Dom. 1660.

   Abraham Cowley (1618-1667) was among the small group of notable poets who, in 1660, found themselves liable to the embarrassing accusation of having accomodated with the enemy.

   He had shown an early aptitude for writing verse while at Westminster School, publishing Poetical Blossoms in 1633 while aged 15. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge in 1637 and continued to write and publish Latin and English verses, including The Guardian, a comic drama performed in 1641 during a visit by prince Charles. Cowley subsequently revised this into The Cutter of Coleman Street for performance after the Restoration. While still at Trinity, he began his unfinished biblical epic, The Davideis, but was ejected from Cambridge in 1643-44 and moved to St Johns College, Oxford, where he became friendly with Richard Crashaw and the circle of royalists around Lord Falkland. While at Oxford he started and abandoned a second epic, The Civil War. In 1646 he followed Henrietta Maria to France, engaging in various diplomatic missions for the exiled court. His collection of poems, The Mistress (1647) became the most popular volume for a generation.

   In 1656, Cowley's Poems was first published, but he was arrested in London that year and remained there on bail. According to Thomas Sprat, he was working undercover for the exiled court, abandoning poetry for medicine as part of his cover. In 1657 he was created M. D. at Oxford by a government order [check Woods] that led many to suspect he had changed allegiances.

    Cowley's Ode is highly figurative, blending biblical and classical allusions with motifs from astrology and medicine. Highly dynastic in argument, the poem is structured as a royal entry in which the king, other members of the royal family, Monk, and members of the two houses of parliament mingle with allegorical personifications of Liberty, Plenty, Riches, Honour and Safety. Along the way Cowley notices the slightly embarrassing absence of Henrietta Maria, who had stayed behind in France having become estranged from Charles as a result of her Catholicism.



NOW Blessings on you all, ye peacefull Starrs,
Which meet at last so kindly, and dispence
Your universall gentle Influence,
To calm the stormy World, and still the rage of Warrs.
5:      Nor whilst around the Continent,
Plenipotentiary Beams ye sent,
Did your Pacifick Lights disdain,
In their large Treaty, to contain
The World apart, o're which do reign
10: Your seven fair Brethren of great Charls his Wane;
No Star amongst ye all did, I believe,
Such vigorous assistance give,
As that which thirty years ago,
At 1Charls his Birth, did, in despight
15:      Of the proud Sun's Meridian Light,
His future Glories, and this Year foreshow,
No lesse effects then these we may
Be assur'd of from that powerfull Ray,
Which could out-face the Sun, and overcome the Day.


20:      Auspicious Star again arise,
And take thy Noon-tide station in the skies.
Again all Heaven prodigiously adorn;
For loe! thy Charls again is Born.
He then was born with, and to Pain;
25:      With, and to Joy he's born again.
And wisely for this second Birth,
By which thou certain wert to bless
The Land with full and flourishing Happinesse
Thou mad'st of that fair Month thy choice,
30:      In which Heaven, Aire, and Sea, and Earth,
And all that's in them all does smile, and does rejoyce.
'Twas a right Season, and the very Ground
Ought with a face of Paradice to be found,
Than when we were to entertain
35: Felicityr and Innocence again.


Shall we again (good Heaven!) that blessed Pair behold,
Which the abused People fondly sold
For the bright Fruit of the Forbidden Tree,
By seeking all like gods to be?
40: Will Peace her Halcyon Nest venture to build
Upon a Shore with Shipwracks fill'd?
And trust that Sea, where she can hardly say,
Sh'has known these twenty years one calmy day?
Ah! mild and gaullesse Dove,
45: Which dost the pure and candid Dwellings love:
Canst thou in Albion still delight?
Still canst thou think it White?
Will ever fair Religion appear
In these deformed Ruines? will she clear
50: Th'Aug'an Stables of her Churches here?
Will Justice hazard to be seen
Where a High Court of Justice e're has been?
Will not the Tragique Scene,
And Bradshaw's bloody Ghost affright her there, 2
55:      Her who should never fear?
Then may White-hall for Charls his Seat be fit
If Justice shall endure at Westminster to sit.


Of all, me thinks, we least should see
The chearfull looks again of Liberty.
60: That Name of Cromwell, which does freshly still
The Curses of so many sufferers fill
Is still enough to make her stay,
And jealous for a while remain,
Lest as a Tempest carried him away,
65: Some Hurican should bring him back again.
Or she might justlier be afraid
Lest that great Serpent, which was all a Tayl,
(And in his poys'nous folds whole Nations prisoners made)
Should a third time perhaps prevail
70: To joyn again, and with worse sting arise,
As it had done, when cut in pieces 3 twice.
Return, return, ye Sacred Fower,4
And dread your perisht Enemies no more,
Your fears are causelesse all, and vain
75:      Whilst you return in Charls his Train,
For God does Him, that He might You restore,
Nor shall the world him onely call,
Defender of the Faith, but of ye All.


Along with you Plenty and Riches go,
80: With a full Tide to every Port they flow,
With a warm fruitfull wind o're all the Country blow.
Honour does as ye march her Trumpet sound
The Arts encompasse you around,
And against all Alarms of Fear,
85:      Safety it self brings up the Rear.
And in the head of this Angelique band,
Lo, how the Goodly Prince at last does stand
(O righteous God!) on his own happy Land.
'Tis Happy now, which could, with so much ease
90: Recover from so desperate a Disease,
A various complicated Ill,
Whose every Symptome was enough to kill,
In which one part of Three Phrenzey possest,
And Lethargy the rest.
95: 'Tis Happy, which no Bleeding does endure
A Surfet of such Blood to cure.
'Tis Happy, which beholds the Flame
In which by hostile hands it ought, to burn,
Or that which if from Heaven it came
100: It did but well deserve, all into Bonfire turn.


We fear'd (and almost toucht the black degree
Of instant Expectation)
That the three dreadfull Angels we
Of Famine, Sword, and Plague should here establisht see,
105: (God's great Triumvirate of Desolation)
To scourge and to destroy the sinfull Nation
Justly might Heav'n Protectors such as those,
And such Committees for their Safety'impose,
Upon a Land which scarcely Better Chose.
110:       We fear'd that the Fanatique War
Which men against God's Houses did declare,
Would from th'Almighty Enemy bring down
A sure destruction on our Own,
We read th'instructive Histories which tell
115: Of all those endlesse mischiefs that befell,
The Sacred Town which God had lov'd so well,
After that fatall Curse had once bin said,
His Blood be upon ours, and on our Childrens head.
We knew, though there a greater Blood was spilt,
120:      'Twas scarcely done with greater Guilt.
We know those miseries did befall
Whilst they rebel'd against that Prince whom all
The rest of Mankind did the Love, and Joy, of Mankind call.


Already was the shaken Nation
125: Into a wild and deform'd Chaos brought.
And it was hasting on (we thought)
Even to the last of Ills, Annihilation.
When in the midst of this confused Night,
Loe, the blest Spirit mov'd, and there was Light.
130: For in the glorious Generall's previous Ray,
We saw a new created Day.
We by it saw, though yet in Mists it shone,
The beauteous Work of Order moving on,
Ere the Great Light, our Sun, his Beams did show,
135:      Our Sun it self appears but now,
Where are the men who bragg'd that God did blesse,
And with the marks of good successe
Signe his allowance of their wickednesse?
Vain men! who thought the Divine Power to find
140: In the fierce Thunder and the violent Wind:
God came not till the storm was past,
In still voice of Peace he came at last.
The cruell businesse of Destruction,
May by the Claws of the great Fiend be done.
145: Here, here we see th'Almighty's hand indeed,
Both by the Beauty of the Work, wee see't, and by the Speed.


He who had seen the noble Brittish Heir,
Even in that ill disadvantageous Light,
With which misfortunes strive t'abuse our sight;
150: He who had seen him in his Clowd so bright:
He who had seen the double Pair
Of Brothers heavenly good, and Sisters heavenly fair,
Might have perceiv'd (me-thinks) with ease,
(But wicked men see onely what they please)
155: That God had no intent t'extinguish quite
The pious King's eclipsed Right.
He who had seen how by the power Divine
All the young Branches of this Royall Line
Did in their fire without consuming shine,
160: How through a rough Red-sea they had been led,
By Wonders guarded, and by Wonders fed.
How many years of trouble and distresse
They'd wandred in their fatall Wilderness,
And yet did never murmur or repine;
165:      Might (me-thinks) plainly understand,
That after all these conquer'd Tryalls past,
Th'Almighty Mercy would at last
Conduct them with a strong un-erring hand
To their own Promis'd Land.
170:      For all the glories of the Earth
Ought to be'entail'd by right of Birth,
And all Heaven's blessings to come down
Upon his Race, to whom alone was given
The double Royalty of Earth and Heaven,
175: Who crown'd the Kingly with the Martyr's Crown.


The Martyr's blood was said of old to be
The seed from whence the Church did grow.
The Royall Blood which dying Charls did sow,
Becomes no lesse the seed of Royaltie.
180:      'Twas in dishonour sown,
We find it now in glory grown,
The Grave could but the drosse of it devowr;
'Twas sown in weaknesse, and 'tis rais'd in power.
We now the Question well decided see,
185:      Which Eastern Wits did once contest
At the Great Monarch's Feast,
Of all on Earth what things the strongest be:
And some for Women, some for Wine did plead;
That is, for Folly and for Rage,
190:      Two things which we have known indeed
Strong in this latter Age.
But as 'tis prov'd by Heaven at length,
The King and Truth have greatest strength,
When they their sacred force unite,
195:      And twine into one Right,
No frantick Common-wealths or Tyrannies,
No Cheats, and Perjuries, and Lies,
No Nets of human Policies.
No stores of Arms or Gold (though you could joyn
200: Those of Peru to the great London Mine)
No Towns, no Fleets by Sea, or Troops by Land,
No deeply entrencht Islands can withstand,
Or any small resistance bring
Against the naked Truth, and the unarmed King.


205: The foolish Lights which Travailers beguile,
End the same night when they begin; 5
No Art so far can upon Nature win
As e're to put out Stars, or long keep Meteors in.
Where's now that Ignis Fatuus, which erewhile
210:      Misled our wandring Isle?
Where's the Impostor Cromwell gon?
Where's now that Falling-star his Son?
Where's the large Comet now whose rageing flame
So fatall to our Monarchy became?
215: Which o're our heads in such proud horror stood,
Insatiate with our Ruine and our Blood?
The fiery Tayl did to vast length extend;
And twice for want of Fuel did expire,
And twice renew'd the dismall Fire;
220: Though long the Tayl, we saw at last it's end.
The flames of one triumphant day,
Which like an Anti-Comet here
Did fatally to that appear,
For ever frighted it away;
225: Then did th'aloted howr of dawning Right
First strike our ravisht sight,
Which Malice or which Art no more could stay,
Then Witches Charms can retardment bring
To the Resuscitation of the Day,
230:      Or Resurrection of the Spring.
We welcome both, and with improv'd delight
Blesse the preceding Winter and the Night.


Man ought his Future Happinesse to fear,
If he be alwaies Happy here.
235:      He wants the Bleeding Mark of Grace,
The Circumcision of the Chosen race.
If no one part of him supplies
The duty of a Sacrifice,
He is (we doubt) reserv'd intire
240:      As a whole Victime for the Fire.
Besides even in this World below,
To those who never did Ill Fortune know,
The good does nauseous or insipid grow.
Consider man's whole Life, and you'l confesse,
245: The Sharp Ingredient of some bad successe
Is that which gives the Tast to all his Happinesse.
But the true Method of Felicitie,
Is when the worst
Of humane Life is plac'd the first,
250: And when the Child's Correction proves to be
The cause of perfecting the Man;
Let our weak Dayes lead up the Van,
Let the brave Second and Triarian Band,
Firm against all impression stand,
255:      The first we may defeated see;
The Virtue and the Force of these, are sure of Victorie.


Such are the years (great Charls) which now we see
Begin their glorious March with Thee:
Long may their March to Heaven, and still Triumphant be.
260:      Now thou art gotten once before,
Ill Fortune never shall or'e-take thee more.
To see't again, and pleasure in it find,
Cast a disdainfull look behind,
Things which offend, when present, and affright,
265: In Memory, well painted, move delight.
Enjoy then all thy'afflictions now;
Thy Royall Father's came at last:
Thy Martyrdom's already past.
And different Crowns to both ye owe.
270: No Gold did e're the Kingly Temples bind,
Than thine more try'd and more refin'd.
As a choice Medall for Heaven's Treasury
God did stamp first upon one side of Thee
The Image of his suffering Humanity:
275: On th'other side, turn'd now to sight, does shine
The glorious Image of his Power Divine.


So when the wisest Poets seek
In all their liveliest colours to set forth
A Picture of Heroick worth,
280: (The Pious Trojan, or the Prudent Greek)
They chuse some comely Prince of heavenly Birth,
(No proud Gigantick son of Earth,
Who strives t'usurp the god's forbidden seat)
They feed him not with Nectar, and the Meat
285:      That cannot without Joy be eat.
But in the cold of want, and storms of advers chance,
They harden his young Virtue by degrees;
The beauteous Drop first into Ice does freez,
And into solid Chrystall next advance.
290: His murdered friends and kindred he does see,
And from his flaming Country flee.
Much is he tost at Sea, and much at Land,
Does long the force of angry gods withstand.
He does long troubles and long wars sustain,
295:      Ere he his fatall Birth-right gain.
With no lesse time or labour can
Destiny build up such a Man,
Who's with sufficient virtue fill'd
His ruin'd Country to rebuild.


300:      Nor without cause are Arms from Heaven,
To such a Hero by the Poets given.
No human Metall is of force t'oppose
So many and so violent blows.
Such was the Helmut, Breast-plate, Shield,
305:      Which Charls in all Attaques did wield:
And all the Weapons Malice e're could try,
Of all the severall makes of wicked Policy,
Against this Armour struck, but at the stroke,
Like Swords of Ice, in thousand pieces broke.
310: To Angells and their Brethren Spirits above,
No show on Earth can sure so pleasant prove,
As when they great misfortunes see
With Courage born and Decencie.
So were they born when Worc'ster's dismall Day
315: Did all the terrors of black Fate display.
So were they born when no Disguises clowd
His inward Royalty could shrowd,
And one of th'Angels whom just God did send
To guard him in his noble flight,
320: (A Troop of Angels did him then attend)
Assur'd me in a Vision th'other night,
That He (and who could better judge than He?)
Did then more Greatness in him see,
More Lustre and more Majesty,
325: Than all his Coronation Pomp can shew to Human Eye.


Him and his Royall Brothers when I saw
New marks of honor and of glorie,
From their affronts and sufferings draw,
And look like Heavenly Saints even in their Purgatory.
340: Me-thoughts I saw the three Jud'an Youths,
(Three unhurt Martyrs for the noblest Truths)
In the Chald'an Furnace walk;
How chearfully and unconcern'd they talk!
No hair is sindg'd, no smallest beauty blasted,
345:      Like painted Lamps they shine unwasted.
The greedy fire it self dares not be fed
With the blest Oyl of an Anoynted Head.
The honorable Flame
(Which rather Light we ought to name)
350: Does, like a Glory, compasse them around,
And their whole Body's crown'd.
What are those Two Bright Creatures which we see
Walk with the Royall Three
In the same Ordeall fire,
355:      And mutuall Joys inspire?
Sure they the beauteous Sisters are,
Who whilst they seek to bear their share,
Will suffer no affliction to be there.
Lesse favour to those Three of old was shown,
360:      To solace with their company.
The fiery Trialls of Adversity;
Two Angels joyn with these, the others had but One.


Come forth, come forth, ye men of God beloved,
And let the power now of that flame,
365: Which against you so impotent became,
On all your Enemies be proved.
Come, mighty Charls, desire of Nations, come:
Come, you triumphant Exile, home.
He's come, he's safe at shore; I hear the noise
370: Of a whole Land which does at once rejoyce,
I hear th'united People's sacred voice.
The Sea which circles us around,
Ne're sent to Land so loud a sound;
The mighty showr sends to the Sea a Gale,
380:      And swells up every sail;
The Bells and Guns are scarcely heard at all;
The Artificiall Joy's drown'd by the Naturall.
All England but one Bonefire seems to be,
One 'tna shooting flames into the Sea.
385: The Starry Worlds which shine to us afar,
Take ours at this time for a Star.
With Wine all rooms, with Wine the Conduits flow;
And We, the Priests of a Poetick rage,
Wonder that in this Golden Age
390:      The Rivers too should not do so.
There is no Stoick sure who would not now,
Even some Excesse allow:
And grant that one wild fit of chearfull folly
Should end our twenty years of dismall Melancholly.


395:      Where's now the Royall Mother, where,
To take her mighty share
In this so ravishing sight,
And with the part she takes to add to the Delight?
Ah! why are Thou not here,6
400: Thou always Best, and now the Happiest Queen,
To see our Joy, and with new Joy be seen?
God has a bright Example made of Thee,
To shew that Woman-kind may be
Above that Sex, which her Superior seems,
405: In wisely manageing the wide Extreams
Of great Affliction, great Felicitie.
How well those different Vertues Thee become,
Daughter of Triumphs, Wife of Martyrdom!
Thy Princely Mind with so much Courage bore
410: Affliction, that it dares return no more;
With so much Goodnesse us'd Felicitie,
That it cannot refrain from comming back to Thee;
'Tis come, and seen to day in all its Braverie.


415: Who's that Heroique Person leads it on,
And gives it like a glorious Bride
(Richly adorn'd with Nuptiall Pride)
Into the hands now of thy Son?
'Tis the good Generall, the Man of Praise,
420:      Whom God at last in gracious pitty
Did to th'enthralled Nation raise,
Their great Zerubabel to be,7
To lose the Bonds of long Captivitie,
And to rebuild their Temple and their City.
425: For ever blest may He and His remain,
Who, with a vast, though less-appearing gain,
Preferr'd the solid Great above the Vain,
And to the world this Princely Truth has shown,
That more 'tis to Restore, than to Usurp a Crown.
430: Thou worthyest Person of the Brittish Story,
(Though 'tis not small the Brittish glory.)
Did I not know my humble Verse must be
But ill proportion'd to the Heighth of Thee,
Thou, and the World should see,
435: How much my Muse, the Foe of Flatterie,
Does make true Praise her Labour and Designe;
An Iliad or an 'neid should be Thine.


And ill should We deserve this happy day,
If no acknowledgments we pay
440:      To you, great Patriots, of the Two
Most truly Other Houses now,
Who have redeem'd from hatred and from shame
A Parliament's once venerable name.
And now the Title of a House restore
445: To that, which was but slaughter-house before.
If my advice, ye Worthies, might be ta'ne,
Within those reverend places,
Which now your living presence graces,
Your Marble-Statues always should remain,
450: To keep alive your usefull Memorie,
And to your Successors th'Example be
Of Truth, Religion, Reason, Loyaltie.
For though a firmly setled Peace
May shortly make your publick labours cease,
455: The gratefull Nation will with joy consent,
That in this sense you should be said,
(Though yet the Name sounds with some dread)
To be the Long, the Endlesse Parliament.
'Twould be the richliest furnish'd House (no doubt)
If your Heads always stood within, and the Rump-heads without.


[1]In July 1659, Sir George Booth captured Chester as the start of his attempt to reintroduce monarchy. he was shortly after defeated and captured by Lambert's troops who recovered the city.

[2] President of the High Court of Justice which tried Charles I, John Bradshaw had died in 1659.

[3]pieces] pieecs O, LT, L, OB, OW

[4]Henrietta Maria bore six children to Charles I; a son who died shortly after birth, then Charles, Mary, James, Elizabeth, Henry and Henriette-Anne. At the time of the Restoration, Charles had two brothers and two sisters: Cowley lines 150-56 speak of pairs of brothers and sisters. Hutton gives two sisters: "Mary, who had married the Prince of Orange, and Henrietta, a child still in the keeping of their mother, the widowed Queen Henrietta Maria" (1985: 149). Henry died 13 Sept 1660; Mary died 24 December 1660. What happened to Elizabeth? The woodcut to England's Joy in a Lawful Triumph illustrates the following: James, Duke of York (born 13 Oct 1633), Henry, Duke of Gloucester (born 0000), Mary (born 4 Nov 1631), Elizabeth (born 19 Dec 1635), and Anne (born 17 March 1636).

[5]literarally the chimera, a frequent motif in these poems; cf Dryden's Religio Laici

[6]Having spent the years in exile trying to link the royalist cause with Catholicism, Henrietta Maria did not accompany Charles to England. She came over from France in October to try to prevent a scandal involving Hyde's daughter Anne, who claimed her pregnancy was the result of a secret marriage to James, Duke of York. HM returned to France in January. (Hutton, 1989: 156; Hutton 1985: 149-50).

[7]Zerubabel, or Zerubbabel (literally "born in Babylon"), was a govenor of Judah whom God, through the prophecies of Haggai, called upon to restore the temple; see Haggai passim, and Zech. 4.6-7.

W. L.
Good newes from the Netherlands

31 May

From the
A Congratulatory Panegyrick, composed by a true Lover of his
and Country.

REjoice, brave Brittans now for Charls our King
Is comming home, into his Realms to bring
Peace, Piety, and Plenty, Law and Love,
Religion, Justice, and what else may move
5: Your hearts to exultations; Trade, and Arts
Shall flourish more then ever, in all parts
Of his Dominions, and we shall be free
As well in Conscience, as propriety;
So that enjoying this sweet liberty
10: Vnder his blest Reign, we shall happier be,
After those Tepests of Intestine Wars,
Than if we ne'r had felt, and worn their scars.
No former Age can boast, since Britain stood,
A Prince more Sweet, more Great in heart, more Good,
15: More Wise, most Iust, more Try'd in all Events
Of various chance: Forraign experience
In State Affairs, in Wars, join'd to his own
Rich natural Genius, and his Theory known,
Make him a compleat Monarch. Oh! if I
20: Could tell you with what magnanimity
He bare the rude assaults of adverse fate
When lost in hope, and ruin'd in Estate,
Yet triumph'd by Heroick Patience,
And strong Faith in the Divine Providence,
25: How like a firm Colossus, stil the same,
He stood the Winds which from the North-side came,
You would conclude, that He who could command
Himself so well, can rightly rule the Land,
Yea govern the whole World: Prepare to sing
30: Po/eans of joy then to our Gracious King,
Compose rich Panegyricks to his praise,
And Poets, crown your temples all with Bays,
Cut down your Woods and Forrests to make Fires
May flame to heaven, let Bels ring your desires,
35: And all your Canons loud proclaim the King,
Open your hands and hearts to bring him in:
Establish him in Power, in Dignity,
And in his lawfull just Authority:
Give him his due Prerogative, let him be
40: No King upon conditions, but Free,
Not Limited, not onely Titular,
But Absolute, Himself, and Singular,
For 'tis a Priviledge the Law allows
Unto his Birth, to which it humbly bows:
45: Rather adde to the Flowers of his Crown,
Then take from thence, and purchase a Renown
Shall never die: This glorious work thus done,
Thus perfected, with a Beam of the Sun
Shall be subscrib'd, shall make you great in fame,
50: And great in fortune, rich in a fair name
Of Loyal Subjects, which shall ever be
Entail'd on you, and your posterity:
Give now your Votes to this, expresse your joy
Of heart, and cry with me, Vive le Roy.

W. L.

A Countrey Song

May 1661

   Thomason dated this "May 1661" and commented "Loud" at the end. Ebsworth reprinted it in volume 9 of his Roxburghe Ballads, noted that it is not to the tune of "When the king enjoyes his own again, insisted that it appeared in "early May 1660," and erroneously stated that it was printed in blackletter.



COme, come away,
To the Temple and pray,
And sing with a pleasant strain:
The Schismatick's dead,
5:           The Liturgy's read,
And the King enjoyes his own again.


The Vicar is glad,
The Clerk is not sad,
And the Parish cannot refrain,
10:           To leap, and rejoyce,
And lift up their voyce,
That the King enjoyes his own again.


The Countrey doth bow,
To old Iustices now,
15: That long aside have been lain:
The Bishop's restor'd,
God is rightly ador'd,
And the King enjoyes his own again.


Committee-men fall,
20:            And Majors Generall, 1
No more doe those Tyrants reign:
There's no Sequestration,
Nor new Decimation:
For the King enjoyes the Sword again.


25:            The Scholar doth look,
With joy on his Book;
Tom whistles and plows amain:
Soldiers plunder no more,
As they did heretofore:
30: For the King enjoyes the Sword again.


The Citizens Trade,
The Merchants do Lade,
And send their Ships into Spain:
No Pirates at Sea,
35:           To make them a prey,
For the King enjoyes the Sword again.


The old Man and Boy,
The Clergy and Lay,
Their joyes cannot contain:
40:            'Tis better then of late,
With the Church and the State,
Now the King enjoyes the Sword again.


Let's render our praise,
For these happy dayes,
45: To God and our Soveraign:
Your drinking give ore,
Swear not as before:
For the King bears not the Sword in vain.


Fanaticks be quiet,
And keep a good Diet,
To cure your crazy Brain:
Throw off your disguise,
Go to Church and be wise;
For the King bears not the Sword in vain.


55:           Let Faction and Pride,
Be now laid aside,
That Truth and Peace may reign:
Let every one mend,
And there is an end,
60: For the King bears not the Sword in vain.

[1]Lambert and Fleetwood

England's Captivity Returned


   Since only the first part of this ballad survives, one can only speculate on the intriguing irony of the title. Ebsworth issued a version of the fragment of England's Captivity (RB, 9:787-8) with some commentary. He notes of the two woodcuts that the first "a square-bordered portrait of John Pym, with pointed beard and broad overlying collar; 2nd, on a large scale, the head and armoured neck of Charles II, a regal crown above," and offers May 1660 as the likely date (9:788), though without any substantial reasons.

   The verso contains the second part of The True Lovers' Knot Untied (rpt. by Ebsworth, Roxburghe Ballads 7:599-603). Originally printed circa 1610-15, it concerns the secret marriage of Lady Arbella Stuart to William Seymour which had caused James to imprison her in the Tower. Seymour died in 1660, presumably causing the reprinting of this ballad. My thanks to professor Sara Jayne Steen for identifying this partial ballad. Ebsworth lists copies including the following: Rox. 11.468; Pepys IV.44 [not found]; Bagford II.30 [not found]; Euing, 356 [found]; Wood 25,16: first line variously "As I to ireland did pass."

Englands Captivity Returned, With A Farwel to COMMON-WEALTHS. To the Tune of, The brave Sons of Mars.


COme lets now rejoyce,
All with a loud voice,
at the return of Charles our King,
With a hearty good prayer,
5: He may never come there,
Where the Traytors his Father did bring

Let us all make a noise,
Both young men and boyes,
with a great acclamation of joy
10: Whilst those Traytors lament,
(But want grace t' repent)
Which so long did our king annoy.

Farwel a free State,
Such Rascals we hate,
15:           as we here of late dayes have had,
Such Plots theyd contrive,
When they were alive,
enough for to make us all mad.

But weel let them alone,
20: Which from hence are gone,
cause their reward will be paid them
But leave them where they are,
Weel neither make or mar,
nor never from thence weel perswade them

25: My Lord Monck's the man,
Though his lifes but a span,
he hath improved that little so well,
That in true loyalty,
I can none espie
30:           that can this great worthy excell.

To bring home our King,
Twas the only thing,
could make all things well for the people.
And such joy for't there was,
35: As in the streets I did pass,
that the Bells almost leapt out oth' Steeple.

[verso: The True Lovers' Knot Untied]
The second part to the same Tune.

Whom of your Nobles will do so,
 for to maintain the Commonalty,
Such multitudes would never grow,
nor be such those of poverty.

5: I would I had a Milk-maid been,
 or born of some more low degree,
Then I might have loved where I like,
and no man could have hindered me.

Or would I were some Yeomans child,
10:  for to receive my postion now,
According unto my degree
as other Virgins whom I know.

The hightest branch that springs aloft,
 needs must beshade the middle tree,
15: Needs must the shadow of them both,
 shadow the third in this degree.

But when the tree tree is cut and gone,
 and from the ground is born away,
The lowest tree that there doth stand,
20:  in time may grow as high as they.

Once when I thought to have been Queen
 but yet that still I do deny,
I know your grace had right to th'Crown
 before Elizabeth did dy.

25: You of the eldest Sister came,
 I of the second in degree,
The Earl of Hertford of the third,
 a man of Royall blood quoth she.

And so good night my Soveraign Liege,
30:  since in the Tower I must ly,
I hope your Grace will condescend,
 that I may have my liberty.

Lady Arebella said our King,
 I to your freedome would consent
35: If you would turn and go to Church,
 there to receive the Sacrament.

And so good night Arabella fair.
 our King to her replied again,
I will take Counsel of my Nobility,
40:  that you your freedome may obtain.

Once more to Prison must I go,
 Lady Arabella then did say,
To leave my Love breeds all my wo,
 the which will be my lives decay.

45: Love is a knot none can unknit,
 fancy a liking of the heart,
He whom I love I cannot forget,
 though from his presence I must part

The meanest people enjoy their mates,
50:  but I was born unhappily,
For being crost by cruel fate,
 I want both love and liberty.

But death I hope, will end the strife,
 Farewel, farewel, dear love quoth she
55: Once had I thought to have been thy wife,
 but now am forc'd to part from thee.

At this sad meeting the bad cause,
 in heart and mind to grieve full sore,
After that Arabella fair,
60:  did never see Lord Seymore more.


Part VI. Loyal Expressions, June

Sir William Lower
"An Acrostick Poem.
In honour of his Majesty

   [after 2 June]
Titlepage: A / RELATION / IN FORM of JOURNAL, / OF THE / VOIAGE And RESIDENCE / Which / The most EXCELLENT and most MIGHTY PRINCE / CHARLS THE II / KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, &c. / Hath made in Holland, from the 25 of May, / to the 2 of June, 1660. / Rendered into English out of the Original French, / By / Sir WILLIAM LOWER, Knight. / [garter arms] / HAGUE, / Printed by ADRIAN VLACK, / Anno M. DC. LX. / With Priviledge of the Estates of Holland and West-Freesland. /

   On Lower see DND, Woods Ath Oxon [under Tho. Salesbury] and 3:544, and William Bryan Gates's published doctoral thesis, The Dramatic Works and Translations of Sir William Lower, with a Reprint of "The Enchanted Lovers" (Philadelphia, [University of Pennsylvania], 1932) [L 11856.bbb.4]. Gates gives us the following:

   Lower was from old Cornish family, born c. 1600 at Tremere, St Tudy; Woods reports him to have travelled in France, fought for the Royalists: first play was The Phoenix in her Flames (1639). By June 1644, L rank of Lt col and made lt-governor of Wallingford where he kidnapped the mayor in order to pressure the town to pay king's levy -- didn't work, but L was knighted 27 March 1645; prisoned by Parl from jan 1646 for a year; went to Holland sometime before or by 1655 having been left some estates there; (cf Masson's Life of Milton, CPSD); he died in 1662 leaving a considerable estate. The will includes "To my Blackamore Boy John forty shillings and alsoe the silver coller and cuffes which I have ordered and directed to bee given him." (cited Gates p. 19).

   Gates ignores the Relation beyond commenting that "the engravings are as excellent and interesting as the acrostics of Lower are bad" (Gates p. 23).

   On Charles touching for the King's Evil: "It is certain, that the King hath very often touched the sick, as well at Breda, where he touched two hundred and sixty, from Saturday the 17. of April, to Sunday the 23. of May, as at Bruges and Bruxels, during the residence he made there; and the English assure, that not only it was not without success, since it was the experience that drew thither every day, a great number of those diseased, even from the most remote Provinces of Germany..." (p. 78) See discussion starts p. 74

   This prose volume ends with a series of verses by Lower, some of them comments upon the large illustrations: "The Deputies of the Estates of Holland complement the King at Delf" (p. 109), "A Poetical Description of the Batavian Court" (pp. 110-111), "The Great Feast The Estates of Holland made to the King, and to the Royal family" (pp. 111-112), "His Majesty taking his leave in the Assembly of the Estates Generall" (p. 112), "His Majesty Taking his leave in the Assembly of the Estates of Holland" (p. 113), "On His Majesties Departure from the Hage [sic] to his Fleet before Scheveling" (p. 114), the acrostick here (p. 115), "An Acrostick Poem. On the most Illustrious and most Heroick Prince James Duke of York" (p. 116), "An Acrostick Poem In Honour of his Excellence the Lord General Monck, Duke of Albermarl, &c" (p. 116).

   In "The Printer to the Reader," Vlack apologises for the volume being "tardive," but the engravers of the plates took too long (no sig). The plates are signed variously "N. Venne In. David Philippe Fc.", and "J. Tuliet in. Pierre Philippe sculpsit." "J.Tuliet in. T. Matham sc."

In honour of his Majesty.

1: C all all those Sages, whose extended hearts
2: H eaven fils with light in th'Astrologick Arts,
3: A sk their opinions 1 of this Monarch, they
4: R eply, he's born the Universe to sway,
5: L ook on this calculation, read his Star,
6: S even Planets here all in conjunction are:

7: T hey smile upon his birth, no rude jars here
8: H inder his motions under any Sphere;
9: E xcellent Aspects ! long live this great King

10: S upream of all, let his bright glory ring
11: E ven round about that Globe held in his hand:
12: C an earthly powers his conquering Arm withstand,
13: O r check his fortune, which the Stars proclaim?
14: N ot possible, since Heaven inspires his claim.
15: D raw presently with an immortal pen

16: K ings in their colours, some quick Cherubin:
17: I n Characters drop'd down 2 suiting their souls,
18: N ote revolutions in these sacred Rolls
19: G reatly to the advantage of our State,

20: O f much import, to make us fortunate
21: F or many years under this glorious Reign,

22: G iving us hopes of th'golden Age again.
23: R eturn, return, divine Astrea, now
24: E nter our Land; You shall not see one brow,
25: A mong so many, furrowed with a frown;
26: T reason is dead, and foul Injustice down.

27: B ehold our true Protectour to his Right
28: R estor'd, th' Impostour stinks in blackest Night:
29: I ustice again is seated in the Throne,
30: T i'd, and alli'd unto Religion,
31: A nd wing'd with Wisedom, Policy and Art
32: I n the Reserve with Vertue have a part.
33: N o powers of Hell shall ever shake this frame
34:       So well compos'd, but must retreat with shame.


[1] opinions] opnions copytext

[2] down] drown L, OB, WF

To The King
3 June

   Titlepage: TO THE / KING, / UPON HIS / MAJESTIES / Happy Return. / [rule] / By a Person of Honour. / [rule] / [design: royal arms] / LONDON, / Printed by J. M. for Henry Herringman, and are to be / Sold at his Shop at the Blue-Anchor in lower Walk / of the New-Exchange, 1660. / [within ruled box]

    Possibly by Robert Boyle, but stylistically wrong for him.

Happy Return.

1: AS The Great World at first in Chaos lay;
Then darkness yeiled to triumphant day;
And all that wilde and undigested Mass
Did into Form, and to Perfection pass:
5: So, in our lesser World, Confusions were
Many, and vast, as now our Blessings are.
Our past, and present State, fully express
All we could bear, and all we would possess.
Wonder not that Your Forces could not bring
10: You to Your Crowns, nor us unto our King:
Fate made therein this high Design appear,
Your Sword shall rule abroad, Your Virtues here.
The lesser Conquest was to You deny'd,
That by the greater it might be supply'd.
15:      Nor think it strange that some so long have strove
With that which they did most admire and love;
Since all against their dissolution pray,
Although to Heav'n there is no other way.
Like to Bethesdas Pool, our Common-wealth
20: Till it was troubled, could not give us health:
You, as the Angel, did our Waters stir,
And from that motion we derive our Cure.
The highest Blessing God to You does yield,
He, His Anoynted, as His Church does build:
25: Nothing of noise did to perfection bring
The greatest Temple, and the greatest King.
Alike He builded both, that all might see,
Your Kingdom, like his Church, shall endless be.
As when Great Nature's Fabrick was begun,
30: Expanded Light made day, and not the Sun;
But Light diffus'd was to perfection grown,
When from one Planet, it contracted, shone:
So when our Government was form'd to last
But till the race of a few days was past,
35: With Ruling Gifts GOD many did endue,
But; now 'tis fix'd, all those are plac'd in You.
Your Banishment, which Your Foes did designe
To cloud Your Virtues, made them brighter shine.
Thus Persecution did but more dispence
40: Throughout the world the Gospels influence.
Princes, who saw Your Sufferings, did esteem
'Twas greater to subdue such griefs then them;
And in that Conquest found how they should fare,
If they provok'd Your Justice to a War.
45: By Your Return, and by Your Foes pursuit,
Europe Your Blossomes had, but we Your Fruit.
Our Senate does not for Conditions sue;
We know we have our All, in having You:
Your Mercy with our Crimes does nobly strive;
50: And, e're we ask forgiveness, You forgive.
Your Subjects thus doubly You now subdue,
Both in the Manner, and the Action too.
Your great Reception in our neighb'ring State,
Proves that on You depends their Countries fate:
55: Your dreadful Fleet does on their Coast appear,
Yet to their Joy, they yeild up all their Fear;
For knowing You, they know Heav'n has resign'd
A Pow'r unbounded to a bounded Mind.
Triumphant Navy! Formerly your Fraight
60: Consisted but of Laurel, or of Plate;
But to your happy Country now you bring
More then both Indies in our Matchless KING.
Twice has the World been trusted in a Barque;
The New, the Charles contain'd, the Old, the Ark;
65: This bore but those who did the World re-build,
But that bore You, to whom that World must yeild.
The spacious Sea, which does the Earth embrace,
Ne're held so many Princes in one Place;
Princes, whose Father still the Trident bore,
70: As shall their Sons, till Time shall be no more.
Now whilst the Sea, Your greatest Subject, moves
Slowly, as loth to part with what he loves;
And whilst Your Sails the calmed Air subdue;
(For which he chides the Winds, and thanks them too)
75: I might present You with a Prospect here,
Of that vast Empire to which now You Steere.
But on that Theam my Numbers cannot stay;
Copies to their Originals give way;
For now Your Fleet sees Land, which many a peal
80: Of thund'ring Cannon to the Shore does tell:
And now Your ravish'd Subjects see Your Fleet,
Which they with shouts, louder then Cannon, greet:
Two Suns at once our sights now entertain;
One shines from Heav'n, the other from the Main.
85: All Loyal Eyes are now fixt on the East,
For You, more welcome then that daily Guest;
While on the Shore Your longing Subjects stand,
Subjects, as numberless as is the Sand;
Subjects sufficient, if but led by You,
90: All Countries You have liv'd in, to subdue.
In Raptures now We our great Gen'ral see,
Move faster to meet You then Victorie:
He at Your Feet himself does prostrate now,
To whom vast Fleets and Armies us'd to bow;
95: And greater Satisfaction does express
In This Submission, then in That Success.
Your Royal Armes inwreath Him, which he more
Does prize, then all those Laurel Wreaths He wore.
Now all for His Victorious Troops make room,
100: Which never but by Joy were overcome:
Loud shouts to Heav'n for Your Return they send,
Whilst low as Earth their dreaded Ensigns bend;
He leads them still to what exalts their Name;
Now to their Duty, as before to Fame.
105:      Their Misled Courage, in a fatal Time,
Had been too long their Glory, and their Crime.
Now they are truly Great, now truly live,
Since this You Praise, and that You do forgive.
Those, who so long could keep You from Your due,
110: What can resist, now they are led by You?
Your Great Example will their Model prove;
Persuading soon, and willingly, as love.
Such Fleets, and Armies, and our CHARLES their Head,
Are Things which all the Universe may dread.
115:      And now You move; and now in all the Waies,
Thick Clouds of Subjects, Clouds of Dust do raise;
Through which the Worlds chief City now You see,
Great in Extent, greater in Loyalty;
Their Cannon speaks, their Streets the Souldiers line,
120: And brightest Beauties from their Windows shine:
Your Subjects Earthly Jove You now are grown;
Thunder and Light'ning guard You to Your Throne.
Thus You Tryumph, whilst at Your Palace Gates
The highest earthly Senate for You waits:
125: One Roof contains those which our Laws do make,
And Him from whom the World their Laws must take:
Their Knees do homage, whilst their Tongues confess,
They in their Duty find their Happiness;
And Fame aloud, through ev'ry Region, sings,
130: They are the best of Subject, You, of Kings.
The Royal Throne so fully You Adorn,
That now all praise, what some before did Scorn:
A Throne which now the envious do confess,
Our Safety urg'd Your Merit to Possess.
135:      Where C'sar could no further Glory win,
There is the Scene, where Yours does but begin;
By which indulgent Fate would have it known,
Though his Success had end, Yours should have none:
Or else that nothing worthy was of You,
140: But what Great Julius wanted Pow'r to do.
Our fierce Divisions made our Courage known,
But more Your Wisdome shines, that makes us One;
Which has so fram'd Your Empire to endure,
We need but prudent Foes to be secure.
145: You might possess by Armies, and by Fleets,
All where the Sun doth rise, or where he sets;
But You a nobler Conquest have design'd,
The placing Limits to Your greater Minde:
And may those highest Titles never cease,
150: A King of Greatest Pow'r, and Greatest Peace.
Of Suff'rings past let us no more complain,
Since You by them with greater Glory Reign;
Till that we saw, Your Subjects could not guess,
Heav'n had for them a Blessing above Peace.
155:      Nor can we tell which most in You to own,
Either Your Virtues, or Extraction.
Though never any was so Great, and Good;
It springs from Martyrs, as from Royal Blood:
But Your own Glories do so brightly shine,
160: You need not borrow Luster from Your Line.
Yet we must say, since justly but Your due,
Though You our Glories raise, they raise not You:
Like to the Royal Bird, which climbes the Skies,
You lesser seem, still as You higher rise.
165: Your self You limit to a Triple Throne,
And all mens Wonder are, except Your own.
Now Sacred Peace and Justice cease to mourn,
And both in You again to us return.
Religion now shall flourish with Your Crown,
170: And the fierce Sword yeild to the peaceful Gown.
The Muses too so highly You esteem,
That You are both their Influence and their Theam.

Alexander Brome A Congratulatory Poem
4 June

   Titlepage: A / Congratulatory / POEM, / ON / The Miraculous, and Glorious Return / of that unparallel'd KING / CHARLS the II. / May 29. 1660. / [rule] / By ALEX. BROME. / [rule] / Pers. -- -- Ipse Semipaganus / Ad Sacra Regum carmen affero nostrum. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for Henry Brome at the Gun / in Ivy-Lane 1660.

    Thomason dated his copy on Monday 4 June, and the copy in the Wood collection is also dated June. A ms note on the t/p of the copy in the Huntington gives the price as "1d".

    Brome did not reprint this poem in the 1661 edition of his Songs and Other Poems, which does, however, contain the first appearance of the lyric "On the King's returne," and an early version of his ballad, England's Joy. It does appear in the 1664 and 1668 editions of Songs, however.

    Some interesting spleen directed at the low-born; various verbal coinages and usages.

[cut: arms supported by two cherubim]

To the Kings most Sacred Majesty.

1: NOw our Spring-royal's come, this ravish'd Land,
(That for twelve years did bring forth Tyrants, and
Traytors, in such aboundance, that the King,
And Subjects were forgot, both name and thing)
5: Bears Kings again, a memorable Spring!
May first brought forth, May now brings home our King;
Auspitious twenty nineth! this day of Mirth
Now gives Redemption, that before gave Birth.
Hark, how th'admiring people cry, and shout,
10: See how they flock and leap for joy; the Rout,
Whose Zeal and ignorance, for many years
Devis'd those Goblins Jealousies and Fears,
And fighting blindfold in those puzling Mists,
Rais'd by the conjuring of our Exorcists,
15: They Beat, and Wound, and Kill each other, while
Their Setters-on did share the prey, and smile.
Now they're unhood-wink'd, they do plainly see
What once they were, what now they ought to be.
The warlike Trumpet, whose unhallow'd breath
20: Inspir'd Rebellion, throws aside the wreath
Of ill-got Laurel, scandaliz'd to be
Made instrumental to such Victorie
As shames and beats the Conqueror, and layes
A Crown o'th'conquer'd, baffling th'others Bayes;
25: Tun'd by your Fame with loud and loyal voice,
Contributes sounds and helps us to Rejoyce.
Th'enlarged Bells, that, in these latter dayes,
Have been all silenc'd, and forbid to raise
Their Voice, but cross or backward from the steeple,
30: To proclaim Fire, or to amaze the people,
Or if they chim'd, 'twas out of tune, and so
Did other grating tuneless Sounds forego:
Now, with their gracefull discords, all proclaim
Your safe return, and celebrate your Name.
35: And the contiguous Bon-fires made the Nation
To apprehend a final Conflagration;
And made the ground, at midnight to appear
Like Heaven at noon, and in the heat o'th'year,
'Bout which rejoycing Neighbours friendly came,
40: And with fresh wood fed the devouring Flame.
Mean while, th'old Subjects, who so long have slept
In Caves, and been miraculously kept
From Rage and Famine; while the only thing
That fed and cloath'd them, was the name of King,
45: Do all New-plume themselves, to entertain
Your long'd-for Majesty, and splendid Train.
And (as in Jobs time 'twas) those Spurious things,
Who look like Subjects, but did ne'r love Kings,
Appear among your Subjects in array
50: That's undiscernable, unless more gay.
All with loud hallows pierce the smiling skies,
While brandish'd Swords please and amaze our eyes.
Why then should only I stand still? and bear
No part of triumph in this Theatre?
55: Though I'm not wise enough to speak t'a King
What's worth his ear, nor rich enough to bring
Gifts worthy his acceptance; though I do
Not ride in Buff and Feathers, which might show
Vain Ostentation, or a needless Pride,
60: Which some applaud, while others do deride.
That Pomp I did industriously eschue,
The Cost being more to me, than th'shew to you.
Nor do I love a Souldiers garb to own,
When my own Conscience tells me I am none.
65: Yet I'll doe duty too, for I've a minde
Will not be Idle, but will something finde
To bid my SOVERAIGN Welcom to his own
Long-widow'd Realm, his Scepter, Crown & Throne,
And though too mean and empty it appear,
70: If he afford a well-pleas'd Eye and Ear,
His pow'r can't by my Weakness be withstood,
Bee't what it will, he'll finde, or make it good.
Hail long-desired Soveraign! you that are
Now our sole joy and hope, as once our fear!
75: The Princely Son of a most pious Sire,
Whose Precepts and Example did inspire
Your tender years with virtues, that become
A King that's fit to rule all Christendom.
Which your great Soul hath so improved since,
80: Europe can't shew such an accomplish'd Prince.
Whose whole life's so exemplary, that you
Convinc'd those foes, which we could not subdue,
And those that did t'your Court t'abuse you come,
Converted Proselytes returned home.
85: Such strong and sympathetick virtues lye
In your great name, it cures when you're not nigh,
Like Weapon-salve; If fame can reach up to
This hight of Cures, what would your person do?
Your Subjects high'st Ambition, and their Cure,
90: Bold Rebells terror, you that did endure
What e're the Wit or Malice of your foes
Could lay on you or yours, yet stoutly chose
To suffer on, rather than to Retort
Their injuries, and grew Victorious for't;
95: And by your patient suffering did subdue
The Traytors fury, and the Traytors too.
The great King-makers favourite, a Prince
Born to a Crown, and kept for't ever since.
From Open force, from all the Close designs
100: Of all your Foes, and all our Catalines,
From all th'insatiate malice of that bold
Bloud-thirsty Tyrant, from his sword, and gold
Which hurt you more; and from your own false Friends,
Who sacrific'd to his Ambitious ends
105: Your Crown and people, and were kept in pay,
Your Cause, and Sacred Person to betray,
In which he ev'ry year expended more
Than your Revenues have been heretofore;
Yet you're deliverd out of all these things,
110: By your Protector, who's the King of Kings.
No more that proud Usurper now shall boast,
His partial Conquests, which more Money cost, 1
And Blood than they were worth, no more remember,
His thrice auspicious third day of September,
115: Which he design'd to be redeem'd from black,
And in Red letters writ ith' Almanack.
Since he fought not for victories, but paid,
Nor were you conquer'd by him, but betray'd.
And now your May, by love, has gotten more,
120: Than his Septembers did, by blood, before.
Thanks to that Glory of the West, that Star,
By whose conductive influence you are
Brought to enjoy your own, whose eminent worth
These Islands are too small to Eccho forth.
125: Whose courage bafled fear, whose purer soul
No bribes could e'r seduce, no threats controul,
But strangely cross'd the proverb, and brought forth
The best of Goods from th'once-pernicious North,
To whose Integrity, your Kingdomes owe
130: Their restauration, and what thence does flow,
Your blest arrival; with such prudence still
He manag'd these affairs, such truth, such skill,
Such valor too, he led these Nations through
Red Seas of Blood, and yet ne'r wet their shoe.
135: Blest be the Heavenly pow'rs, that hither sent
This Noble Hero, to be th'instrument
To'enthrone your Royal Person, and to bring
To's longing subjects our long absent King.
Welcom from forein Kingdoms, where you've been,
140: Driven by hard-hearted Fate, and where you've seen,
Strange men and manners; yet too truly known,
Those far more Hospitable than your own;
From those that would not, those that durst not do
Right to themselves, by being kinde to you;
145: From profess'd foes, and from pretended friends,
Whose feigned love promotes their sordid Ends.
"Kings treating Kings springs not from love, but state,
"Their love's to policy subordinate.
From banishment, from dangers, and from want,
150: From all those mischiefs that depend upon't,
You'r truly welcome; welcome to your throne,
Your Crowns and Scepters, and what ere's your own,
Nay to what's ours too, for we finde it true,
Our wealth is gotten and preserv'd by you;
155: Welcome t'your Subjects hearts, who long did burn
With strong desires to see your bless'd return.
Welcome t'your friends, welcome to your wisest foes,
Whose bought Experience tells them now, that those
Riches they've got by plunder, fraud, and force,
160: Doe not increase, but make their fortunes worse,
Like Robbers spoyls, just as they come, they goe,
And leave the Robbers poor and wicked too.
They see their error now, and do begin,
(Could they but hope, youl'd pardon their Huge sin)
165: To think you th'only means, and th'only man,
That will restore our liberties, and can.
Since you're come out o'th fire, twelve years refin'd,
With hard'ned body, and Experienc'd minde.
Only that crew of Caitiffs, who have been,
170: So long, so deeply plung'd in so great sin,
That they despair of pardon, and believe,
You can't have so much mercy to forgive,
As they had villanie t'offend, and sin,
And therefore to get out, get further in.
175:      These never were, and never will be true,
Unto your loyal Subjects, or to you;
The scum and scorn of every sort of men;
That for abilities, Could scarce tell ten,
And of estates proportion'd to their parts;
180: Of mean enjoyments, and of worse deserts,
Whom want made bold, and impudence supply'd
Those gifts, which art and nature had deny'd,
And in their practice perfect Atheists too,
(For half-wit, and half-learning makes men so)
185:      These first contriv'd and then promoted all
Those troubles, which upon your Realm did fall;
Inflam'd three populous Nations, that they might
Get better opportunity and light
To steal and plunder, and our goods might have,
190: By robbing those, whom they pretend to save,
Our new commotions new employments made,
And what was our affliction grew their trade.
And when they saw the plots, th'had laid, did take,
Then they turn'd Gamsters, and put in their stake,
195: Ventured their All; their credit which was small,
And next their Conscience which was none at all,
Put on all formes, and all Religions own,
And all alike, for they were all of none.
A thousand of them han't one Christian soul,
200: No oathes oblige them, and no Laws controul
Their strong desires but p'nal ones; and those
Make them not innocent, but cautelous . 2
Crimes that are scandalous, and yield no gain,
Revenge or pleasure, they perhaps refrain;
205: But where a crime was gainfull to commit,
Or pleas'd their lust or malice, how they bit!
This did invade the Pulpit, and the Throne,
And made them both, and all that's ours, their own.
Depos'd the Ministers and Magistrates,
210: And in a godly way, seiz'd their estates;
Then did the Gentry follow, and the Rich,
Those neutral sinners, by omission, which
Had good estates, for 'twas a lesser sin
To plunder, than t' have ought worth Plundring.
215: And by religious forms, and shews, and paints,
They're call'd the Godly party, and the Saints.
And as those men, that live ill lives, desire
To die good deaths, so these vile men aspire
To be reputed honest, and did stile
220: Themselves so, but they were meer Cheats the while.
Yet, by their artless Oratory, they
Vent'ring to make Orations, preach, and pray,
Drew in too many silly souls, that were
Caught with vain shewes, drawn on by hope and fear,
225: Poor undiscerning, all believing Elves,
Fit but to be the ruin of themselves;
Born to be cozen'd, trod on, and abus'd,
Lov'd to be fool'd, and easily seduc'd.
These beasts they make with courage fight and dy,
230: Like Andabates, 3 not knowing how, nor why,
Till they destroy'd King, Kingdome, Church & Laws,
And sacrific'd all to that word, The Cause.
While those possesse the fruit of all the toiles
Of these blind slaves, and flourish with their spoils,
235: Plum'd with gay feathers stoln, (like 'sops crow)
They seem gay birds, but it was only show.
Now publique lands and private too, they share
Among themselves, whose mawes did never spare
Ought they could grasp; to get the Royal lands,
240: They in Blood-royal bath'd their rav'nous hands.
With which they shortly pamper'd grew, and rich,
Then was their blood infected with the itch
Of Pomp, and Power, and now they must be Squires,
And Knights and Lords, to please their wives desires
245: And Madam them. A broken tradesman now,
Peic'd with Church-lands, makes all the vulgar bow
Unto his honour, and their Bonets vail
To's worship, that sold Peticoates, or Ale.
In pomp, attire, and everything they did
250: Look like true Gentry, but the Soul, and Head,
By which they were discern'd, for they were rude,
With harsh and ill-bred natures still endu'd;
Proud, and penurious. What Nobility
Sprung in an instant, from all trades had wee!
255: Such t'other things, crept into t'other House,
Whose Sires heel'd stockings, and whose Dams sold sowse.4
There's Lord Protectors, but of such a Crew,
As people Newgate, not good men, and true.
There were Lord Keepers, but of Cowes and Swine,
260: Lord Coblers, and Lord Drawers, not of wine.
Fine Cockney-pageant Lords, and Lords Gee-hoo,5
Lords Butchers, and Lords Butlers, Dray-Lords too.
And to transact with these was hatch'd a brood,
Of Justices and Squires, nor great, nor good;
265: Rays'd out of plunder, and of sequestration,
Like Frogs of Nilus, from an inundation;
A foundred Warrier, when the wars did cease,
As nat'rally turn'd Justice of the Peace,
And did with boldness th'office undertake,
270: As a blinde Coach-horse does a Stalion make.
These fill'd all Countries, and in every Town
Dwelt one or more to tread your Subjects down.
And to compleat this Strategem of theirs,
They use Auxiliary Lecturers;
275: Illiterate Dolts, pickt out of every Trade,
Of the same metal, as Jeroboams, 6 made,
That ne'r took Orders, nor e're any keep,
But boldly into others Pulpits creep,
And vent their Heresies, and there inspire
280: The vulgar with Sedition, who desire
Still to be cheated, and do love to be
Mis-led by th'ears, by couzning Sophistrie,
These sold Divinity, as Witches doe,
In Lapland, Windes, to drive where e're you go.
285: The Sword no action did, so dire and fell,
But that some Pulpiteers pronounc'd it, Well.
With these ingredients, were the Countries all
Poyson'd, and fool'd, and aw'd, while they did call
Themselves the Cities, or the Counties, and
290: Did in their names, what they ne'r understand
Or hear of. These did that old Drie-bone call
Up to the Throne, (if he were call'd at all)
And vow'd to live and dye with him; and then
Address'd to Dick, and vow'd the same agen.
295: And so to Rump; but these vowes were no more
Than what they vow'd to Essex long before,
And so perform'd; they dyed a like with all,
Yet liv'd on unconcerned in their fall:
So as these Corks might swim at top, they n'ere
300: Care what the liquor is that them did bear.
These taught the easie people, prone to sin,
And ready to imbibe ill customs in,
To betray trusts, to break an Oath, and Word,
Things that th'old English Protestant abhor'd.
And lest these Kingdoms should hereafter be
Took for inchanted Islands (where men see
Nothing but Devills did inhabit, and
All virtuous people had forsook the land
And left it to these Monsters) these took care,
To make us match and mix our bloud with their
Polluted issue; and so do, as when
Gods sons did take the daughters once of men.
To fright men into this, they did begin
To decimate them, for Original Sin.
315: Children that were unborn, in those mad times,
And unconcern'd in what they Voted crimes,
If guilty of Estates, were forc'd to pay
The tenth to those, who took nine parts away.
The Law was made a standing pool, and grew
320: Corrupt, for want of current; thence a crew
Of monstrous Animals out daily crawl'd,
Who little knew, but impudently ball'd;
And made the Law the Eccho of the Sword,
And with such Cattel were the Benches stor'd,
325: That made the Gown ridiculous, Now and then
The Malefactors were the wiser men,
Oft times the honester; these did dispence,
And rack the Laws, 'gainst equity and sence,
Which way the Buff would have them turn, by which
330: They long continued powerfull and Rich.
Now they'ld all wheel about, and be for you,
For (like Cam'lions) they still change their hue,
And look like that that's next them; they will vow,
Their hearts were alwayes for you, and are now.
335: Tis no new Wit, tis in a Play we know,
Who would not wish you King, now you are so?
But if to be of both sides be a Crime,
What is't to turn of all sides with the time?
Yet you can pardon all, for you have more
340: Mercy and love, than they have crimes in store.
And you can love, or pity them, which none
But you could doe; you can their persons own,
And with unconquer'd patience look on them,
Because your Nature knowes not to condemn.
345: You'll let them live, and by your grace convince
Their trech'rous hearts, that they have wrong'd a Prince
Whom God and Angels love & keep; whose minde
Solely to love and mercy is inclin'd;
Whom none but such as they could hurt, or grieve,
350: And none but such as you could e'r forgive
Such men and crimes. Those feathers ne'rtheless
Pluck'd from your Subjects backs, their own to dress,
Should be repluck'd, or else they should restore,
They'll still be left Crows, as they were before.
355: But if you trust them, you'll as surely be
Betray'd and ruin'd, as you now are free.
And now you are returned to your Realm,
May you sit long, and stedfastly at th'Helm,
And rule these head-strong people: may you be
360: The true Protector of our Libertie.
Your wisdom only answers th'expectation
Of this long injur'd, now reviving Nation.
May true Religion flourish and increase,
And we love virtue, as the ground of peace;
365: May all pretences, outward forms, and shewes
Whereby we have been gull'd, give way for those
True acts of pure religion, and may we
Not only seem religious, but be.
Of taking Oathes, may you and we be shy,
370: But being ta'ne think no necessity
Or power can make us break them! may we ne'r
Make wilfull breach of promises! nor e're
Basely betray our trusts! but strive to be
Men both of honour and of honestie!
375: And may those onely that are just, and true,
Be alwaies honor'd, and imploy'd by you.
Next let our sacred Lawes, in which do stand
The wealth, the peace, and safety of our Land,
Be kept inviolable, and never made
380: Nets to the small, while the great Flies evade!
May those that are intrusted with them be
Men of sound knowledge, and integrity,
And sober courage; such as dare, and will,
And can doe Justice! We have felt what ill
385: Comes by such Clarkes and Judges as have been,
For favor, faction, or design put in,
Without respect to Merit, who have made
The Law to Tyrants various lusts a Bawd,
Perverted Justice, and our Rights have sold,
390: And Rulers have been over-rul'd by Gold.
Then are the people happy, and Kings too,
When, they that are in power, are good, and doe.
On these two Bases let our peace be built
So firm and lasting, that no bloud be spilt,
395: No Country wasted, and no treasure spent
While you and yours do reign; no future rent
Disturb your happiness; but we may strive
Each in his sphere, to make our Nation thrive,
Grow plentifull, and pow'rfull, and become
400: The Ioy or Terror of all Christendom.
And those, who lately thought themselves above us,
May, spite of fate, or tremble at, or love us;
May no incroaching spirit break the hedge
Between Prerogative, and Priviledge.
405:       And may your sacred MAJESTY enjoy
Delights of Minde, and Body, that ne'r cloy!
Not only be obey'd, but lov'd at home,
Prais'd and admir'd by all that near you come!
And may your Royal Fame be spread as farr
410: As valiant, and as virtuous people are!
And when you'r Majesty shall be inclin'd
To blesse your Realms with heirs, oh may you find
A Spouse that may for Beauty, Virtue, Wit,
And royal birth, be for your person fit!
415: May you abound in hopefull babes, that may
Govern the Nations, and your Scepters sway,
Till time shall be no more, and pledges be
Both of our love, and our felicitie.
May you live long and happily, and finde
420: No pains of body, and no griefs of minde:
While we with loyal hearts rejoyce, and sing
God bless your Kingdoms, and

God save our KING.

[1]An accusation made elsewhere in Restoration propaganda; somewhere in Bodley, one of the collections contains a tract itemizing the "costs" incurred by the interregnum governments -- try G. pamp 1119 [not found here]

[2]OED: full of cuautels, i.e. deceitful, crafty

[3]Roman gladiators who fought on horseback in a helmet without eye-wholes; hence, a hood-winked warrior OED

[4]A variant of "souse," given by OED as pickled parts of pigs; "to sell souse" suggests cantankerousness and ill humour in women. OED quotes Cotgrave for "groin" "Faire le groin, to powt, lowre, frowne, be sullen, or surlie, to hang the lip or sell sowce"

[5]OED gives "gee-ho(e)" as a variant of "gee" or "gee up," the command to a horse. It would seem to be associated with unskilled drivers of cart horses as a command that makes up for their lack of skill: OED quotes 1659 D. Pell ... An Improvement upon the nine nauticall verses in the 107 Psalm (L=857.b.12; LT=E1732), p. 93 "Carmen that never leave jerking and Geoing of their horses till they hale the hearts of them out."

[6]In Kings , "a mighty man of valour" (11.28) "who made israel to sin (xiv.16); a large bowl or goblet, a large wine-bottle" OED cites nothing before 1816; so presumably here, large hollow vessels made of base material

Thomas Saunderson
A Royall Loyall Poem
4 June

   Titlepage: A / ROYALL / LOYALL / POEM. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed for W. Place, and are to be sold at his / Shop at Grayes-Inne Gate in Holborne, 1660.

    The Crawford copy is dated in ms "June 5th, 1660.", the same day as Arthur Brett's poem, day after Brome's Congrat. WF copy dated 4th.
Ms corrections to the Tanner copy have been included in notes.

    Venn lists: Thos Sanderson, baptised 1611 at Brancepeth, Durham; Sidney Sussex 1628 -- of Hedley-hope, Durham Esq; buried April 1695: See Surtees, History of Durham 4 vols: II.243.

    Foster, Alum Oxon lists: Thos Sanderson of Lincoln College, matric 1639; Fellow of Corpus 1644; expelled 1648, reinstated 1649: see Burrows, Register of Visitors of Ox Uni 1647-58 (p. 496).

[ornamental header]
A Royall Loyall

1: ALL hayle Great KING, whom Gods Almighty hand,
Hath in great Streights preserv'd by Sea and Land;
And hath kept firm thy Loyall Subjects hearts,
Rejoycing in oppressions dyrest smarts:
5: And that thy Foes the vast Worlds wonder cease 1
Their tumultuous waves, and sue for Peace: 2
What can eclips our joyes so bright, so high,
Settled on th'Basis 3 of Divinity:
For here's no new Usurper to make good
10: This 4 treasonable Claym through streams of blood:
Sparing no English Subjects to maintain
The profuse Ryot in his 5 Rebellious raign;
No heyre not able to support the weight
Of Government either of Church or State:
15: Nay, here is no pretender to the known
Right Great Charles hath to his 6 three Kingdoms Crown:
No worthy Gentleman doth envy that
Our high born Prince should have command of what
His birth-right gives him, here's none thinks that he
20: Could rule so wisely as his Majesty;
Here's no contention, onely to outvy
Each in brave acts of liberality,
Amazing all to see, our widdowed Land
Espous'd to joy so soon, by a Monks Hand.
25: Presents on Presents pass by faithfull hearts;
Not equall to My mind nor his deserts:
And these from loyall, Royall, Soules whom guilt
Had never stain'd, of blood unjustly spilt.
Had Fleetwod, Baxter, Haslrig, and Vane,
30: Tichbourn and Ireton, with that cursed trayne
Disgorg'd theyr full cram'd chests unjustly got,
And then like Judas hang'd 7 themselves, 't had not
Been half so wel. No: let them dying live,
And perish by degrees: let Justice give
35: Them but their due: How will their concience gripe
Their perplexed 8 Soules? And when grown ripe,9
For vengeance, let 10 tortures lead them to the Tree,
Where this accursed fruit may hanged be;
Too tedious here to read their Elegy.
40: Oh when to Oliver they tidings bring
Of their fall'n State, and Glories of our King,
How will his hot Nose swell, and Bradshaw call,
And curse each other for each others fall?
There let them curse and howle with hideous yells,
45: Whilst we with Bone-fires shouts, and ringing Bells,
Heighten the hatred that their Quaking friends
Conceal, if possible, for Politick 11 ends:
And that will damn them too, whilst safely we
May pray for Charles our King and Progeny,
50: And drink a hearty cup to the 12 Generall,
Who bravely, justly, wisely fool'd them all.
And with one word Phanatick struck them dumb,
Some simply ask'd if it were Scotch, and some
Whispered 13 is't not Spanish, some Greek, but most
55: Sayd he was 14 mistaken and would have it crost
Out, and put in Fantastick, Schismatick,
Or Anabaptist, Brownist, Heretick,
Shaking Sir Harry Vanes fift Monarchy,
Or weeping Fleetwoods quaking Anarchy,
60: H. Martins Adamites, 15 Independents,
Sawcy Lay-Elders, Super-Intendents,
Any thing or all but that one strange word,
Coyn'd with an angry Stamp should all afford,
That Oliver or Lambert in their breast
65: Contain'd, troubles them more then all the rest,
Making their Chim'ra reformation,
Ridiculous and out of fashion;
And names of Common-wealth and Nation turn'd
To the right style, Kingdom, which long hath mournd,
70: Commanding reverence to Gods holy Word,
Read in the Church, by them so much abhord:
When Preach'd by none but Orthodox Divines,
Whose life together with the Words light shines:
Now Subjects large Estates so long detaind
75: From the right Owners, shall by Right be gaind:
And Universities and Innes of Court,
Englands great honour in the Worlds report,
Pestred so long with Sons of the Committee,
Excize-men, Captains, or at best some City
80: Heyres: shall with Knights and Squires Sons be planted,
And the Grave Benchers who 16 long have wanted,
An Audience fit for Readings, now rejoyce,
To employ their wits & wealth for th'Publick voice,
When Magna Charta, the known Lawes of th'Land,
85: Is spoke and writ in the old Tongue and Hand,
That it would prove a good Monopoly,
To teach Masters and Clarks their A. B. C. 17
When our new coyne (all that was mine is gone)
Shall bear the 18 Kings Face and Superscription;
90: When noble Spain shall bring her Indies wealth
Unto our King, wishing him peace and health;
All Princes fearing our Kings potent Strength,
Shall court him to an Union: At length
I fear the 19 Gentile and unbeleiving Jew,
95: To be receiv'd into our Church will sue:
And when the World will end so soon, that we
Terrene joyes longer shall not live to see:
This is not Fancy: for what can seem strange,
After this great and unexpected change.
100: Reader your pardon, for since the King is given
A Subject for my Pen, I could reach Heaven
With numerous lines. So may your Prayers with mine
For a continuance of his Life and Line.

By Tho. Saunderson Gent.


[1] Foes vast Worlds wonder cease] ä; Foes (vast Worlds wonder) cease O ms.

[2] line 6] "Their" deleted; sue to thee for Peace O ms

[3] on th'] ä; o th' O ms

[4] This] ä; his O ms

[5] in his] in's O ms

[6] Right Great Charles hath to his three] Right Charles the Great hath to three O ms

[7] hang'd] hangd O, L cancel note

[8] perplexed] ä; perplex'd O ms

[9] when grown] when they are growne O ms

[10] let] ä; inked out O s

[11] Politick] ä; Craftie O ms

[12] the] ed; th ä

[13] Whispered] Whisper O ms

[14] he was] t'was O ms

[15] Adamites, Independents] Adamites or Independents O ms

[16] who long] who too long O ms

[17] A. B. C.] all versions printed in hand-written secretary form; i.e. the "old Hand" of line 85.

[18] the] th' O ms

[19] the] deleted O ms

Elias Ashmole
Sol in Ascendente.
28 May-4 June

   Title: Sol In Ascendente: / OR, / The glorious Appearance / OF / CHARLES the Second, / UPON / The Horizon of London, in her Horosco-/ picall Sign, Gemini. / [royal arms] / Iam vaga co/elo sidera fulgens, / Aurora fugat; surgit Titan / Radiante coma, mundoque diem / Reddit clarum. 1 / [rule] / London, Printed for N. Brook, at the Angel in Cornhill. 1660.

   Son of a sadler, Elias Ashmole (1617-92) was born at Lichfield and received his education at the local grammar school. In 1638 he married for the first time and through the patronage of Thomas Paggit, a relative on his mother's side, began to practice law in Chancery but "had indifferent good practice" (Memoirs, 1774: 292). In 1645 while in Oxford, he met Captain George Wharton at Oxford, who introduced him to astrology and alchemy and secured him a commission in the royal ordnance. That same year, he studied mathematics at Brasenose College and was appointed commissioner of excise for Worcester, moving to London when that city fell to parliament in 1646. Here he was inducted a Freemason, and became friendly with William Lilly and John Booker, the leading astrologers of the age, with William Backhouse, the leading Rosicrucian, and with John Tradescant, keeper of the botanic gardens at Chelsea and a great collector of antiquities. Having remarried to his advantage, Ashmole spent the 1650s immersed in the study of alchemy, astrology and heraldry, learning Hebrew and editing works by John Dee and other early alchemists.

   "25. [May 1659] I went to Windsor, and took Mr. Hollar with me to take views of the castle." Memoirs 1774: 326

   "16. [June 1660] Hor. post merid. I first kissed the King's hand, being introduced by Mr. Thomas Chiffinch."

   "18. [June] Hor, ante merid. was the second time I had the honour to discourse with the King, and then he gave me that place of Windsor Herald." ...

   "About this time the King apppointed me to make a description of his medals, and I had them delivered into my hands, and Henry the VIII's closet assigned for my use." ibid. 327. At the Restoration, he was appointed Windsor herald and turned his attentions to antiquarianism. Along the way, he picked up several well-paying offices, becoming accountant general of excise and commissioner for Surinam. He inherited Tradescant's collection of antiquities, married the much younger daughter of the herald William Dugdale in 1668, and published his Institutions, Laws, and Ceremonies of the Order of the Garter in 1672. In 1677, he bequeathed his collection of antiquities to the university of Oxford provided a suitable building was cosntructed for them; by 1683 the transfer was complete. In 1690 the university awarded him an honourable M. D.

   In keeping with Ashmole's interests in astrology, his poem is lagely an extended astrological conceit. It is also one of the few poems for which there is an abundance of textual material. A draft autograph copy in the Bodleian Library shows that Ashmole worked over his lines with considerable care and attention, frequently revising lines and transposing couplets and longer sections. Several lines in the manuscript never made it into print, including a Latin tag attributed to Ovid with which the manuscript opens: "C'saris arma canant alij; nos C'saris aras," -- "others have sung of Caesar in arms, we sing of Caesar on the altar."

   The Edinburgh reprint displays no internal evidence of revision from the London printing. Since lines 45-58 appeared, anonymously, in Mercurius Aulicus for the week of 28 May-4 June (p. 58), we can presume that the poem was written in advance of the king's arrival. Although the lines in question are almost identical in both printed versions, the Mercurius version of line 58 reads "To shelter us from Devils, and Rump-men" rather than the more generalizing "and worser men" found in both printed versions.

   The lines printed in Mercurius are preceded with a comment that might be taken as central to the large amount of publishing in late May and early June which anticipated the king's return:

As it is apparent, that our former pregnant hopes of establishing his Majesty in an honourable and peaceful Government of his three Kingdoms, would prove an astonishing Joy to revive the sunk spirits, who for many years have bin sorely depressed; even so is the fixing of his Princely Heart among them as the Center, in which all the opposite Lines of the distracted Interests of this Nation will meet and acquiesce, to the glory of God, and the perpetual settlement, peace, and welfare of his Subjects. (p. 57)

   On Ashmole (1617-1692), SEE DNB, Elias Ashmole...his Autobiographical Notes ed. C. H. Josten, 5 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966) and see what he had to say about the Restoration etc.

[1]In the ms version, this Latin tag is glossed "S. Oct."

[ornamental header]
Sol in Ascendente.
The glorious Appearance of
CHARLES the Second,
Upon the Horizon of London: in her Ho-
roscopical Sign, Gemini.2

1: ANd now the Nights dire Tragedies are done,
Woes are dissolv'd to Bliss, we have out-run
The Ills, that did pursue us in fierce chase;
And softer Revels do possess their place.
5: What Peace old Rome saw in Augustus dayes,
Will England feel while CHARLES shall wear the Bayes,
For Heav'n has held her peace, rowse up, then rise!
Let not dull sleep seize on your sluggish eyes;
Awake! and greet this Calm; these gentle Gales,
10: (Swell'd with rich Air) invites to spread our sails.

What though the cripl'd Heav'n has seem'd to trace,
No other Motion, then lame Saturn's pace;
Yet now behold! the lingring Hours at last,
Shake off those Weights, that on their Feet were plac't:
15: And th' Morn is fully rose, from yon dark Rocks,
Pleas'd with the coolness of her moistned Locks;
But er'st imbathed in the dewy tears,
Which long Nights sorrows, pressed through our tears.

Mark! how the Clouds disband, how they retire,
20: To see our Heav'n arch'd o're, with this bright fire;
How yon declining Moon, (conscious of Ill)
Sets with a wasting paleness; and how still
The charmed Windes are in their severall flights;
How all those numberless tumultuous Lights,
25: Which twinkling look, as struck with trembling fear,
Shrink in their sockets; dye, now th' Sun draws near.
Observe! instead of Clouds, how th'fresher Air
Inwraps us round, with its preserving care;
And the forgotten glory of our Sun,
30: Which here coms riding on our Horizon,
Does like a lucky Planet, fix his Beam
On the Ascendant, of the Kingdoms Scheam. 3

See! see! our Pho/ebus, who ith'Sea was pent,
His Steeds unharnest, and to grazing sent;
35: His Chariot set aside, and what he chose
For rest, became disturbance, not repose,
Awakes! his Generous Horses curle their Mains,
And Champ their Bits; hee's mounted, handling's Reins,
Throwing his usual glories round his Face,
40: And making ready for a second Race.

Behold! his Chariot cuts the Eastern line,
And his Serener Brows with Glory shine,
Deckt in refulgent lustre round about:
Thus th'Sun, at first cleft Heav'n, and so brake out.

See! Glories arch His Crown, Majestick Grace,
With Mirtle wreathes, his Temples do imbrace; 4
All sacred Lustre from about him sheds,
Fame rides before, and circularly spreds
From her select collections, what's most due
50: To his so great Deserts, and Patience too.
Whilst Heav'n it self breaks through his lovely Smile;
Thus looks th'auspicious Fortune of this Isle.

They are his Native Rayes, 5 that render bright
This Morn, and dress it with Celestial Light;
55: Whose all-attracting power sucks up the Dew,
That new begotten Gladness sends unto
Our eyes; which (Hallowed) is let fall agen,
To shelter us from Devils, and worser men.6

Lo! Heav'n has now subscrib'd to our request,
60: Here with a glorious Sun we all are blest;
Whilst the Nights guilty shadows sneak away
Back to their Cave, at this approach of day.
Let's then no more our wither'd Joyes lament,
Let sadness be condem'd to Banishment;
65: And Mis'ry cease to grinde: let's pay our Vowes,
And strow our streets with peaceful Olive Boughs:
Of whose fair Trunks new Gates let us prepare
For Janus Temple to shut out fierce War,
And keep in Peace; whilst due obedience shall
70: Our Bosoms fill, ne're to know Ebb at all.

But first, all cordial greetings we must pay,
From our devotest souls to this blest Day;
Next to our Sun, such just observance give
As his great worth deserves: then pray to live
75: To see Meridian Beams dance on his Crown,
And full blown Glories, shine about this Throne.

And since that Heav'n thus smiles, let each full soul,
Unlade such thanks, may rise above controul;
Unfold free welcomes to imbrace this Morn;
80: And to those forward joyes, which are new borne
In Loyal hearts, force passage to each Tongue,
Venting the Acclamations thither throng.
Let's kiss the Hand, that steer'd Affairs to this,
Let's bless those Eyes, to see this hour did wish:
85: Esteem it dear as heav'n which sent it, such
As our Devotions cannot praise too much.
Repeat these Blessings while there is a day,
Which this Moneth brought, with Ills it took away;
And date our Records hence, make them retain
90: Force and effect from CHARLES the Second's Reign:
Let's in all gladsome looks our faces dress,
All grateful welcomes let our hearts express;
Darting such spirits from each greedy eye,
By whose reflection he our loves may spye:
95: Nor can he by a better Medium finde,
How strongly we to duty are inclin'd;
Unless we were all eyes, that so each part
Being fill'd with eyes, might all become one heart.

Yet see! and let's wear out our eyes in view
100: Of these fair looks, Fate doth to us renew;
(Pleasing to heav'n) yea, let's Anticipate,
What forward gratitude can yet create:
And like to Tides, bring all our wealth on shore,
Open our Cabinets, lay out our store,
105: Wear them upon our brows, and make them grow
Up to the Sands, whose number none can know.
Let's greet this Hero with a full spread sail,
And strive, who can in strife of joy prevail:
Kiss Heav'n with thanks, and make our hearty cryes,
110: Roll round in Ecchoes, pierc'd the arched skyes.

Look with what conquering Aspect he returns,
Foarding the hearts of all he sees; and mourns
At nought so much, as those wan looks which we
(And our black night) tann'd with disloyalty,
115: That gracious Face we view through humble Tears,
Brings healing to the wounds of these late years:
Nor need we doubt; our great Apollo will
Secure this Island with his ablest skill
Like Delas, (to requite his nursing years)
120: From all assaults of future storms and Fears.

For see! he comes off'ring Oblivion,
Forgetfull of what's past, or lost, or done;
Cloath'd with the general Good, (that weighty Care)
Attended with those thoughts that pitious are,
125: Bringing along all Charmes, to still our Fears;
Fill'd with ripe knowledge, of experienc't years;
Able to poise all Interests, quit each score,
To stanch that waste of Blood long running o're,
And cure our rankled wounds; if we'l but sip,
130: That healing Balsom, droppeth from his Lip:
In fine, here come the close of all debate,
Worthy to mannage a fare greater State.

'Tis true, he has been plundred o're and o're,
And little left, but what might style him poor;
135: Yet is his stock of favours not impair'd,
There's plenty left for those deserve reward;
His wiser judgment can most clearly see,
The fitting due's, belong to each degree:
And happy we, that once again behold,
140: His just Authority himself infold;
Which nev'r shall alter him, unless his Power
Rise up to's will, to do us good each houre.

What thoughts dare then deny this Sun his Rayes,
Who is the Spring and Fountain of our dayes;
145: The brightest Eye, of this our little world;
Whose spreading Rays 7 in rich glories curl'd,
Grow from his own essential light; their power
Raiseth the lustre, of this growing hour.
From those all-glorious Beams, on us shall shine
150: The light of Peace, and Happiness Divine;
Even all those Halcion dayes we once beheld,
When our replenish't Cornucopia's swell'd.

Since then his Fate, has gain'd the Easterne light,
May it recover the Meridian height;
155: Whilst all good Fortunes lead him to that Hill,
And further him from good, to better still:
May Heav'n, which did through Clouds, his sufferings mark,
And with Compassion view'd his sinking Bark,
Ne're leave him till Astrea right his wrongs,
160: Fully restoring what to him belongs:
Then place him like Olympus lofty Rocks,
That kiss the Heav'ns, and mount above those shocks
Of under storms, would toss him to and fro
With their false byast Guests; for we must know
Justice can ne're be evenly render'd, till
He like the Sun in his Meridian dwell.


[2] O ms opens with epigraph: Ovid. C'saris arma canant aly: nos C'saris aras.

[3] Note to ms at line 32: "Tis from the nerenes of a watry vapour which the winde tossing with various [illegible] neere the Horizon about the rising of the Sun, & the force of the Sun being refracted in the vapour, it seems as if it danced, from whence the vulgar conceit of the Suns dancing on Easter day might probably rise." Ash. 38 fol. 232.

[4] Ms note: "Mirtle wreathes were wont to be worn in triumph by the Romaine Captaines when they had obtayn'd a Victory without Blood." Ash. 38 fol 232.

[5] Note to ms: "Lux congenita" Ash. 38 fol. 232.

[6] and worser men] and Rump-men Mercurius Aulicus

[7] Rays] Rady L, O

Daniel Nicols
"To his Majestie's loyall subject"
Theophilus Cleaver
"To his worthy Friend Mr. WIL. GODMAN"
5 June

   Titlepage: [Hebrew] Filius Her"um, / THE SON OF NOBLES. / Set Forth / IN A SERMON / PREACHED / At St Mary's in Cambridge before / the University, on Thursday the / 24th of May, 1660. being the day of / Solemn Thanksgiving for the Deliverance / and Settlement of our Nation. / By WILL. GODMAN B. D. Fellow of the / King's Colledge in Cambridge. / Because the Lord hath loved his people, he hath made thee / King over them. 2 Chron. 2.11. / -- -- Nusquam libertas gratior extat / Qu…m sub Rege pio -- -- -- / [Greek epigraph] / [rule] / LONDON, / by J. Flesher, for W. Morden Bookseller in Cambridge. / An. Dom. M DC LX. [double-rule box].

   Wing: G941. Daniel Nicols, "To his Majestie's loyall subject and my / dearly-beloved Friend / Mr WILLIAM GODMAN B. D. / Fellow of King's Coll." sig. B., and Theophilus Cleaver, "To his worthy Friend Mr. WIL. GODMAN / Batchelour in Divinitie," sigs: b2-[b2v].


O Pamph C110 (4) COPYTEXT; checked 9/95; 2/96 OW Fairfax 417; chk 4/96 L 226.g.21(2) {trans l984:111} {mf}; chk 1/96 CLC Pamph. coll. Misc. Sermons v.2 {trans l985: 57-8} C, NE, DT, CN, MH, NU, Y WF 134081 chk 12/96

   The epistle to the reader is dated 5 June.

   A large number of the sermons preached in anticipation and in celebration of Charles's return made their way into print. William Godman preached his sermon before the Cambridge University community on Thursday, 24 May, the day of national thanksgiving declared following the announcement of the king's return, but he dated the epistle to the reader in the printed version 5 June, a Tuesday. Godman himself contributed some verses in Greek to the Cambridge volume, Academiae Cantabrigiensis äoåtrà, which appeared later that summer in July (sig. H3v). His Filius Her"um is the only sermon I have noticed containing dedicatory poems in English. The lines by Daniel Nicols of Queen's College appeared first, followed by sets of Latin verses by three poets from Gonville College, William Lyng, John Felton, and William Naylor. Theophilus Cleaver, also a fellow of King's College like Godman, wrote Englsh verses that appeared next. A final set of Latin verses by J. Boult of Gonville brought up the rear.

   The biblical epigraph on the title page was addressed to Solomon by Huram the king of Tyre, though the text which Godman took for his sermon was apprpriately, Ecclesiastes 10.17, "Blessed art thou, O Lord, when thy King is the son of Nobles."

   Nicols addresses Godman directly, offering the analogy between soldiers and preachers as signs of their past and continuing common loyalty to the king. Cleaver takes a more prescriptive line with a touch of the jeremiad, finding in the king's return a promise of imminent retribution. He invites us to read Charles's physical appearance in a series of allusions to the Old Testament worthy of an academic divine -- the king's hair, like Sampson's, is a promise of his divine strength; his eyebrows are compared to mounts Gerizim and Ebal and promise punishment and reward. In the lengthy peroration after receiving the ten commandments, Moses "set before" the children of Israel "a blessing and a curse . . . when the LORD thy God hath brought thee in to the land whither thou goest to possess it, that thou shalt put the blessing upon mount Gerizim, and the curse upon mount Ebal" (Deut. 11. 26, 29). The mounts appear again in the story of Joshua. After destroying Jericho, Joshua goes on to slaughter the twelve thousand inhabitants of the kingdom of Ai; he burns the city "and made it an heap for ever, even a desolation unto this day." Lest any should question his piety, Joshua then proceeded to build "an altar to the Lord God of Israel in Mount Ebal" and "wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses" which he proceeded to read to the victorious Israelites, "half of them over against Mount Gerizim, and half of them over against Mount Ebal," (Joshua, 8. 28, 32, 33). Presumably like Joshua, Charles will be both merciful and just, rewarding the faithful while brooking no resistance to the divine authority of his power.

To his Majestie's loyall subject and my
dearly-beloved Friend
Fellow of King's Coll.

1: 'TWas Monarchy made thee and me be one,
Loyalty has been our Religion;
Joynt haters of the Tyrant and his train,
And faithfull subjects to our Sovereign.

5: Divines are fellow-soldiers, though in field
They never take up target, sword, or shield:
For whilst that others fight with swords and spears,
The Churches weapons are her prayers and tears.

These be the arms (dear Friend) which for our Prince
10: W'have taken up and brandish'd ever since
False subjects and an Act of Parliament
Forc'd Him to live abroad in banishment.
Whilst others for our King's Coronation,
And to reform a thing call'd Reformation
15: Have spilt their blood, lost estates, lives and health;
(Strange that this should be called a Comon-wealth!)
Then thou and I with many a sigh and groan
Pray'd and believ'd Him to his Crown and Throne.
And still we'l preach and pray, and print and sing
20: Disgrace to Rebells, glory to our King.

Dan. Nicols B. D.
Fellow of Queens Coll.

To his worthy Friend Mr. WIL. GODMAN
Batchelour in Divinitie.

SHall I be silent at my glorious KING's
Return, when every Bell his praises sings?
Shall the hard-hearted Musket shout for joy;
And I as dumb-strook, like a trembling Boy
5: Wax pale and mute? Shall Night her mourning Suit
Put off, and vapour in flame-colour'd Coat;
And I smother'd in melancholy Fume
Burn up my heart, and Loyaltie intomb?
No, Lazy Muse: I'll goad thee with my pen,
10: For I'm impatient of delayes; nor when
Thou sleep'st can I forbear to pinch, for thou
Do'st only seem to dream that our KING's now
Return'd and safe. Lift up thy leaden eye,
Spout out thy griefe, and wash thy Lethargie:
15: So shalt thou cleanse thy self from fault, and see
Like a true Eagle dazling Majestie.
Then fix thine eye and tell me when thou'st done,
If ever Crown did circle such a one.
Doth not his Hair like Sampson's guard his head,
20: And gather up in links and chains? Let dread
Fear then seize those that stand his opposite,
Lest they be fetter'd in't and feel its weight.
Sometimes his Brows like to Mount Gerizim 1 are,
Sometimes like Ebal.2 When a Smile sits there,
25: Blessings and Favours slide down his smooth Cheek,
And run upon the Subjects head and neck:
But when a frown climbs up and pendant hangs
Out of its dark and hollow womb, the pangs
Of Death, some Thunderbolt may drop and bring.
30: Thus nature hath our Sovereign made A King,
Whose very looks command obedience,
And strike us a deeper fear and sense
Then the keen Ax and Fasces. But forbear,
Fond Muse, into that sacred Breast to peer
35: Where Vertue shines that will o're-whelm thy sight.
Read o're this book, in its reflected light
Distinctly thou shalt see those glorious beams,
As the Sun's Image in the Crystall streams.

and Fellow of Kings Coll.

[1]Gerizim, literally "cutters down;" see headnote.

[2]Ebal, literally "stone, heap of barreness;" see headnote.

Arthur Brett
The Restauration
5 June

   Titlepage: The Restauration. / OR, / A POEM / on the Return of the / MOST MIGHTY / and ever / Glorious PRINCE, / CHARLES the II. / TO HIS / Kingdoms. / [rule] / By ARTHUR BRETT / of Christs-Church Oxon. / [rule] / -- Deum Delph¢sq; meos. / [rule] / LONDON, / Printed by J. H. for Samuel Thomson at the Bi-/ shops-head in St. Pauls Church-yard. 1660.

   Thomason dated his copy on Tuesday, 5 June; Nicholas Cruch paid 4d for his copy, now in OB.

   Arthur Brett clearly liked to be among the very first in print to commemorate a royal occasion: The Restauration appeared during the first week of June. Brett was presumably hoping that his poetic declarations of loyalty to the Stuarts would gain him notice either at court or at Oxford: a presentation copy of the poem, now in the library of Balliol College, contains an additional printed dedication to John Wall, Predendary of Christ-Church, Brett's own college. Five months later, Thomason bought a copy of Brett's Threnodia: On the Death of the Duke of Glocester on 13 September, the very day that Prince Henry died. Brett was not only quick off the mark, he was also prolific this year, contributing Latin verses to the Oxford University anthology, Britannia Rediviva, that appeared in July.

   According to Woods, Brett had gone up from Westminster School in 1653. Woods thought him "a great pretender to poetry" who, after publishing a verse translation of the book of Job, Patientia Victrix (1661), "had some mean employment bestowed on him, but grew so poor, being, as I conceive, somewhat crazed, that he desired the almes of Gentlemen, especially of Oxford Scholars whom he accidentally met with in London: In which condition I saw him there in 1675." Brett died in 1677. (AO 2: 448).

    With over six hundred lines of tetrameter couplets, Brett's Restoration poem is nearly twice the length of Dryden's. His poem here is full of lots of nationalistic jingoism, warning other countries that England rules now that it has a king.

   The copy now on deposit in the library of Balliol contains the following dedication "To the Reverend and Profoundly Learned John Wall Doctor of Divinity and Predendary of Christ-Church" (sigs. A-[A2]). Since this was Brett's college, we may presume that this copy was specially prepared for presentation. The piece invokes learned commentary to compare Wall with Noah and Janus for having lived "in his generations, you have seen Monarch flourishing under the Grandfather, declining in the Father, and now reestablishing in the Sonne" (A2v).

Reverend and Profoundly Learned

Reverend Sir,

   THE Favours which I have sometimes received from your Worship have embolden'd mee to accost you in this manner as now I doe; The Rabbini co-criticall Commentators upon Genesis observe of Noah, that 'tis said concerning him He was perfect in his Generations; and they give this reason why he should be in the Plurall number of perfect in his Generations, because he liv'd in the age before the Flood and also in that after the Flood; upon the same account it was that the Auncients portraicted their Janus with two Faces, looking both backward and forward, both on the old World and the new; which Janus was no other in Heathen Pooetry than this Noah so famous in Sacred History; But leaving each of these to themselves (as well the Rabby's, those Pooets in prose, as the Auncient Pooets those Europ'an Rabby's) to enjoy their own conceits, I shall wave the enquiry after the Reason thereof, and only apply the Phrase to you; you likewise (Reverend Sir) have liv'd in your generations, you have seen Monarchy flourishing under the Grandfather, declining in the Father, and now reestablishing in the Sonne; you have seen a deluge of confusion overwhelme the Nation, and you have seen the waters again abated; you have seen the Glory of the Royall family, you have seen its fall; be pleased to cast a favourable eye on its RESTAURATION: For indeed who is fitter to Patronize such a Pooem then your selfe? who (as it were) foretold his Majesties glorious Restitution, and preach't his Inauguration Sermon before hand, out of that notable place, Cant.3.9,10 [Hebrew text]

   At St Maries, pro] Our Solomon ha's his royall vehicle to waft inchoando Termino.]1 him over; he will also now have his Pillars of

   Silver, and his reclinatory of Gold; Benigne heavens will not let mee adde and his ascent of purple; without slaughters and bloudshedd, we have done what the King of Pooets advices us to doe in that so renowned Politicall Axiom, [three lines of Greek] Let the richenss of the matter excuse the poornesse of the dresse, the Title the Pooem; It may have been done more Artificiously, more Affectionatly it could not nor with a more eager desire to be approved.


The Admirer of your worth, and
your most affectionately
Devoted Servant,


[ornamental border] The Restauration.
on the Return of the
Most Mighty and ever Glorious
to his Kingdoms.

HOW shall I thy entrance sing?
Lord of Hearts, of Nations King,
Or thy Restauration bear?
Of Royal Father Royal Heir.
5: When I consider thy Return,
What Flames within my Breast do burn?
I know not how to vent my joy,
How to begin Vive le Roy,
Or enter upon my great Song,
10: The King has been away so long.
Thus after a dark dismal night,
We can't sustain Meridian-light;
The Dawn must gently intervene,
Lest Pho/ebus kill as soon as seen:
15: So Sorrow by degrees must wast,
Joy stifles, coming on too fast.
Shall I be silent then, and sit
And only hear other mens Wit?
No, I'le call my Thoughts together,
20: Summon all my Forces hither,
Rather than fail at such a time,
My Soul shall go into a Rime:
Who on so rich a Subject try,
Their as rich Vein of Poetry,
25: Though never so much care they take,
False-Latine-Heraldry will make;
Having no Gold on Gold to spread,
I shall not break Clarencieux Head:
While others serve the King in State,
30: And bring Red Wine in Yellow Plate;
I'le like that Honest Asian,
Present him Water in a Canne.
I will say somthing wrong or right,
Cast in my share, though but a Mite;
35: But as a Drop unto that Sea
Which now sustains his Majesty:
Those Craggy Mountains which surround
Our Pleasant, Fertile, English Ground
(A Finer Mantles Courser Border)
40: That stand to keep the Sea in order,
And now stretch out, stretch out their head
To catch their Soveraign's first Tread;
Those Cliffes Parnassus are to me,
Salt-water Hypocrene shall be.

Oh for the silver Quill of Quarles
To celebrate our Gracious CHARLES!
Oh for a Holy David's Lyre,
And new Te-Deum's in the Quire!
Oh for a Strain ascending quite
50: 'Bove Denham, Cowley, or the Knight!
Oh for Muses Ninety Nine!
Oh for a Fancy as Divine
As Virgils, and as smooth and fit
As Ovids, when of Love he writ!
55: The Story I must now rehearse,
Deserves a more than common Verse;
Uxbridge, and the Isle of Wight
Could not settle all things right,
But Breda hath that Business done,
60: Perfecting what they but begun:
Strange News! a King and Kingdoms Three,
Send each their Letters and agree;
When heaven propitious appeares,
A Day do's more than month's or years;
65: Breda, that to her Tackling stuck, 2
She got a Name from being took;
But let's forget those warlick Feats,
Those Stratagems, those lawful Cheats;
Let those brave deeds of Dutch and Spanish,
70: French and Heroick English vanish;
Let Spinola's memorial cease;
She's now more famous for a Peace:

Our Sister Nation justly may
Her ancient Thistle throw away,
75: Those Armes became her exil'd Prince,
His Fortunes now are blossom'd since;
He hath (if that can be) his due,
Is King of Scots and Scotland too:

For this he scap't such snares, such plots,
80: Such sicknesses, such wounds, such shots,
As Chance on the Kings Son may bring
In a hot war against the King;
For this he often cros't the Sea
Safer than others do the Dee,
85: And on the main was reverenc't more
Than he was like to be a shore,
The Loyal waves did quiet stand,
There were too many Storms at land;
For this at W -- -- fatal fight
90: Was wrought that Miracle his flight,
When that rich soile was o're and o're
Water'd with English-Scottish Gore,
That he must perish in the Woods,
Or fly o're troops, or swim through bloods.
95: It was for this, 'twas Heaven's intent
That he should meet this Parliament,
And so from nothing All commence,
And shew the world ther's Providence:
When Nature bid him first to be
100: So sweet, so full of Majesty,
That he did no Perfection lack
She put him in a comely black,
A comely, but a mournful Hue,
She had good reason so to do,
105: Presaging that her Brittish Sons
Would prove unruly, boisterious ones,
Would into strange confusion run,
Murder the Sire, banish the Son;
But Comedy's now on the Stage,
110: And Tragedy has ceas't to rage;
We're past the black part of the Scene,
And what remains will be serene:
Great CHARLES unto large Empire born,
Has had his Crown made all of Thorn;
115: Now hee'l have one of better Stuffe,
If Lumbard-street have Gold enough;
His Winter's gone, he has now his Spring,
The Honey after so much sting;
In Patience's and Vertue's Field
120: Has conquer'd Fate, and it doth yield:
That blazing Comet's direful beard,
Which made us at his birth afear'd,
Though it were long it had an end,
Could not eternal harms portend;
125: Now CHARLES the Martyr, CHARLES the First,
Whose Murder hath the Nation curst,
CHARLES of Blessed Memory,
Who liv'd a Pris'ner, died free,
Triumphant CHARLES looks from on high,
130: And sees his Blood has ceas't to cry;
Sees his own Prophesie fulfil'd,
That English hearts at last should yield,
That the remembrance of their Guilt
And of his Blood which they had spilt
135: Should mel